Category Archives: Suppporting Cases

Arrests and Complaints

If you have been issued a traffic ticket or charged with a misdemeanor in Illinois and appeared in court or failed to appear and had a bench warrant issued, chances are you have not been charged with an offense and have no duty to appear in court to answer the charges. If you have pleaded or were found guilty for a traffic infraction or misdemeanor then you probably pleaded to a nonexistent charge. If either is the case, I recommend you contact me. There may be a way to get your judgment voided since the court did not have jurisdiction in the first place. I have seen hundreds of traffic tickets, as well as a fair share of complaints and informations. I have yet to see a warrant issued by a judge and supported by affidavit, or an information signed and swore to by the State’s Attorney. Traffic tickets are not complaints and you have no obligation to appear in court for a traffic ticket.

I have written numerous times on the issue of defective charges issued by police and prosecutors in Illinois, particularly St. Clair County. I will walk through the lawful requirements for charging an offense and how the State either willfully or ignorantly files insufficient and unlawful charges against individuals. For there to be a lawful charge, there must first be jurisdiction. This article will deal with Constitutional issues as well as statutory requirements and appellate court opinions on the subject. I think you will find that if you have been charged with a traffic or misdemeanor offense, maybe even a felony, you have not been lawfully charged with an offense and have voluntarily appeared to answer for non-existent charges.

Before we even get to what the ‚“law‚ says, we must understand the basic protections afforded by the Constitutions. Let’s begin with the Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution:

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and noWarrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. (This means NO warrants, including bench warrants, traffic warrants, etc.)

Now we move on to Article I, Section 6 of the Illinois Constitution (Bill of Rights):

SECTION 6. SEARCHES, SEIZURES, PRIVACY AND INTERCEPTIONS

The people shall have the right to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and other possessions against unreasonable searches, seizures, invasions of privacy or interceptions of communications by eavesdropping devices or other means.‚ Nowarrant shall issue without probable cause,‚ supported by affidavit particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. (This is substantially a recitation of the Fourth Amendment, except it specifies an affidavit as opposed to an oath. This may be a fine distinction, but an oath is given orally and affidavit is in writing. The Fourth Amendment provides for both whereas Illinois limits warrants to being supported by a written affidavit.

There are generally 3 ways to charge an offense; by complaint, information, and indictment. This is not to say that you cannot be arrested without them. It has been held that if a criminal offense is committed in the presence of a police officer or a private citizen they may make an arrest. Either a police officer or private citizen may make an arrest with a warrant. Only a police officer can make an arrest based on probable cause. Here is what the courts have said regarding these options in relation to the protections of the Constitutions:

This section of the Constitution has been many times construed by this court, and it has been uniformly held that‚ noperson may be arrested and held to answer a charge of crime other than on asworn complaint before a judge or justice of the peace, or an indictment returned by a grand jury duly sworn and impaneled, or by presentment of not less than two members of such grand jury, or by verified information of the state’s attorney or Attorney General in certain cases.People ex rel. v. Leinecke, 290 Ill. 560, 125 N.E. 513;People v. Clark, 280 Ill. 160, 117 N.E. 432;Housh v. People, 75 Ill. 487; also, Smith-Hurd Rev.St.1931, c. 38, ss 662, 664, 711, 721. The only exceptions to these requirements arise in cases where the arrest or seizure is‚ made by an officer in whose presence the crime is committed or who has reasonable ground for believing that the person arrested was implicated in the commission of a crime. (‚ People v. Caruso, 339 Ill. 258, 171 N.E. 128;People v. Swift, 319 Ill. 359, 150 N.E. 263;Lynn v. People, 170 Ill. 527, 48 N.E. 964;North v. People, 139 Ill. 81, 28 N.E. 966),

A Citizen has the power of arrest reflected in the Illinois Compiled Statutes:

(725 ILCS 5/107‚”˜3) (from Ch. 38, par. 107‚”˜3) Sec. 107‚”˜3. Arrest by private person. ‚ Any person may arrest another when he has reasonable grounds to believe that an offense other than an ordinance violation is being committed.‚ (Source: Laws 1963, p. 2836.)

(725 ILCS 5/107‚”˜9) (from Ch. 38, par. 107‚”˜9)‚  Sec. 107‚”˜9. Issuance of arrest warrant upon complaint. (e) The warrant shall be directed to all peace officers in the State. It shall be executed by the peace officer, or by a private person specially named therein, at any location within the geographic limitation for execution placed on the warrant. If no geographic limitation is placed on the warrant, then it may be executed anywhere in the State.

To this point, it is clear that both the US Constitution and Illinois Constitution state, as supported by the courts, that no arrest can be made without a warrant, and for there to be a warrant there must be a sworn complaint; except in cases where a police officer personally witnesses the crime or has probable cause, or when a private person reasonably believes an offense other than an ordinance violation is being committed. Pay attention to ‚“is being committed‚. This means the offense must be in progress and not a thing of the past or future. A private person cannot arrest someone because of what they did or are about to do. That is the extent of the power of arrest possessed by the State. Illinois takes this one step further, which is where I believe arrests by so-called “bench warrants” come into play. The statutes say:

(725 ILCS 5/107‚”˜2) (from Ch. 38, par. 107‚”˜2) Sec. 107‚”˜2. (1) Arrest by Peace Officer. A peace officer may arrest a person when: ‚ (a) He has a warrant commanding that such person be arrested; or(b) He has reasonable grounds to believe that a warrant for the person’s arrest has been issued in this State or in another jurisdiction;

Police do not know the law. They only do what they are told. If a police officer is handed a bench warrant he does not question whether the warrant has been lawfully issued pursuant to the Constitution. If he checks his computer and sees a notice about a bench warrant he does not review the warrant for conformity with the law. He does not review the warrant for the judge’s signature or whether there is a corresponding affidavit. He is operating on “reasonable grounds” that a warrant has been issued because of the bench warrant. This can be dangerous, because without a warrant there is no arrest, regardless of the police officer’s belief. People have a right to be secure in their persons, papers, and possessions and if unlawfully assaulted in this respect have a natural right to defend themselves and their property, even from police. I expound on this premise in‚ this article and will not revisit the specifics here.

Before going further, we must ask this question. If the law provides for arrests, are there any who are exempt from arrests? I know many believe police are exempt from arrests when in the performance of their duties, but are they? Let’s visit the statutes again where we find some guidance.

(725 ILCS 5/107‚”˜7) (from Ch. 38, par. 107‚”˜7) Sec. 107‚”˜7. Persons exempt from arrest. (a)‚ Electors shall, in all cases except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at election, and in going to and returning from the same. (b)‚ Senators and representatives shall, in all cases, except treason, felony or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the session of the General Assembly, and in going to and returning from the same. (c)‚ The militia shall in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at musters and elections, and in going to and returning from the same. (d)‚ Judges, attorneys, clerks, sheriffs, and other court officers shall be privileged from arrest while attending court and while going to and returning from court.‚ (Source: Laws 1963, p. 2836.)

I fail to find anywhere in that section an exemption for police officers. It does specifically mention sheriffs, but police officers are municipal or state ‚ employees and not officers of the court. The statute even alludes to sheriffs being not exempt if they are not attending court or going to and from court. This means that if a police officer commits a crime in the presence of a private individual they may make an arrest of that police officer. This would include the police officer using excessive force or other crime committed under the pretense of effecting an arrest.

So now we know there can be no arrest without a warrant or unless a crime is committed in the presence of a police officer or other individual, or in cases where police have reasonable suspicion that a crime has been, is being, or will be committed. If there is a warrant, it must be sworn to and in writing.

The only other instance where an arrest or seizure is at all justifiable is where an offense is committed in the presence of the officer or person making the arrest, And in such case there must be a sworn complaint or indictment before trial to set the machinery of the law in motion.’ (Emphasis supplied.)‚ 280 Ill. at 166, 117 N.E. at 434.

The only exceptions to these requirements arise in cases where the arrest or seizure is made by an officer in whose presence the crime is committed or who has reasonable ground for believing that the person arrested was implicated in the commission of a crime. (‚ People v. Caruso, 339 Ill. 258, 171 N.E. 128;People v. Swift, 319 Ill. 359, 150 N.E. 263;Lynn v. People, 170 Ill. 527, 48 N.E. 964;North v. People, 139 Ill. 81, 28 N.E. 966), And even then‚ a sworn complaint or indictment must follow before the court can take jurisdiction.’

Arrest by warrant is‚ unlawful until complaint charging crime has been filed.‚ Housh v. People, 1874, 75 Ill. 487.

By the common law, and according to the holdings in many of the states, a private person may justify an arrest by showing that a felony had been actually committed and that he had reasonable grounds to suspect that the person arrested committed the felony. 2 Am. & Eng. Ency. of Law (2d Ed.) 885; 3 Cyc. 885, and authorities therein cited. By section 4 of division 6 of our Criminal Code (Hurd’s Rev. St. 1903, c. 38, ‚§ 342, p. 677), it is provided: ‚An arrest may be made by an officer or by a private person without warrant, for a criminal offense committed or attempted in his presence, and by an officer, when a criminal offense has in fact been committed and he has reasonable ground for believing that the person to be arrested has committed it.’ From the reading of this statute it would seem that there is pointed out a distinction between the power of a citizen to make an arrest and that of an officer. A citizen may arrest when an offense is committed or attempted to be committed in his presence. So, too, may an officer under the same circumstances. But an officer may also arrest where the criminal offense has in fact been committed and he has reasonable grounds for believing the person arrested has committed it. But this latter power is not extended to a citizen by the statute.‚ Enright v. Gibson, 219 Ill. 550, 76 N.E.689

There are, no doubt, cases which hold that private individuals may arrest on probable cause; but there are authorities which hold the contrary rule, and in the conflict of authority we are left free to adopt the rule which seems to be most consonant with reason and the public interest; and to prevent breaches of the peace, and even bloodshed, we think that a private individual should not be justified unless a crime had been committed and the person arrested shall be shown to be the guilty party.’ We think this case a clear announcement of the rule in this state that, before a private citizen can justify an arrest made by him, he must show not only that a crime has in fact been committed, but that the person arrested is guilty of the crime.‚ Enright v. Gibson, 219 Ill. 550, 76 N.E.689

Fact that complaint itself may not have stated facts supporting probable cause did not make arrest warrant invalid, where trial court examined complainant under oath and determined that probable cause existed. People v. Hayes, 1990, 151 Ill.Dec.348, 139 Ill.2d 89, 564 N.E.2d 803, certiorari denied 111 S.Ct. 1601, 449 U.S. 967, 113 L.Ed.2d 664. Criminal Law211(1); Criminal Law212

The court is saying that even if the complaint itself does not contain information to support probable cause, by the court examining the complainant under oath, it determined that probable cause was sufficient for the issuance of an arrest warrant. This illustrates the importance of the court examining the complainant or witness. It is not the written complaint which is ‚ important, but that there is a flesh-and-blood individual before the court swearing under oath and penalty of perjury that there has been a crime committed, and the complaint serves as the written instrument for the record which the court will refer to in prosecuting the crime.

Officer seeking arrest warrant is not required to present issuing judge any and all circumstances which may affect finding of probable cause. People v. Hothersall, App. 2 Dist.1981, 58 Ill.Dec. 891, 103 Ill.App.3d 183, 430 N.E.2d 1142. Criminal Law 211(3)

Complaints for arrest warrants, which complaints contained names of accused, offense charged, time and place of offense, and signature and oath of complainant, were sufficient under this paragraph. People v. Collins, App. 1 Dist.1979, 26 Ill.Dec.165, 70 Ill.App.3d 413, 387 N.E.2d 995. Criminal Law211(1)

Probable cause necessary for issuance of arrest warrant cannot be made out by mere conclusory statements in affidavit in support of warrant that probable cause exists. People v. Davis, App. 1 Dist.1974, 20 Ill.App.3d 948, 314 N.E.2d 723.Criminal Law 211(1)

Where arrest warrant was issued on basis of a complaint which merely stated that police officer had just and reasonable grounds to believe that defendant had sold a narcotic drug, warrant was defective under Const. 1870, Art. 2, ‚§ 6 (see, now, Const. Art. 1, ‚§ 6), and evidence obtained as a result of defendant’s arrest was inadmissible. People v. Waitts, 1967, 36 Ill.2d 467, 224 N.E.2d 257. Criminal Law 211(3); Criminal Law394.4(9)

Complaint which charged offense of disorderly conduct and which was verified before notary public and presented to court by complainant, who was thereupon examined under oath by court, was sufficient as basis for issuance of warrant of arrest. Village of Willowbrook v. Miller, ‚ App.1966, 72 Ill.App.2d 30, 217 N.E.2d 809. Criminal Law 211(1)

A complaint in writing subscribed and sworn to, containing a concise statement of the offense charged, the name of the person accused, and averring that the complainant has just and reasonable grounds to believe that the accused committed the offense, is sufficient. People v. United States Fidelity & Guaranty Co.,1925, 238 Ill.App. 112.

Illinois courts may issue an arrest warrant only if complaint shows that probable cause exists to believe proposed arrestee has committed crime in question. Keefer v. Leach, 1979, 597 P.2d 203, 198 Colo. 101. Criminal Law 217

This paragraph did not require that complaint or warrant articulate probable cause for arrest but rather that court, in making determination of probable cause for issuance of arrest warrant, examine complainant or any witness under oath. People v. Hooper, 1989, 142 Ill.Dec. 93, 133 Ill.2d 469, 552 N.E.2d 684, certiorari denied 111 S.Ct. 284, 498 U.S. 911, 112 L.Ed.2d 239. Criminal Law211(1); Criminal Law 212

For there to be a lawful arrest there must first be an arrest warrant supported by a sworn complaint, information, or indictment; or a police officer must have reasonable suspicion that a crime has been committed or he or a private individual must have witnessed the crime personally. For there to be a complaint or information, there must be a supporting affidavit or oath. Even if arrested by a police officer witnessing the offense there must be a sworn complaint or indictment supported by affidavit or oath. Regardless, in ALL CASES, there MUST BE A SWORN COMPLAINT SUPPORTED BY AFFIDAVIT OR OATH. If either of these is missing from a charge the court has NO jurisdiction and the charge cannot stand.

CHARGING AN OFFENSE

We also need to examine the ways an offense can be charged. These are complaint, information, and indictment. Let’s examine the requirements for each.

(725 ILCS 5/Art. 111 heading)

ARTICLE 111. CHARGING AN OFFENSE

http://www.ilga.gov/legislation/ilcs/ilcs4.asp?DocName=072500050HTit%2E+IV&ActID=1966&ChapterID=54&SeqStart=19700000&SeqEnd=25100000

(725 ILCS 5/111‚”˜1) (from Ch. 38, par. 111‚”˜1)

Sec. 111‚”˜1. Methods of prosecution.

When authorized by law a prosecution may be commenced by:

(a) A complaint; [1]

(b) An information; [2]

(c) An indictment. [3]

(725 ILCS 5/111‚”˜2) (from Ch. 38, par. 111‚”˜2)

Sec. 111‚”˜2. Commencement of prosecutions.

(a) All prosecutions of felonies shall be by information or by indictment. No prosecution may be pursued by information unless a preliminary hearing has been held or waived in accordance with Section 109‚”˜3 and at that hearing probable cause to believe the defendant committed an offense was found, and the provisions of Section 109‚”˜3.1 of this Code have been complied with.

(b) All other prosecutions may be by indictment, information or complaint.

(d) Upon the filing of an information or indictment in open court, the court shall immediately issue a warrant for the arrest of each person charged with an offense directed to a peace officer or some other person specifically named commanding him to arrest such person.

(f) Where the prosecution of a felony is by information or complaint after preliminary hearing, or after a waiver of preliminary hearing in accordance with paragraph (a) of this Section, such prosecution may be for all offenses, arising from the same transaction or conduct of a defendant even though the complaint or complaints filed at the preliminary hearing charged only one or some of the offenses arising from that transaction or conduct.

(Source: P.A. 90‚”˜590, eff. 1‚”˜1‚”˜99.)

(725 ILCS 5/111‚”˜3) (from Ch. 38, par. 111‚”˜3)

Sec. 111‚”˜3. Form of charge.

(b) An indictment shall be signed by the foreman of the Grand Jury and an information shall be signed by the State’s Attorney and sworn to by him or another [4].

A complaint shall be sworn to and signed by the complainant [5];

provided, that when a peace officer observes the commission of a misdemeanor and is the complaining witness, the signing of the complaint by the peace officer is sufficient to charge the defendant with the commission of the offense [6],

and the complaint need not be sworn to if the officer signing the complaint certifies[7]

that the statements set forth in the complaint are true and correct and are subject to the penalties provided by law for false certification [8]

under Section 1‚”˜109 of the Code of Civil Procedure and perjury under Section 32‚”˜2 of the Criminal Code of 1961; [9]

and further provided , however, that when a citation is issued on a Uniform Traffic Ticket or Uniform Conservation Ticket (in a form prescribed by the Conference of Chief Circuit Judges and filed with the Supreme Court), the copy of such Uniform Ticket which is filed with the circuit court constitutes a complaint to which the defendant may plead [10],

unless he specifically requests that a verified complaint be filed [11].

[1]Complaint – 725 ILCS 5/102 9 “Complaint” means a verifiedwritten statement other than an information or an indictment, presented to a court, which charges the commission of an offense.

[2]Information – 725 ILCS 5/102 12 “Information” means a verifiedwritten statement signed by a State’s Attorney, and presented to a court, which charges the commission of an offense.

[3]Indictment – 725 ILCS 5/102 11 “Indictment” means a written statement, presented by the Grand Jury to a court, which charges the commission of an offense.‚

[4]There is a little confusion on this as to whether anyone can swear to an information signed by the State’s Attorney. I have seen informations sworn to by the police officer, but does ‚“another‚ mean ‚“anyone else‚? In this sense, ‚“another‚ means someone else in the State’s Attorney’s office, such as an Assistant State’s Attorney. Looking at footnote [5] you will see that for a complaint, the lowest form of charge there is, it must be signed and sworn to by the complainant. Why would a complaint not be signed by the complainant and sworn to by ‚“another‚? Because the person making the charge is the one subject to the penalties of perjury so they must sign and swear. With the State’s Attorney’s office, they are working under the same oath of office and extensions of the State’s Attorney. Therefore, duly appointed deputies of the State’s Attorney, Assistant State’s Attorneys, can swear as though it were the State’s Attorney himself. For other guidance on this, we look at another State, Florida, and its requirements. http://www.joffelaw.com/state-rules/3-140.html

(g) Signature, Oath, and Certification; Information. An information charging the commission of a felony shall be signed by the state attorney, or a designated assistant state attorney, under oath stating his or her good faith in instituting the prosecution and certifying that he or she has received testimony under oath from the material witness or witnesses for the offense. An information charging the commission of a misdemeanor shall be signed by the state attorney, or a designated assistant state attorney, under oath stating his or her good faith in instituting the prosecution. No objection to an information on the ground that it was not signed or verified, as herein provided, shall be entertained after the defendant pleads to the merits.

[5]As distinguished from an information, the complaint must be signed and sworn to by the complainant. There is no provision for a complaint being signed by the complainant and sworn to by another individual.

[6]Notice that it specifies the ‚“commission of a misdemeanor‚ and not a felony. It is saying that if the police officer is the complaining witness and directly observes the commission of a misdemeanor, his signature on the complaint is sufficient to charge the defendant with the commission of the offense. However, remember that a complaint must be sworn to. This statement is misleading, as it is referring to misdemeanors which are civil in nature, and not criminal. Read on.

[7]It goes on to say the complaint need not be sworn to if the officer certifies, which is not the same as verification. Certification is a method used in civil proceedings to show notice was served to parties. It is different from verification. ‚“Although statute provided that, whenever the Code of Civil Procedure requires a document to be sworn to or verified under oath, then verification under penalty of perjury is an acceptable substitute, the verification provided by statute was not a substitute for the affidavit required by ‚“date of mailing‚ rule, providing that service is proved, in case of service by mail, by certificate of the attorney, or affidavit of a person other than the attorney, who deposited the paper in the mail; statute allowed for verification by certification unless otherwise expressly provided by rule of the Supreme Court. People v. Tlatenchi, App. 1 Dist.2009, 330 Ill.Dec. 485, 391 Ill.App.3d 705, 909 N.E.2d 198, rehearing denied , appeal denied 336 Ill.Dec. 489, 234 Ill.2d 547, 920 N.E.2d 1079.‚

‚“By its express terms, statute governing verification by certification provides that, whenever the Code of Civil Procedure requires a document to be sworn to or verified under oath, then verification under penalty of perjury is an acceptable substitute, but statute does not indicate that such verification is an acceptable substitute when a statute, other than the Code of Civil Procedure, requires a document to be sworn to or verified under oath. People v. Tlatenchi, App. 1 Dist.2009, 330 Ill.Dec. 485, 391 Ill.App.3d 705, 909 N.E.2d 198, rehearing denied , appeal denied 336 Ill.Dec. 489, 234 Ill.2d 547, 920 N.E.2d 1079.‚

Notice how it refers to the Code of Civil Procedure. In the case cited last, it says that certification is not acceptable when a document is required to sworn to or verified under oath, as with a criminal complaint. Certification and verification are two different things, certification belonging to civil proceedings and verification being a requisite for criminal charges.

[8]Again, it is talking a false certification, which applies to civil matters.

[9]Section 1-109 of the Code of Civil Procedure found here http://www.ilga.gov/legislation/ilcs/ilcs4.asp?DocName=073500050HArt%2E+I&ActID=2017&ChapterID=56&SeqStart=100000&SeqEnd=1100000

states ‚“(735 ILCS 5/1‚”˜109) (from Ch. 110, par. 1‚”˜109)

Sec. 1‚”˜109. Verification by certification. Unless otherwise expressly provided by rule of the Supreme Court, whenever in this Code any complaint, petition, answer, reply, bill of particulars, answer to interrogatories, affidavit, return or proof of service, or other document or pleading filed in any court of this State is required or permitted to be verified, or made, sworn to or verified under oath, such requirement or permission is hereby defined to include a certification of such pleading, affidavit or other document under penalty of perjury as provided in this Section.

Whenever any such pleading, affidavit or other document is so certified, the several matters stated shall be stated positively or upon information and belief only, according to the fact. The person or persons having knowledge of the matters stated in a pleading, affidavit or other document certified in accordance with this Section shall subscribe to a certification in substantially the following form: Under penalties as provided by law pursuant to Section 1‚”˜109 of the Code of Civil Procedure, the undersigned certifies that the statements set forth in this instrument are true and correct, except as to matters therein stated to be on information and belief and as to such matters the undersigned certifies as aforesaid that he verily believes the same to be true.

Any pleading, affidavit or other document certified in accordance with this Section may be used in the same manner and with the same force and effect as though subscribed and sworn to under oath.

Any person who makes a false statement, material to the issue or point in question, which he does not believe to be true, in any pleading, affidavit or other document certified by such person in accordance with this Section shall be guilty of a Class 3 felony.

(Source: P.A. 83‚”˜916.)‚

All that Section 1-109 does is lay down the use of certification in civil matters. It is the rule by which certification may be used, and only in accordance with Civil Procedure. Section 32-2 of the Criminal Code goes on to define what perjury is and the penalties for committing. It is found here http://www.ilga.gov/legislation/ilcs/ilcs4.asp?DocName=072000050HArt%2E+32&ActID=1876&ChapterID=53&SeqStart=74000000&SeqEnd=77100000

and states ‚“(720 ILCS 5/32‚”˜2) (from Ch. 38, par. 32‚”˜2)

Sec. 32‚”˜2. Perjury.

(a) A person commits perjury when, under oath or affirmation, in a proceeding or in any other matter where by law such oath or affirmation is required, he makes a false statement, material to the issue or point in question, which he does not believe to be true.

(b) Proof of Falsity.

An indictment or information for perjury alleging that the offender, under oath, has made contradictory statements, material to the issue or point in question, in the same or in different proceedings, where such oath or affirmation is required, need not specify which statement is false. At the trial, the prosecution need not establish which statement is false.

(c) Admission of Falsity.

Where the contradictory statements are made in the same continuous trial, an admission by the offender in that same continuous trial of the falsity of a contradictory statement shall bar prosecution therefor under any provisions of this Code.

(d) A person shall be exempt from prosecution under subsection (a) of this Section if he is a peace officer who uses a false or fictitious name in the enforcement of the criminal laws, and such use is approved in writing as provided in Section 10‚”˜1 of “The Liquor Control Act of 1934”, as amended, Section 5 of “An Act in relation to the use of an assumed name in the conduct or transaction of business in this State”, approved July 17, 1941, as amended, or Section 2605‚”˜200 of the Department of State Police Law (20 ILCS 2605/2605‚”˜200). However, this exemption shall not apply to testimony in judicial proceedings where the identity of the peace officer is material to the issue, and he is ordered by the court to disclose his identity.

(e) Sentence.

Perjury is a Class 3 felony.

(Source: P.A. 91‚”˜239, eff. 1‚”˜1‚”˜00.)‚

[10]This statement deals with traffic and conservation offenses, which are not crimes, but rather administrative or civil offenses. The form of the traffic or conservation offense is determined by the Illinois Supreme Court and the Conference of Chief Circuit Judges. For the purposes of this discussion, the applicability of this statement pertains to notice and charging of an offense. The Illinois Supreme Court website where this is discussed is here http://www.state.il.us/court/SupremeCourt/Rules/Art_V/ArtV.htm#Rule%20552

Under ‚“Notice to Appear‚ it states ‚“(e) Notice to Appear. In all cases in which a defendant is issued a Notice to Appear under section 107‚”œ12 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1963, as amended (725 ILCS 5/107‚”œ12), and fails to appear on the date set for appearance, or any date to which the case may be continued, the court may enter an ex parte judgment of conviction against an accused charged with an offense punishable by a fine only and in so doing shall assess fines, penalties and costs in an amount not to exceed equal to the cash bail required by this article. Payment received for fines, penalties, and costs assessed following the entry of an ex parte judgment shall be disbursed by the clerk pursuant to Rule 529. The clerk of the court shall notify the Secretary of State of the conviction pursuant to Rule 552 and of the unsatisfied judgment pursuant to section 6‚”œ306.6(a) of the Illinois Vehicle Code, as amended (625 ILCS 5/6‚”œ306.6(a)). In lieu of the foregoing procedure, a summons or warrant of arrest may be issued.

Committee Comments

(December 5, 2003)

Supreme Court Rule 556 (“Procedure if Defendant Fails to Appear”) delineates several procedures if the defendant fails to appear after depositing a driver’s license in lieu of bond, executes a written promise to comply, posts bond or issued a notice to appear.

The rule provided that the court may “enter an ex parte judgment of conviction against any accused charged with an offense punishable by a fine only and in so doing shall assess fines, penalties and costs in an amount not to exceed the cash bail required by this article.” Rule 556 does not detail the specific costs and penalties, or their amounts, in the entry of ex parte judgments. The clerk is then left with deciding which costs, fees and additional penalties (and their amounts) should be applied. This is currently being determined on a county by county basis.‚

Notice how this rule, pertaining to traffic and conservation offenses, deal with Civil Procedure. Nothing in this rule addresses criminal matters, and deals with offenses punishable by ‚“fine only‚, which is considered a ‚“petty offense‚. Also, notice the last few words of this section state that such a complaint constitutes a complaint to which the defendant may plead. This means the defendant, if willing to voluntarily plead to this type of complaint, waives all his rights to having a sworn complaint filed. Read carefully the next excerpt from an Illinois Appellate case where this very issue is addressed by the court.

‚“The charge against the defendant was initiated by an unverified ‚Illinois Uniform Traffic Ticket and Com-plaint.‘ It was in the form prescribed by Supreme Court Rule, par. C, relating to ‚Procedures in Traffic Cases, Quasi-Criminal Cases and Certain Misdemeanors.’ (S.H.A. ch. 110, par. 102.1; also see: Ill.Rev.Stat.1965, ch. 16, pars. 81-85 incl.) The defendant contends that the judgment should be reversed in that he had a right to be tried upon a verified complaint, and further, that the complaint was fatally defective since it did not adequately charge the offense of ‚drag racing.’

 

No pretrial motion was made by the defendant. He proceeded to trial without objection to the form of the complaint. After judgment, he filed a motion in arrest of judgment, asserting, among other things, that the complaint was not verified and that it failed to state a criminal or quasi-criminal offense within the statute under which he was charged.

 

It is readily apparent that the Supreme Court Rule governing procedures in traffic cases, quasi-criminal cases and certain misdemeanors, does not contemplate that the Illinois Uniform Traffic Ticket and Complaint be verified. The court, in People v. Harding, 34 Ill.2d 475, 216 N.E.2d 147 (1966), made an exhaustive analysis of its Rule and the statutes pertaining to the same subject matter. (Ill.Rev.Stat.1965, ch. 16, pars. 81-85 incl.; ch. 38, pars. 107-9, 107-11, 107-12 and par. 111-3(a)(b).) The court there pointed out that there is no constitutional provision requiring verification of the complaint which follows an arrest without a warrant. So far as the relevant constitutional provisions are concerned, they may require a sworn complaint as a prerequisite to the issuance of an arrest warrant, but they do not purport to lay down any jurisdictional prerequisites governing the institution of a criminal prosecution. The court stated at pages 482 and 483, 216 N.E.2d at pages 151 and 152

 

‚The Code of Criminal Procedure, enacted in 1963, retains the substance of the former statutory provi-sions with respect to the issuance of arrest warrants upon complaints and informations. (Ill.Rev.Stat.1965, chap. 38, par. 107-9.) But it also provides for the use of a summons, or a notice to appear, as ‚procedures for getting persons into court without the necessity and inconvenience of an immediate arrest.‘ (S.H.A., chap. 38, pars. 107-11; 107-12, Committee Comments.) Although, as we have held, there is no constitutional requirement that a complaint must be verified in order to sustain a criminal prosecution, the Code continues the statutory requirement of a sworn complaint. Ill.Rev.Stat.1965, chap. 38, par. 111-3(b).

 

‚In many decisions it has been held that a complaint, defective because it was not verified, or verified upon information and belief, did not affect the jurisdiction of the court and that the right to be charged by a properly verified information can be waived. (Citations.) So far as the objection of want of verification is concerned, therefore, the unverified traffic ticket complaint used in this case would have sufficed to give the court jurisdiction if the defendant had waived the objection by going to trial without raising it, or by a plea of guilty.

 

‚The adoption by this court of the rule which authorized the use of the unverified form of Illinois Uniform Traffic Ticket and Complaint was not intended to dispense with the statutory requirement of a verified complaint, and we hold that a defendant who does not waive, by plea of guilty or by proceeding to trial without objection, the defective verification of a complaint, is entitled to be prosecuted upon a com-plaint which states upon the oath of the complainant the facts constituting the offense charged.

 

The most that can be said for the requirement of verification of a traffic ticket and complaint, such as that before us, is that the Code of Criminal Procedure continues the requirement that a complaint be verified in order to sustain a criminal prosecution. (Ill.Rev.Stat.1965, ch. 38, par. 111-3(b).) The lack of verification, however, does not affect the jurisdiction of the court. The right to be charged by a properly verified complaint can be waived and, in fact, is waived unless the accused pleads guilty or proceeds to trial without an appropriate pretrial motion or objection.‚ ‚  People v. Harding, supra, 482, 483, 216 N.E.2d 147; Village of Willowbrook v. Miller, 72 Ill.App.2d 30, 34, 217 N.E.2d 809 (1966). The want of verification was not appropriately raised in the case at bar, and accordingly, we hold that the defendant has waived any right to object to the lack of verification.‚

That is pretty conclusive. There need not be a verified complaint for the court to have jurisdiction or to commence a prosecution because you may waive all your rights to a verified complaint and therefore submit to the jurisdiction. However, you have a right to demand a verified complaint, and if so, the court must have one before it can sustain a prosecution. Notice the statement in bold where the court says the traffic ticket is a procedure for getting persons into court without the necessity and inconvenience of an immediate arrest. They use the defective traffic ticket to get you into court and submit to jurisdiction without the necessity and inconvenience of there being a sworn criminal complaint.

[11]This statement summarized the discussion on complaints, particularly traffic and conservation offenses, where you may plead to the defective complaint unless you demand that a verified complaint be filed. This means that the court will have to require the complainant to swear to a complaint and have an arrest warrant issues, something they are not likely to do. This would require the police officer who issued the ticket to come before a judge with a written complaint that has been sworn to before someone authorized to administer oaths. This is what the court referred to as the ‚“necessity and inconvenience‚.

Notice how all but indictment requires a verified written statement. That is because the Grand Jury is sworn in when empaneled and all of their indictments derive from that oath, therefore, they do not need to issue a verified statement since they are already sworn in. However, both a complaint and an information must be supported by written sworn statements. Let’s look at what “verification” means.

‚“Verification‚, has been held by Courts of this State to mean‚ a written statement made under oath or affirmation before any officer empowered to administer oaths and which, for any willfully false or misleading statement made thereof, subjects the affiant to pains and penalty of perjury. Village of Willowbrook v. Miller, App.1966, 72 Ill.App.2d 30, 217 N.E.2d 809, People v. Siex, App.1942, 39 N.E.2d 84, 312 Ill.App. 657.

Now, what is this “officer empowered to administer oaths”? Fortunately, the answer is readily available for that as well.

The power to administer oaths derives from the Legislature and codified at 5 ILCS 5/255 et. seq. (Oaths and Affirmations Act)

While we’re digging, let’s look at who the Oaths and Affirmations Act embraces as an “officer empowered to administer oaths”.

(5 ILCS 255/2) (from Ch. 101, par. 2)‚ ‚ ‚  ‚ Sec. 2. Affidavits and depositions. All courts, and judges, and the clerks thereof, the county clerk, deputy county clerk, the Secretary of State, notaries public, and persons certified under the Illinois Certified Shorthand Reporters Act of 1984 may, in their respective districts, circuits, counties or jurisdictions, administer all oaths of office and all other oaths authorized or required of any officer or other person, and take affidavits and depositions concerning any matter or thing, process or proceeding commenced or to be commenced, or pending in any court or before them, or on any occasion wherein any affidavit or deposition is authorized or required by law to be taken.

Before we go on, the statute goes on to even define a judge:

(5 ILCS 255/7)‚ ‚ ‚  ‚ Sec. 7. Definition of judge. For the purposes of this Act, “judge” means (i) an incumbent judge of the Illinois Supreme, Appellate, or Circuit Court, whether elected or appointed, (ii) a retired judge of the Illinois Supreme, Appellate, or Circuit Court, and (iii) an incumbent or retired associate judge of the Illinois Circuit Court. The term “judge” does not include a judge who has been convicted of a felony or who has been removed from office by the Illinois Courts Commission.‚ (Source: P.A. 95‚”˜498, eff. 1‚”˜1‚”˜08.)

This does not include municipal judges, administrative law judges, or circuit court judges.

So, what is the significance of “verification”? Let’s look:

(5 ILCS 255/5) (from Ch. 101, par. 5)‚ ‚ ‚  ‚ Sec. 5. All oaths, affirmations, affidavits and depositions, administered or taken as provided in this act, shall subject any person who shall so swear or affirm willfully and falsely, in matter material to any issue or point in question, to the like pains and penalties as are inflicted by law on persons convicted of willful and corrupt perjury.‚ (Source: R.S. 1874, p. 725.)

Verification is required because if the person so swearing does so falsely they will be held to answer for willful and corrupt perjury. I believe this is why State’s Attorneys do not issue proper informations in many cases‚ because the charges are fraudulent to begin with. I believe most of them know the law either does not apply to most people in most cases, or they know they do not have knowledge of facts sufficient to charge an offense and therefore cannot swear to them. They rely upon people’s ignorance of the law and the intimidation of them being assailed by a system that relies upon imprisonment and threats for its survival.

Now I will examine the various types of ways an offense is charged and the legal requirements and defects as they are used today.

What is a charge?

(725 ILCS 5/102‚”˜8) (from Ch. 38, par. 102‚”˜8)‚ ‚ ‚  ‚ Sec. 102‚”˜8. “Charge”. ‚ “Charge” means a written statement presented to a court accusing a person of the commission of an offense and includes complaint, information and indictment.‚ (Source: Laws 1963, p. 2836.)

So a charge is a written statement in the form of a complaint, information, or indictment which charges an offense. Let’s examine what an “offense” is.

(725 ILCS 5/102‚”˜15) (from Ch. 38, par. 102‚”˜15) ‚ Sec. 102‚”˜15. “Offense”. “Offense” means a violation of any penal statute of this State.‚ (Source: P.A. 76‚”˜1796.)

Well, that seems clear enough, but what do they mean by “penal statute”? I do not find a definition for penal statute. There are various types of offenses, generally speaking. These include ordinance violation, petty offense, misdemeanor, and felony. What I do find is a definition for “penal institution”, which may shed light on what a penal statute is, since violators of penal statutes would be sentenced to a penal institution.

(720 ILCS 5/2‚”˜14) (from Ch. 38, par. 2‚”˜14) ‚ Sec. 2‚”˜14. “Penal institution”. ‚ “Penal institution” means a penitentiary, state farm, reformatory, prison, jail, house of correction, or other institution for the incarceration or custody of persons under sentence for offenses or awaiting trial or sentence for offenses.‚ (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)

So it would appear that offenses only apply to those which include the possibility of someone being sentenced to serve time in some sort of jail or other form of confinement. For a good layman’s breakdown of the different types and their corresponding punishment I found the Illinois State Bar Association to be very helpful:

In Illinois, most traffic charges are categorized as either “petty” or “misdemeanor” offenses.

Petty offenses are those punishable by fine only. They include stop sign and red light violations, most speeding tickets, lane change violations and driving without insurance. Fines range from $1.00 to $1,000. Fines are either payable on the day assessed or on such later date as the court may direct.

Misdemeanors are divided into three (3) classes, referred to as Class A, B and C.

Class A is the most serious. It includes violations such as driving under the influence, speeding 40 or more miles over the posted speed limit, driving while license suspended or revoked, reckless driving or leaving the scene of an accident. The possible penalties for Class A misdemeanors are up to 364 days in jail and/or fines up to $2,500. Day for day good time credit applies to most misdemeanor jail sentences.

Class B misdemeanors, such as selling or providing a fraudulent driver’s license or permit, carry a possible penalty of up to six (6) months in jail and/or fines up to $1500.

Class C misdemeanors, such as drag racing, are punishable by jail up to thirty (30) days and/or fines up to $1,000.

Examining the above, it appears that those items listed under “petty offense” and which have a punishment by fine only are not really offenses. A penal institution is for receiving those who are subject to confinement for violating a penal statute and petty offenses are not included in that category. While on this subject, we need to also look at ordinance violations. Those are particularly interesting because they have been deemed to be “quasi-criminal” in nature.

While regarding‚ ordinance-violation proceedings as civil in form, this Court has traditionally characterized them‚ as quasi-criminal. City of Danville vs. Hartshorn, 53 Ill.2d 399, 292 N.E.2d 382 (1973)

Civil cases are of two kinds, those purely civil and those quasi criminal. A‚ quasi criminal case is not a criminal case but is a civil case, somewhat resembling in its nature a criminal case. That a quasi criminal offense is not a criminal offense as defined by the criminal code is, under the authorities, clear. Wiggins v. City, 78 Ill. 375, Tully v. Northfield, 6 Ill.App. 358

Quasi-Criminal Nature (See also Quasi and see the title Penalties) – The constitution of Illinois conferred upon a certain court jurisdiction in cases of a quasi-criminal nature. It was held that the phrase “quasi-criminal nature” was intended to embrace all offenses not crimes or misdemeanors, but which are in the nature of crimes, and which are punished, not by indictment, but by forfeitures and penalties. It includes all qui tam actions, prosecutions for bastardy, informations in the nature of quo warranto, and suits for the violations of ordinances. Wiggins v. Chicago, 68 Ill. 372

Quasi-Criminal Cases – The violation of an‚ ordinance is embraced in the phrase “of a quasi-criminal nature.” Wiggins v. Chicago, 68 Ill. 372

I do not mean to digress from the theme of this piece, but we are determining how the State charges offenses and in order to do that we must understand what offenses are. So, if the criminal code, criminal procedure…etc. apply only to “offenses” which are a violation of a “penal statute”. Therefore, to wrap up this discussion on ordinances we find:

Police can only arrest you with a warrant, if they witness a crime, or have reasonable grounds to believe an‚ offense is being, or has been, committed.

725 ILCS 5/107-2. Arrest by Peace Officer Arrest by Peace Officer. (1) A peace officer may arrest a person when:(c) He has reasonable grounds to believe that the person is committing or has committed anoffense.

Offenses are violations of the State’s penal statutes.

725 ILCS 5/102-15. ‚“Offense‚ ‚“Offense.‚ ‚“Offense‚ means a violation of any penal statute of this State.

Municipal ordinance violations are not offenses.

Municipal‚ ordinance violations do not fall within the definition of an ‚“offense‚ under either the Criminal Code or the Code of Criminal Procedure. City of Champaign v. Torres, 214 Ill.2d 234, 824 N.E.2d 624 (2005)

Therefore, you cannot be arrested for violating an ordinance without a warrant. Period. If you may only be arrested without a warrant for an offense, and ordinances are not offenses, you cannot be arrested for violating an ordinance without a warrant, even if in the presence of a police officer. However, there are procedures in place for prosecuting ordinance violations, and those are outlined next. There must be a summons or a warrant supported by affidavit, which means it must be sworn to by the person‚ alleging‚ the violation. If you are served notice by mail it must be done by certified mail, return receipt requested. The police may serve summons for an ordinance violation, but again, there must be a sworn affidavit before the summons can be issued.

65 ILCS 5/1-2-9. Summons or warrant; trial without delay⤠1-2-9. Except as provided in Section 1-2-9.1 of this Act, in all actions for the violation of any municipal ordinance, the first process shall be a summons or a warrant. A warrant for the arrest of an accused person may issue upon the affidavit of any person that an ordinance has been violated, and that the person making the complaint has reasonable grounds to believe that the party charged is guilty thereof. Every person arrested upon a warrant, without unnecessary delay, shall be taken before the proper officer for trial.

65 ILCS 5/1-2-9.1. Service by certified mail⤠1-2-9.1. Service by certified mail. In all actions for violation of any municipal ordinance where the fine would not be in excess of $750 and no jail term could be imposed, service of summons may be made by the city clerk by certified mail, return receipt requested, whether service is to be within or without the State.People ex rel Devine v. $30,700 U.S. Currency, 199 Ill. 2d 142, 766 N. E. 2d 1084 (2002)

65 ILCS 5/1-2-11. Sheriff; service of process; arrest; housing authority police(b) Police officers may serve summons for violations of ordinances occurring within their municipalities.725 ILCS 5/107-11.

When summons may be issued(c) The summons may be served in the same manner as the summons in a civil action, except that police officers may serve summons for violations of ordinances occurring within their municipalities.

65 ILCS 5/1-2-9. Summons or warrant; trial without delay⤠1-2-9. Except as provided in Section 1-2-9.1 of this Act, in all actions for the violation of any municipal ordinance, the first process shall be a summons or a warrant. A warrant for the arrest of an accused person may issue upon the affidavit of any person that an ordinance has been violated, and that the person making the complaint has reasonable grounds to believe that the party charged is guilty thereof. Every person arrested upon a warrant, without unnecessary delay, shall be taken before the proper officer for trial.

To close the book on ordinances, they are not complaints, informations, or indictments. For an illustrative case, read City of Danville v. Hartshorn.

While I am making fine legal distinctions, we need to examine some things that are not complaints, informations, or indictments. For instance, many people believe that traffic offenses are criminal offenses. Most of the preceding definitions come from the Illinois Criminal Code of 1963 and the Code of Criminal Procedure. However, traffic or vehicle offenses are not criminal ‚ nature, but civil or administrative infractions. The jurisdictions of each are different. Of course, we all believe we are in Illinois and Illinois is considered a State. However, the law goes on to define what a State is for the purposes of different parts of the statute. We are primarily dealing with criminal law in this article, but the courts often intermingle traffic offenses which make people believe they face criminal penalties. Depending on where you are in relation to “this State”, which may or may not mean Illinois, the jurisdiction or right of the State to even bring charges against someone, may differ. First we’ll look at the definition of “State” as it is used in the criminal code:

Quoting the Criminal Code of 1961 -‚ (720 ILCS 5/2‚”˜21) (from Ch. 38, par. 2‚”˜21) ‚ Sec. 2‚”˜21. “State”. ‚ “State” or “this State” means the State of Illinois, and all land and water in respect to which the State of Illinois has either exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction, and the air space above such land and water. “Other state” means any state or territory of the United States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.‚ (Source: Laws 1961, p. 1983.)

Quoting the Illinois Motor Vehicle Code -‚ (625 ILCS 5/1‚”˜195) (from Ch. 95 1/2, par. 1‚”˜195) Sec. 1‚”˜195. State. ‚ A state, territory or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico or a province of the Dominion of Canada.‚ (Source: P.A. 76‚”˜1586.)

Look closely at the two definitions. Do not believe that they are interchangeable. The legislature defined them this way specifically for the statute to which they apply. When you deal with criminal law you are dealing with the actions of people. Crime is committed by individuals against individuals or their property. Corporations are also considered “persons” and can be held criminally responsible for certain act, but crimes are committed by people against people. The State of Illinois is formed by the people who are represented by the legislature. Crimes against people are reflected in the State of‚ Illinois Criminal Code. However, vehicular or traffic infractions cannot apply to the people generally as criminal offenses. The word State does not necessarily mean Illinois. There are commercial offenses which include commerce intrastate and interstate. The US Constitution gives Congress the power to regulate commerce. Therefore, I posit that traffic offenses apply to commercial activities under the regulations promulgated by Congress regarding interstate and intrastate commerce. That authority is reflected in the Vehicle Code as penalties imposed by the State, but not the State of Illinois. State, in that sense, is a commercial jurisdiction that co-exists with the common law jurisdiction of criminal statutes. The definition of State, as used in the Criminal Code actually excludes the definition of State used in the Vehicle Code. Vehicle Code offenses actually occur in the State known as the “other State” defined in the Criminal Code.

Summary of ordinance violations, petty offenses, and traffic violations – An arrest cannot be made for petty offenses or traffic violations. Arrests can be made for ordinance violations only if there is a sworn affidavit filed. Traffic tickets are ‚ not complaints, informations, or indictments since there is not a sworn complaint presented to a court and corresponding arrest warrant. I will touch on this in more detail as I get into the analysis of the various forms used to charge or allege offenses.

Complaint

What it is:‚ (725 ILCS 5/102‚”˜9) (from Ch. 38, par. 102‚”˜9) ‚ Sec. 102‚”˜9. “Complaint”. ‚ “Complaint” means a verified written statement other than an information or an indictment, presented to a court, which charges the commission of an offense.‚ (Source: Laws 1963, p. 2836.)

Next, we’ll look at what the Illinois statutes say about arrest by complaint. I’ll emphasize particular words and phrases in the statute and then post copies of a verified complaint and arrest warrant.

(725 ILCS 5/107‚”˜9) (from Ch. 38, par. 107‚”˜9) ‚ Sec. 107‚”˜9.

Issuance of arrest warrant upon complaint. (a) When a complaint‚ is presented to a court charging that an offense has been committed it‚ shallexamine upon oath or affirmation the complainant or any witnesses.

(b) The complaint shall be in writing and shall:

(1) State the name of the accused if known, and if ‚ not known the accused may be designated by any name or description by which he can be identified with reasonable certainty;

(2) State the offense with which the accused is charged;

(3) State the time and place of the offense as definitely as can be done by the complainant; and

(4) Be subscribed and sworn to by the complainant.

(c) A warrant‚ shall be issued by the court for the arrest of the person complained against if it appears from the contents of the complaint and the examination of the complainant or other witnesses, if any, that the person against whom the complaint was made has committed an offense.

(d) The warrant of arrest‚ shall:

(1) Be in writing;

(2) Specify the name, sex and birth date of the person to be arrested or if his name, sex or birth date is unknown, shall designate such person by any name or description by which he can be identified with reasonable certainty;

(3) Set forth the nature of the offense;

(4) State the date when issued and the municipality or county where issued;

(5)‚ Be signed by the judge of the court with the title of his office;

(6) Command that the person against whom the complaint was made be arrested and brought before the court issuing the warrant or if he is absent or unable to act before the nearest or most accessible court in the same county;

(7) Specify the amount of bail; and

(8) Specify any geographical limitation placed on the execution of the warrant, but such limitation shall not be expressed in mileage.

(e) The warrant shall be directed to all peace officers in the State. It shall be executed by the peace officer, or by a private person specially named therein, at any location within the geographic limitation for execution placed on the warrant. If no geographic limitation is placed on the warrant, then it may be executed anywhere in the State.

(f) The warrant may be issued electronically or electromagnetically by use of a facsimile transmission machine and any such warrant shall have the same validity as a written warrant.‚ (Source: P.A. 86‚”˜298; 87‚”˜523.)

First of all, notice the word “shall”. Shall, is a direction to the court. It is a command. It is not discretionary. The judge or whoever the command is being directed towards must do take that action as a requirement for the statute. A complaint is presented to a court charging an offense. That means something other than a petty offense or ordinance violation, punishable by fine only. Here is something interesting. It also states, “shall examine upon oath or affirmation the complainant or any witnesses.” This means the court must examine the complainant or any witness with them being either orally sworn in. The complaint itself must be in writing and the complainant must also be examined by the judge under oath or affirmation before issuing an arrest warrant.

Although an arrest warrant may be issued only upon a showing of probable cause, it does not necessarily follow that a demonstration of probable cause must be made in complaint upon which arrest warrant is issued; in issuing arrest warrant, judge is not bound by four corners of complaint, but may base a determination of probable cause upon his required examination of complainant or witnesses. People v. Collins,App. 1 Dist.1979, 26 Ill.Dec. 165, 70 Ill.App.3d 413, 387 N.E.2d 995. Criminal Law 217

What is being said here is that probable cause does not rest solely with the complaint. It is required that the judge examine the complainant or witness, and upon that testimony he may find probable cause. This is because not everyone may possess the faculties required to pen a proper complaint and what may be lacking in the complaint is supplemented by the testimony of the complainant.

In compliance with this paragraph, judge issuing arrest warrants properly examined complainant to determine probable cause prior to issuing warrants over his signature. People v. Collins, App. 1 Dist.1979, 26 Ill.Dec. 165, 70 Ill.App.3d 413, 387N.E.2d 995. Criminal Law217

Where complaint was signed by complainant and was acknowledged before notary public, who was not an associate circuit judge or magistrate, and after complaint was signed and sworn to, it was presented to associate circuit judge, who heard no testimony, and solely on basis of examination of complaint, ordered warrant of arrest to issue, warrant was properly quashed because of failure of associate circuit judge to examine complainant or other witnesses as required by this paragraph.People v. Krumery, App.1966, 74 Ill.App.2d 298, 220 N.E.2d 241. Criminal Law217

What is being said here is what illustrates the necessity for the judge to examine the complainant or witness. It is important to keep this in mind when making your complaint because if the judge does not examine the complainant or witness it will prove fatal to your case. I can envision a situation where a judge will sabotage a case by failing to examine the complainant or witness, as in what took place in the above case. I would recommend being adamant about the judge examining you or the witness to ensure no defect in the warrant ensues which would result in a dismissal.

Let’s review an alleged “verified complaint” and ensuing arrest warrant. This complaint is made out by the State’s Attorney and verified or sworn to by the State Police officer. The State’s Attorney does not sign the complaint, but rather stamps it. ‚ The warrant is likewise unlawful. The specified “offense” is “failure to appear or pay charge” when the complaint is for unlicensed driving. The warrant is not supported by the complaint. The defendant in this case was ticketed on July 29, 2010 and the verified complaint was not filed August 25, 2010 upon his filing a demand for a verified complaint. Until a complaint is filed and the complainant examined by a judge there can be no warrant and no jurisdiction. The warrant was not issued until September 14, 2010, and even then it was issued for a non-existent offense.

 

So what we have here is a defective complaint and defective warrant. The complaint has not been verified even though it is sworn to because of two things. It is signed by the State’s Attorney. A complaint is used by a complainant to charge an offense, not the State’s Attorney. The State’s Attorney uses an information. If the police officer signed the complaint then it would be proper, but he didn’t. Second, the affidavit below was sworn to by the officer, not the State’s Attorney. Only the person making the complaint can sign the affidavit. Since they are the one making the charge they also must be the one swearing to it. If you look at the signature if the State’s Attorney, you will also see it is a rubber stamp. There is no telling who actually signed, or stamped, this complaint. I also posit that the judge never examined the complainant as to the facts alleged in order to issue the warrant. The warrant which was issued is for a non-offense, failure to appear. The complaint is for unlicensed driving. How does a judge issue a warrant for an offense that does not appear on the complaint? This is an outright fraud and the court never acquired jurisdiction in this case. This, however, is not uncommon. It happens all the time to many people and they never look at the charging documents for defects like this because they do not know. They appear in court and enter pleas to charges that are not properly filed, thereby submitting to jurisdiction. They are undone by their own ignorance.

Now we’re going to look at an information. The difference between an information and a complaint is that a complaint is presented by someone other than the State, such as you or I. I disagree that police can sign as a complainant since they work for the State. Police should go to the State’s Attorney with the charges and the State’s Attorney then file an information. If a police officer would file a complaint then he must do so in writing and swear to it, as well as present it to a court to then be examined by the judge before issuing a warrant. An information is presented by a State’s Attorney, but it must also be sworn to by him and presented to a court before a warrant can be issued. Remember, without a warrant there is no jurisdiction. There is a distinction between a complaint and an information. What I will show you next is an information that looks remarkably like the previous complaint, only it is titled Information. Same rules apply to both, only the Information is presented by the State’s Attorney. Take a look and see if there is any difference aside from the caption.

I will be concluding this piece with an analysis of traffic tickets and Uniform Traffic Citation and Complaint. This has been discussed in-part above, but examples of requirements and common defects will be included.

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23 USCA Section 101 Federal Aid Highways (Annotated)

This is an OCR of the attached PDF’s so expect some typos from the conversion. The point of this is, where the Code on page 26 refers to the States being required to amend their Constitutions to be in compliance. I am curious as to how the federal government can require States to amend their constitutions to comply with anything.

I’ve attached the Code in pdf attachments for reference as well. I’m still researching this, but it is nevertheless, curious.

The non-annotated version of the code is here. You will need to click on the “notes” tab, and scrolling down, you will find the text of what I have outlined below on page 26 with links to the corresponding sections of the code. The text I am curious about reads:

“…except that until July 1, 1970, sections 502505506507, and 508 of title 23, United States Code, as added by this Act, shall be applicable to a State only to the extent that such State is able under its laws to comply with such sections. Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, after July 1, 1970, such sections shall be completely applicable to all States. Section 133 of title 23, United States Code, shall not apply to any State if sections 502505506507, and 508 of title 23, United States Code, are applicable in that State, and effective July 1, 1970, such section133 is repealed.

“(b) In the case of any State (1) which is required to amend its constitution to comply with sections 502505506507, and 508 of title 23, United States Code, and (2) which cannot submit the required constitutional amendment for ratification prior to July 1, 1970, the date of July 1, 1970, contained in subsection (a) of this section shall be extended to July 1, 1972.
I know that Illinois amended its constitution in 1970. To what extend that amendment had to do with 23 USC is not clear.

23 USCA Section 101 Federal Aid Highways Part I

23 USCA Section 101 Federal Aid Highways Part II.

 

Page 1
Effective: August 10, 2005
United States Code Annotated Currentness
Tie 23. Highways (Refs & Annos)
Chapter 1. Federal-Aid Highways (Refs & Annos)
-+ § 101. Definitions and declaration of policy
(a)Definitions.–In this title, the following definitions apply:
(1) Apportionment.–The term “apportionment” includes unexpended apportionments made under prior
ahorization laws.
( Carpool project.–The term “carpool project” means any project to encourage the use of carpools
and vanpools, including provision of carpooling opportunities to the elderly and individuals with
disabilities, systems for locating potential riders and informing them of carpool opportunities,
acquiring vehicles for. carpool use, tignating existing highway lanes as preferential carpool
highway lanes, providing related traffic control devices, and designating existing facilities for use for preferential parking for carpools.
(3)Construction.–The term “construction” means the supervising, inspecting, actual building, and
incurrence of at costs incidental to the construction or reconstruction of a highway, including bond
costs and other costs rating to the issuance in accordance with section 122 of bonds or other debt
financing instruments and costs iiurred by the State in performing Federal-aid project related
audits that directly benefit the Federal-aid highway piDgvam. Such term includes–
(A) locating, surveying, . and mapping (including the establishment of temporary and permanent
geodetic markers in accordance with specifications of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration of the Department of Commerce);
(B) resurfacing, restoration, and rehabilitation;

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
(14 relocation assistance, acquisition of replacement housing sites, and acquisition and
rehabilitation, relocation, and construction of replacement housing;
(E) elimination of hazards of railway grade crossings;
(F) elimination of roadside obstacles;
(G) improvements that directly facilitate and control traffic flow, such as grade separation of
intersections, widening of lanes, channelization of traffic, traffic control systems, and passenger
loading and unloading areas; and
(II) capital improvements that directly facilitate an effective vehicle weight enforcement program,
such as scales (fixed and portable), scale pits, scale installation, and scale houses.
(4) County.–The term “county” includes corresponding units of government under any other name in
States that do not have county organizations and, in those States in which the county government
does not have jurisdiction over highways, any local government unit vested with jurisdiction over
local highways.
(5) Federal-aid highway.–The term “Federal-aid highway” means a highway eligible for assistance
under this chipter other than a highway classified as a local road or rural minor collector.
(6)Federal-aid system.–The term “Federal-aid system” means any of the Federal-aid highway systems
described in section 103.
(7)Federal lands highway.–The term “Federal lands highway” means a forest highway, public lands
highway, pa* road, parkway, refuge road, and Indian reservation road that is a public road.
(8) Forest development roads and trails.–The term “forest development roads and trails” means
forest roads an trails under the jurisdiction of the Forest Service.
(9)Forest highway.–The term “forest highway” means a forest road under the jurisdiction of, and
maintained by,

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
a public authority and open to public travel.
(10) littlest road or trail.–The term “forest road or trail” means a road or trail wholly or partly
within, or adjacent to, and serving the National Forest System that is necessary for the protection,
administration, and utilization of the National Forest System and the use and development of its
resources.
(11) highway.–The term “highway” includes–
(A)a road, street, and parkway;
(B) a right-of-way, bridge, railroad-highway crossing, tunnel, drainage structure, sign, guardrail,
and protective
structure, in connection with a highway; and
(Q a portion of any interstate or international bridge or tunnel and the approaches thereto, the
cost of which is
assumed by a State transportation department, including such facilities as may be required by the
United States CliSt01:11S and Immigration Services in connection with the operation of an
international bridge or tunnel.
(12) Indian reservation road.–The term “Indian reservation road” means a public road that is
located within or provides access to an Indian reservation or Indian trust land or restricted Indian
land that is not subject to fee title
alienation without the approval of the Federal Government, or Indian and Alaska Native villages,
groups, or communities in which Indians and Alaskan Natives reside, whom the Secretary of the
Interior has determined are
eligile for services generally available to Indians under Federal laws specifically applicable to
Indians.
(13) Interstate System.–The term “Interstate System’ means the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System
of Intentate and Defense Highways described in section 103(c).
(14) Maintenance.–The term “maintenance” means the preservation of the entire highway, including
surface, shoulders, roadsides, structures, and such traffic-control devices as are necessary for safe and efficient utilization
of the highway.
(15) Maintenance area.–The term “maintenance area” means an area that was designated as a
nonattainment
area, but was later redesignated by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency as an
attainment

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
area, under section 107(d) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7407(d)).
(16) National Highway System.–The term “National Highway System” means the Federal-aid highway
system described in section 103(b).
(17) Operating costs for traffic monitoring, management, and control.–The term “operating costs for
traffic monitcring, management, and control” includes labor costs, administrative costs, costs of
utilities and rent, and
other costs associated with the continuous operation of traffic control, such as integrated traffic
control systems,
incident management programs, and traffic control centers.
(18) Operational improvement.–The term “operational improvement”–
(A) means (i) a capital improvement for installation of traffic surveillance and control equipment,
computerized
signal systems, motorist information systems, integrated traffic control systems, incident
management
programs, and transportation demand management facilities, strategies, and programs, and (ii) such
other capital
improvements to public roads as the Secretary may designate, by regulation; and
(B) does not include resurfacing, restoring, or rehabilitating improvements, construction of
additional lanes, interchanges, and grade separations, and construction of a new facility on a new
location.
(19) Park road.–The term “park road” means a public road, including a bridge built primarily for
pedestrian use,
but with capacity for use by emergency vehicles, that is located within, or provides access to, an
area in the National Park System with title and maintenance responsibilities vested in the United
States.
(20) Parkway.–The term “parkway”, as used in chapter 2 of this title, means a parkway authorized by
Act of
Congress on lands to which title is vested in the United States.
(21) Project.–The term “project” means an undertaking to construct a particular portion of a
highway, or if the
context so implies, the particular portion of a highway so constructed or any other undertaking
eligible for
assistance under this title.
(22) Project agreement.–The term “project agreement” means the formal instrument to be executed by
the State

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
transpoittion department and the Secretary as required by section 106.
(23) Public authority.–The term “public authority” means a Federal, State, county, town, or
township, Indian tribe, miicipal or other local government or instrumentality with authority to
finance, build, operate, or maintain toil or toll-free facilities.
(24) Public lands development roads and trails.–The term “public lands development roads and
trails” means those roads and trails that the Secretary of the Interior determines are of primary
importance for the development, protection, administration, and utilization of public lands and
resources under the control of the Secretary of the Interior
(25) Public lands highway.–The term “public lands highway” means a forest road under the
jurisdiction of and maintaied by a public authority and open to public travel or any highway through
unappropriated or unreserved public lands, nontaxable Indian lands, or other Federal reservations
under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a public authority and open to public travel.
(26) Public lands highways.–The term “public lands highways” means those main highways through
unappropriated or unreserved public lands, nontaxable Indian lands, or other Federal reservations,
which are on the Federal-aid systems.
(27) Public road.–The term “public road” means any road or street under the jurisdiction of and
maintained by a public authority and open to public travel.
(28) Refuge road.–The term “refuge road” means a public road that provides access to or within a
unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System and for which title and maintenance responsibility is
vested in the United States Government.
(29) Rural areas.–The term “rural areas” means all areas of a State not included in urban areas.
(30) Safety improvement project.–The term “safety improvement project” means a project that
corrects or improves high hazard locations, eliminates roadside obstacles, improves highway signing
and pavement marking, installs priority control systems for emergency vehicles at signalized
intersections, installs or replaces emergency

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23 U.S.C.A.§ 101
motorist aii call boxes, or installs traffic control or warning devices at locations with high
accident potential.
(31) Secrotary.–The term “Secretary” means Secretary of Transportation.
(32) State-The term “State” means any of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, or Puerto Rico.
(33) Statefunds.–The term “State funds” includes funds raised under the authority of the State or
any political or other subfivision thereof, and made available for expenditure under the direct
control of the State transportation departmeat
(34) State transportation department.–The term “State transportation department” means that
department,
commission, board, or official of any State charged by its laws with the responsibility for highway
construction.
(35) Transportation enhancement activity.–The term “transportation enhancement activity” means,
with respect to any project or the area to be served by the project, any of the following activities
as the activities relate to surfacetransportation:
(A) Provision of facilities for pedestrians and bicycles.
(B) Provision of safety and educational activities for pedestrians and bicyclists.
(C) Acquisition of scenic easements and scenic or historic sites (including historic battlefields).
(D) Scenic or historic highway programs (including the provision of tourist and welcome center
facilities).
(E) Laniscaping and other scenic beautification.
(F) Higoric preservation.
(G) Relabilitation and operation of historic transportation buildings, structures, or facilities
(including historic
railroadfacilities and canals).
(II) Pnservation of abandoned railway corridors (including the conversion and use of the corridors
forpedestdan or bicycle trails).

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
(I) Inventory, control, and removal of outdoor advertising.
(J) Archaeological planning and research.
(K) Environmental mitigation–
(i) to address water pollution due to highway runoff; or
(ii) reduce vehicle-caused wildlife mortality while maintaining habitat connectivity.
(L) Establishment of transportation museums.
(36) Urban area.–The term “urban area” means an urbanized area or, in the case of an urbanized area
encompassing more than one State, that part of the urbanized area in each such State, or urban place
as designated by the Bureau of the Census having a population of 5,000 or more and not within any
urbanized area, within boundaries to be fixed by responsible State and local officials in
cooperation with each other, subject to approval by the Secretary. Such boundaries shall encompass,
at a minimum, the entire urban place designated by the Bureau of the Census, except in the case of
cities in the State of Maine and in the State of New Hampshire.
(37) Urbanized area.–The term “urbanized area” means an area with a population of 50,000 or more
designated by the Bureau of the Census, within boundaries to be fixed by responsible State and local
officials in cooperation with each other, subject to approval by the Secretary. Such boundaries
shall encompass, at a minimum, the entire urbanized area within a State as designated by the Bureau
of the Census.
(38) Advanced truck stop electrification system.–The term “advanced truck stop electrification
system” means a system that delivers heat, air conditioning, electricity, or communications to a
heavy duty vehicle.
(b) Declaration of policy.
(I) Acceleration of construction of Federal-aid highway systems.–Congress declares that it is in
the national interest to accelerate the construction of Federal-aid highway systems, including the
Dwight D. Eisenhower
National System of Interstate and Defense, because many of the highways (or portions of the
highways) are

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
inadequate to meet the needs of local and interstate commerce for the national and civil defense.
(2) Completion of interstate system.–Congress declares that the prompt and early completion of the
Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (referred to in this section
as the “Interstate System”), so named because of its primary importance to the national defense, is
essential to the national interest. It is the intent of Congress that the Interstate System be
completed as nearly as practicable over the period of availability of the forty years’
appropriations authorized for the purpose of expediting its construction, reconstruction, or
improvement, inclusive of necessary tunnels and bridges, through the fiscal year ending September
30, 1996, under section 108(b) of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 (70 Stat 374), and that the
entire System in all States be brought to simultaneous completion. Insofar as possible in consonance
with this objective, existing highways located on an interstate route shall be used to the extent
that such use is practicable, suitable, and feasible, it being the intent that local needs, to the
extent practicable, suitable, and feasible, shall be given equal consideration with the needs of
interstate commerce.
(3) Transportation needs of 21st Century.–Congress declares that–
(A) it is in the national interest to preserve and enhance the surface transportation system to meet
the needs of the United States for the 21st Century;
(B) the current urban and long distance personal travel and freight movement demands have surpassed
the original forecasts and travel demand patterns are expected to continue to change;
(C) continued planning for and investment in surface transportation is critical to ensure the
surface transportation system adequately meets the changing travel demands of the future;
(D) among the foremost needs that the surface transportation system must meet to provide for a
strong and vigorous national economy are safe, efficient, and reliable–
(i) national and interregional personal mobility (including personal mobility in rural and urban
areas) and reduced congestion;
(II) flow of interstate and international commerce and freight transportation; and 0 2006

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
(iii) travel movements essential for national security;
(E) special emphasis should be devoted to providing safe and efficient access for the type and size
of commercial and military vehicles that access designated National Highway System intermodal
freight terminals;
(F) the connection between land use and infrastructure is significant;
(G) transportation should play a significant role in promoting economic growth, improving the
environment,
and sustaining the quality of life; and
(II) the Secretary should take appropriate actions to preserve and enhance the Interstate System to
meet the needs of the 21st Century.
(c) It is the sense of Congress that under existing law no part of any sums authorized to be
appropriated for expenditure upon any Federal-aid system which has been apportioned pursuant to the
provisions of this title shall be impounded or withheld from obligation, for purposes and projects
as provided in this title, by any officer or employee in the executive branch of the Federal
Government, except such specific sums as may be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, after
consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, are necessary to be withheld from obligation for
specific periods of time to assure that sufficient amounts will be available in the Highway Trust
Rand to defray the expenditures which will be required to be made from such fund.
(d) No funds authorized to be appropriated from the Highway Trust Fund shall be expended by or on
behalf of any
Federal department, agency, or instrumentality other than the Federal Highway Administration unless
funds for such
expenditure are identified and included as a line item in an appropriation, Act and are to meet
obligations of the United States heretofore or hereafter incurred under this title attributable to
the construction of Federal-aid highways or highway planning, research, or development, or as
otherwise specifically authorized to be appropriated from the
Ifig,hway Trust Fund by Federal-aid highway legislation.
(e) It is the national policy that to the maximum extent possible the procedures to be utilized by
the Secretary and all
oilier affected heads of Federal departments, agencies, and instrumentalities for carrying out this
title and any other provision of law relating to the Federal highway programs shall encourage the
substantial minimization of

Page 10
23 U.S.C.A. 101
paperwork and interagency decision procedures and the best use of available manpower and funds so as
to prevent neecress duplication and unnecessary delays at all levels of government.
CREDIT(S) itA (veal
1/100:NASC IQ kASorit A5 4 Sh-k. aawcai 454 Stiftk
(PuhL_ 85-767, Aug. 27, 1958, 72 Stat. 887Pub.L. 86-70, § 21(e)(1), June 25, 1979173 Stat. 146;
Pub.L. 86-624, ftr……
§ 17(a), July 12, 19″460747;—-slat. 415 Pub.L 87-866, § 6(a), Oct 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 11471Pub.L.
88-423, § 3, Aug
13,1964, 78 Stat. 397 Pub.L. 89-574, § 4(a), Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 7671 Pub.L. 90-495, § § 4(a),
8, 15, Aug. 23,1968, 82 Stat. 816, 819, 822Pub.L. 91-605, Title I, § § 104(a), 106(a), 107, 117(d),
130, 141, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1714, 1716, 1718, 1724, 1732, 17371 Pub.L. 93-87, Title I, 4 4
105, 106(a), 107, 108, 152(1), Aug. 13, 1973, 87 Stat. 253 to 255, 274 Pub.L. 93-643, 4 102(b), Jan.
4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2281 t Pub.L. 94-280, Title I. § § 107(4, 108, May 5, 1976, 90 Stat. 430, 4311
Pub.L. 95-599, Title I. 4 106, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 26931 Pub.L.
97424, Title I, 4 4 126(c), 159, Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2115, 2135; Pub.L. 100-17, Title I. 4 §
102(b)(3), 108, 109, 133(bX2), (3), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 135, 146, 171; Pub.L. 101-427, Oct. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 927;
Pub.L. 102- – 240.Title I, § § 1001(g), 1005, 1006(g)(1), 1007(c), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1916, 1922, 1927,
1931; Pub.L. 104- 59, Title III, § 4 301(b), 311(b), Nov. 28, 1995, 109 Stat. 578, 583; Pub.L. 105-178, Title I,
1201, June 9, 199, 112 Stat. 164; Pub.L. 109-59, Title I, § § 1122, 1909(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119
Stat. 1196, 1470.)
HISTORICAL AND STATUTORY NOTES
Revision Notes and Legislative Reports
192 Acts. Senate Report No. 1928, see 1958 U.S. Code Cong. and Adm. News, p. 3942.
19 Acts. Senate Report No. 331, see 1959 U.S. Code Cong. and Adm. News, p. 1675.
1961 Acts. Senate Report No. 1681, see 1960 U.S. Code Cong. and Adm. News, p. 2963.
19G Acts. Senate Report No. 1997 and Conference Report No. 2549, see 1962 U.S. Code Cong. and Adm.
News, p.338.
19@ Acts. Senate Report No. 1162, see 1964 U.S. Code Cong. and Adm. News, p. 2708.

Page 11
23 U.S.C.A. 101
1966 Acts Senate Report No 1410 and Conference Report No 1903, see 1966 U S Code Cong and Adm News,
p. 2800.
1968 Acts Senate Report No 1340 and Conference Report No 1799 see 1968 U S Code Cong and Adm. News,
p 3482
1970 Acts House Report No 91-1554 and Conference Report No 911780, see 1970 U S Code Cong and Adni
Newsp. 5392.
1973 Acts. House Report No. 93-118 and Senate Conference Report No. 93- 355, see 1973 U.S. Code
Cong. and Adm. News, p. 1859.
1975 Acts. House Report No. 93-1567 and House Conference Report No. 93- 1622, see 1974 U.S. Code
Cong. and AdniNews,p. 8011.
1976 Acts. House Report No. 94-716 and House Conference Report No. 94- 1017, see 1976 U.S. Code
Cong. and AdimNews,p. 798.
1978 Acts. House Report No. 95-1485 and House Conference Report No. 95- 1797, see 1978 U.S. Code
Cong. and Adm News, p. 6575.
1983 Acts. House Report No. 97-555 and House Conference Report No. 97- 987, see 1982 U.S. Code Cong.
and AdimNews,p. 3639.
1987 Acts. Senate Report No. 1004 and House Conference Report No. 100- 27, see 1987 U.S. Code Cong.
and Adiu. News, p. 66.
1991 Acts. House Report No. 102-171(Parts I and II) and House Conference Report No. 102-404, see
1991 U.S. Code Cong. and Adm. News, p. 1526.
1995 Acts. House Report No. 104-246 and House Conference Report No. 104- 345, see 1995 U.S. Code
Cong. and Adm News, p. 522.

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
1998 Acts. House Conference Report No. 105-550 and Statement by President, see 1998 U.S. Code Cong.
and Adm. News, p. 64.
2005 Acts_ House Conference Report No. 109-203, see 2005 U.S. Code Cong. and Adm. News, p. 452.
Statement by President, see 2005 U.S. Code Cong. and Adm. News, p. S24.
References in Text
Chapter 2 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(20), comprises 23 U.S.C.A. § 201 et seq., as
added by Pub.L. 85- 767, Aug. 27, 1958, 72 Stat 906, as amended.
Section 108(b) of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 (70 Stat. 374), referred to in subsec. (b)(2),
is section
108(b) of Act June 29, 1956, c. 462, 70 Stat. 378, which is set out as a note under this section.
Amendments
2005 Amendments. Subsec. (a)(35). Pub.L. 109-59, § 1122(a), rewrote par. (35), which formerly read:
“(35) Transportation enhancement activities.–The term ‘transportation enhancement activities’
means, with respect to any project or the area to be served by the project, any of the following
activities if such activity relates to surface transportation: provision of facilities for
pedestrians and bicycles, provision of safety and educational activities for pedestrians and
bicyclists, acquisition of scenic easements and scenic or historic sites, scenic or historic
highway programs (including the provision of tourist and welcome center facilities), landscaping and
other scenic beautification, historic preservation, rehabilitation and operation of historic
transportation buildings, structures, or facilities (including historic railroad facilities and
canals), preservation of abandoned railway corridors (including the conversion and use thereof for
pedestrian or bicycle trails), control and removal of outdoor advertising,
archaeological planning and research, environmental mitigation to address water pollution due to
highway runoff or
reduce vehicle-caused wildlife mortality while maintaining habitat connectivity, and establishment
of transportation
museums.”
Subsec. (a)(38). Pub.L. 109-59, § 1122(b), added par. (38).

Page 13
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
Subsec. (b). Pub .L. 109-59, § 1909(a), rewrote subsec. (b), which formerly read: “It is hereby
declared to be in the national interest to accelerate the construction of the Federal-aid highway
systems, including The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways, since many of
such highways, or portions thereof, are in fact inadequate to meet the needs of local and interstate
commerce, for the national and civil defense.
“It is hereby declared that the prompt and early completion of The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of
Interstate and
Defense Highways, so named because of its primary importance to the national defense and hereafter
referred to as the ‘Interstate System’, is essential to the national interest and is one of the most
important objectives of this Act. It is the intent of Congress that the Interstate System be
completed as nearly as practicable over the period of availability of the forty years’
appropriations authorized for the purpose of expediting its construction, reconstruction, or
improvement, inclusive of necessary tunnels and bridges, through the fiscal year ending
September 30, 1996, under section 108(b) of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 (70 Stat. 374), and
that the entire System in all States be brought to simultaneous completion Insofar as possible in
consonance with this objective, existing highways located on an interstate route shall be used to
the extent that such use is practicable, suitable, and feasible, it being the intent that local
needs, to the extent practicable, suitable, and feasible, shall be given equal consideration with
the needs of interstate commerce.
“It is further declared that since the Interstate System is now in the fmal phase of completion it
shall be the national policy that increased emphasis be placed on the construction and
reconstruction of the other Federal-aid systems in accordance with the first paragraph of this
subsection, in order to bring all of the Federal-aid systems up to standards and to increase the
safety of these systems to the maximum extent.”
1998 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub.L. 105-178, 1201, rewrote subsec. (a), which previously read: “As
used in this title, unless the context requires otherwise–
“The term ‘apportionment in accordance with section 104 of this title includes unexpended
apportionments made under prior acts.
“The term ‘construction’ means the supervising, inspecting, actual building, and all expenses
incidental to the construction or reconstruction of a highway, including bond costs and other costs
relating to the issuance in

Page 14
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
accordance with section 122 of bonds or other debt financing instruments, locating, surveying, and
mapping (including the establishment of temporary and permanent geodetic markers in accordance with
specifications of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the Department of Commerce)
resurfacing, restoration, and rehabilitation, acquisition of rights-of-way, relocation assistance,
elimination of hazards of railway grade crossings, elimination of roadside obstacles, acquisition of
replacement housing sites, acquisition and rehabilitation, relocation, and construction of
replacement housing, and improvements which directly facilitate and control traffic flow, such
as grade separation of intersections, widening of lanes, channelization of traffic, traffic control
systems, and
passenger loading and unloading areas. The term also includes capital improvements which directly
facilitate an
effective vehicle weight enforcement program, such as scales (fixed and portable), scale pits, scale
installation, and
scale houses and also includes costs incurred by the State in performing Federal-aid project related
audits which
directly benefit the Federal-aid highway program.
“The term ‘county’ includes corresponding units of government under any other name in States which
do not have
county organizations, and likewise in those States in which the county government does not have
jurisdiction over
highways it may be construed to mean any local government unit vested with jurisdiction over local
highways.
“The term ‘Federal lands highways’ means forest highways, public lands highways, park roads,
parkways, and Indian reservation roads which are public roads.
“The term ‘forest road or trail’ means a road or trail wholly or partly within, or adjacent to, and
serving the National
Forest system and which is necessary for the protection, administration, and utilization of the
National Forest system
and the use and development of its resources.
“The term ‘forest development roads and trails’ means a forest road or trail under the jurisdiction
of the Forest Service.
“The term ‘forest highway’ means a forest road under the jurisdiction of, and maintained by, a
public authority and
open to public travel.
“The term ‘highway’ includes roads, streets, and parkways, and also includes rights-of-way, bridges,
railroad-
highway crossings, tunnels, drainage structures, si ;is, guardrails, and protective structures, in
connection with

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
highways. It further includes that portion of any interstate or international bridge or tunnel and
the approaches thereto, the cost of which is assumed by a State transportation department including
such facilities as may be required by the United States Customs and Immigration Services in
connection with the operation of an international bridge or tunnel.
“The term ‘Federal-aid highways’ means highways eligible for assistance under this chapter other
than highways classified as local roads or rural minor collectors.
“The term ‘highway safety improvement project’ means a project which corrects or improves high
hazard locations, eliminates roadside obstacles, improves highway signing and pavement marking,
installs priority control systems for emergency vehicles at signalized intersections, installs or
replaces emergency motorist-aid call boxes, or installs traffic control or warning devices at high
accident potential locations.
“The term ‘Indian reservation roads’ means public roads that are located within or provide access to
an Indian reservation or Indian trust land or restricted Indian land which is not subject to fee
title alienation without the approval of the Federal Government, or Indian and Alaska Native
villages, groups, or communities in which Indians and Alaskan Natives reside, whom the Secretary of
the Interior has determined are eligible for services generally available to Indians under Federal
laws specifically applicable to Indians.
“The term ‘maintenance’ means the preservation of the entire highway, including surface, shoulders,
roadsides, structures, and such traffic-control devices as are necessary for its safe and efficient
utilization.
“The term ‘park road’ means a public road, including a bridge built primarily for pedestrian use,
but with capacity for use by emergency vehicles, that is located within, or provides access to, an
area in the national park system with title and maintenance responsibilities vested in the United
States.
“The term ‘parkway’ as used in chapter 2 of this title, means a parkway authorized by an Act of
Congress on lands to which title is vested in the United States.
“The term ‘project’ means an undertaking to construct a particular portion of a highway, or if the
context so implies, the particular portion of a highway so constructed or any other undertaking
eligible for assistance under this title.

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“The term ‘project agreement’ means the formal instrument to be executed by the State transportation
department and the Secretary as required by the provisions of subsection (a) of section 110 of this
title.
“The term ‘public lands development roads and trails’ means those roads or trails which the
Secretary of the Interior determines are of primary importance for the development, protection,
administration, and utilization of public lands and resources under his control.
“The term ‘public lands highways’ means those main highways through unappropriated or unreserved
public lands, nontaxable Indian lands, or other Federal reservations, which are on the Federal-aid
systems.
“The term ‘public road’ means any road or street under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a
public authority and
open to public travel.
“The term ‘rural areas’ means all areas of a State not included in urban areas.
“The term ‘Secretary’ means Secretary of Transportation.
“The term ‘urbanized area’ means an area with a population of 50,000 or more designated by the
Bureau of the Census, within boundaries to be fixed by responsible State and local officials in
cooperation with each other, subject
to approval by the Secretary. Boundaries shall, at a minimum, encompass the entire urbanized area
within a State as
designated by the Bureau of the Census.
“The term ‘State’ means any one of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, or Puerto Rico.
“The term ‘State funds’ includes finds raised under the authority of the State or any political or
other subdivision thereof, and made available for expenditure under the direct control of the State
transportation department.
“The term ‘State transportation department’ means that department, commission, board, or official of
any State
charged by its laws with the responsibility for highway construction.
“The term ‘Federal-aid system’ means any one of the Federal-aid highway systems described in section
103 of this
title.

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“The term ‘National Highway System’ means the Federal-aid highway system described in subsection (b)
of section 103 of this title.
“The term ‘Interstate System’ means the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and
Defense Highways described in subsection (e) of section 103 of this title.
“The term ‘operating costs for traffic monitoring, management, and control’ includes labor costs,
administrative
costs, costs of utilities and rent, and other costs associated with the continuous operation of
traffic control, such as integrated traffic control systems, incident management programs, and
traffic control centers.
“The term ‘carpool project’ means any project to encourage the use of carpools and vanpools,
including but not limited to provision of carpooling opportunities to the elderly and handicapped,
systems for locating potential riders and informing them of carpool opportunities, acquiring
vehicles for carpool use, designating existing highway lanes as preferential carpool highway lanes,
providing related traffic control devices, and designating existing facilities for use for
preferential parking for carpools.
“The term ‘public authority’ means a Federal, State, county, town, or township, Indian tribe,
municipal or other local government or instrumentality with authority to finance, build, operate, or
maintain toll or toll-free facilities.
“The term ‘public lands highway means a forest road under the jurisdiction of and maintained by a
public authority and open to public travel or any highway through unappropriated or unreserved
public lands, nontaxable Indian lands, or other Federal reservations under the jurisdiction of and
maintained by a public authority and open to public travel.
“The term ‘operational improvement’ means a capital improvement for installation of traffic
surveillance and control
equipment, computerized signal systems, motorist information systems, integrated traffic control
systems, incident management programs, and transportation demand management facilities, strategies,
and programs and such other capital improvements to public roads as the Secretary may designate, by
regulation; except that such term does not include resurfacing, restoring, or rehabilitating
improvements, construction of additional lanes, interchanges, and grade separations, and
construction of a new facility on a new location.

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
“The term ‘urban area’ means an urbanized area or, in the case of an urbanized area encompassing
more than one State that part of the urbanized area in each such State, or an urban place as
designated by the Bureau of the Census having a population of five thousand or more and not within
any urbanized area within boundaries to be fixed by responsible State and local officials m
cooperation with each other, subject to approval by the Secretary. Such boundaries shall, as a
minimum, encompass the entire urban place designated by the Bureau of the Census except in the case
of cities in the State of Maine and in the State of New Hampshire.
“The term ‘transportation enhancement activities’ means, with respect to any project or the area to
be served by the project, provision of facilities for pedestrians and bicycles, acquisition of
scenic easements and scenic or historic sites, scenic or historic highway programs, landscaping and
other scenic beautification, historic preservation, rehabilitation and operation of historic
transportation buildings, structures, or facilities (including historic railroad facilities and
canals), preservation of abandoned railway corridors (including the conversion and use thereof for
pedestrian or bicycle trails), control and removal of outdoor advertising, archaeological planning
and research, and mitigation of water pollution due to highway runoff”
1995 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pubi. 104-59. 311(b). in definition of “construction”, inserted “bond
costs and other costs relating to the issuance in accordance with section 122 of bonds or other debt
financing instruments,” after “highway, including”.
Pub.L. 104-59, 301(a)(1), in definition of “project”, inserted before the period at the end “or any
other undertaking eligible for assistance under this title”.
Pub.L. 104-59. 301(a)(2), added provision defining “operating costs for traffic monitoring,
management, and control” and struck out former provision which read as follows: “The term ‘startup
costs for traffic management and control’ means initial costs (including labor costs, administration
costs, cost of utilities, and rent) for integrated traffic control systems, incident management
programs, and traffic control centers.”.
1991 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub-L. 102-240, § 1005(a), in definition of term “highway safety
improvement project”, inserted provisions relating to installation of priority control systems for
emergency vehicles at signalized intersections.

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
Pub l. 102-240, 4 1005(b), in definition of term “urbanized area”, substituted “with a population
of 50,000 or more” for “so” and “Boundaries” for “Such boundaries”.
Pub .L. 102-240, § 1005(c), substituted “The term ‘National Highway System’ means the Federal-aid
highway system described in subsection (b) of section 103 of this title” for “The term ‘Federal-aid
primary system’ means the Federal-aid highway system described in subsection (b) of section 103 of
this title”.
Pub.L. 102-240, 4 1005(d)(1), struck out provisions defining term “Federal-aid secondary system”.
Pub.L. 102-240, § 1005(d)(2), struck out provisions defining term “Federal-aid urban system”
Pub.L. 102-240, 4 1005(d)(3), in definition of term “Indian reservation roads”, struck out
provisions relating to
roads on Federal-aid systems.
Pub.L. 102-240, § 1005(d)(4), in definition of term “park road”, inserted provisions relating to
bridge built for
pedestrian use with capability for use by emergency vehicles.
Pub.L. 102-240, § 1005(e), in definition of term “Interstate system”, inserted “Dwight D.
Eisenhower” preceding “National”.
Pub.L. 102-240, § 1005(f). added provisions defining term “operational improvement”.
Pub.L. 102-240, § 1005(g), added provisions defining terms “start-up costs for traffic and
management control”,
“carpool project”, “public authority” and “public lands highway”.
Pub.L. 102-240, § 1006(g)(1). substituted “The term ‘Federal-aid highways’ means highways eligible
for assistance under this chapter other than highways classified as local roads or rural minor
collectors” for “The term ‘Federal-aid highways’ means highways located on one of the Federal-aid
systems described in section 103 of this title”.
Pub.L. 102-240, § 1007(c), added provisions defining term “transportation enhancement activities”.
Subsec. (b). Pub.L. 102-240, § 1001(g). substituted “forty” for “thirty-seven” and “1996” for “1993”.

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
1990 Amendments. Subsec. (b). PubI. 101-427 substituted “The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of
Interstate and Defense Highways” for “the National System of Intestate and Defense Highways” in
first two pars.
1987 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub-L. 100-17, 108, inserted “elimination of roadside obstacles,”
following
“grade crossings,” in definition of “construction”.
Pub.L. 100-17, 133(b)(2), substitutedt’ ‘forest road or trail’ “for “‘forest or trail’ “.
Pub.L. 100-17, 109, inserted “installs or replaces emergency motorist-aid call boxes,” following
“pavement
marking,” in definition of “highway safety improvement project”.
Pub.L. 100-17, 133(b)(3), substituted “The term ‘park road’ means a public road that is located
within, or provides access to, an area in the national park system with title and maintenance
responsibilities vested in the United States.” for “The term ‘park road’ means a public road that is
located within or provides access to an area in the national park system.” in definition of “park
road”.
Subsec. (b). Pub.L. 100-17, 102(b’)(3). substituted “thirty-seven years’ ” for “thirty-four
years’ “and “1993” for
“1990” in second par.
1983 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub.L. 97-424, § 126(c)(1). substituted provision that the term “park
road” means a public road that is located within or provides access to an area in the national park
system for provision that the term “park roads and trails” meant those roams or trails, including
the necessary bridges, located in national parks or monuments, now or hereafter established, or in
other areas administered by the National Park Service of the Department of the Interior (excluding
parkways authorized by Acts of Congress) and also including approach roads to national parks or
monuments authorized by the Act of January 31, 1931(46 Stat. 1053), as amended.
Pub.L. 97-424, § 126(c)(2), substituted “The term ‘Indian reservation roads’ means public roads,
including roads” for “The term ‘Indian reservation roads and bridges’ means roads and bridges,
including roads and bridges” preceding “on the Federal-aid systems”.
Pub.L. 97-424, § 126(c)(3), added provision that the term “Federal lands highways” means forest
highways, public lands highways, park roads, parkways, and Indian reservation roads which are public
roads.

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
Pub .L. 97-424, 4 159, added to the definition of “construction” provision that it also includes
costs incurred by the State in performing Federal-aid project related audits which directly benefit
the Federal-aid highway program.
1978 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub.L. 95-599, 4 106(a), in definition of “construction”, added
provision relating
to capital improvements.
Pub.L. 95-599, § 106(b)(1), in definition of “forest road or trail”, added provisions requiring
contingency or service
to the National Forest System and necessity for the protection, administration, and utilization
thereof.
Pub.L. 95-599, § 106(b)(2), defined “forest development roads or trails” in terms of a forest road
or trail under the
jurisdiction of the Forest Service rather than in terms of a forest road or trail of primary
importance for the
protection, administration, and utilization of the national forest or other areas under the
jurisdiction of the Forest
Service.
Pub.L. 95-599. § 106(b)(3), defined ‘forest highway” in terms of a forest road under the
jurisdiction of, and maintained by, a public authority and open to public travel rather than in
terms of a forest road which is of primary
importance to the States, counties, or communities contingent to national forests and which is a
Federal-aid system.
Pub.L. 95-599, § 106(1;1)(4), added the definition of “highway safety improvement project”.
1976 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub.L. 94-280, § 108, defined “construction” to include resurfacing,
restoration,
and rehabilitation and “urban area” to exclude cities in the States of Maine and New Hampshire and
inserted
definition of “public road”.
Subsec. (b). Pub.L. 94-280, § 107(a), substituted provision for completion of the Interstate System
over a thirty-four year period, through the fiscal year ending September 30, 1990, for a prior
provision for such completion over a
twenty-three year period, through the fiscal year ending June 30, 1979.
1975 Amendments. Pub.L. 93-643 defmed “Indian reservation roads and bridges” to include roads and
bridges on
the Federal-aid systems.
1973 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub.L. 93-87, § 105(1), in definition of “construction”, substituted
“National

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration” for “Coast and Geodetic Survey” and extended the definition
to include improvements which directly facilitate and control traffic flow, such as grade separation
of intersections, widening of lanes, chamielization of traffic, traffic control systems, and
passenger loading and unloading areas.
Pub.L. 93-87. 105(3), in definition of “Indian reservation roads and bridges”, substituted “approval
of the Federal Government, or Indian and Alaska Native villages, groups, or communities in which
Indians and Alaskan Natives reside, whom the Secretary of the Interior has determined are eligible
for services generally available to Indians under Federal laws specifically applicable to Indians”
for “approval of the Federal Government on which Indians reside whom the Secretary of the Interior
has determined to be eligible for services generally available to Indians under Federal laws
specifically applicable to Indians”.
Pub.L. 93-87, 152(1), in definition of “Secretary”, substituted “Secretary of Transportation” for
“Secretary of
Commerce”.
Pub.L. 93-87.105(4). in definition of “urbanized area”, provided for boundaries of the “urbanized
area” to be fixed by responsible State and local officials in cooperation with each other, subject
to approval by the Secretary, and required such boundaries, as a minimum, to encompass the entire
urbanized area within a State as designated by the Bureau of the Census.
Pub.L. 93-87, 105(2), in definition of “urban area”, substituted “an urbanized area or, in the case
of an urbanized area encompassing more than one State, that part of the urbanized area in each such
State, or an urban place as designated by the Bureau of the Census having a population of five
thousand or more and not within any urbanized area, within boundaries to be fixed by responsible
State and local officials in cooperation with each other, subject to approval by the Secretary” for
“an area including and adjacent to a municipality or other urban place having a population of five
thousand or more, as determined by the latest available Federal census, within boundaries to be
fixed by a State highway department subject to the approval of the Secretary”, and required such
boundaries, as a minimum, to encompass the entire urban place designated by the Bureau of the
Census.
Subsec. (b). Pub.L. 93-87, 106(a), 107, extended time for completion of the National System of
Interstate and
Defense Highways, substituting in second par. “twenty-three years” and “June 30, 1979” for “twenty
years” and

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“June 30, 1976” and added third par declaratory of national policy, since the Interstate System is
now in the final phase of completion, that increased emphasis be placed on the construction and
reconstruction of the other Federal- aid systems in accordance with the first par. of subsec. (b),
in order to bring all of the Federal-aid systems up to standards and to increase the safety of these
systems to the maximum extent
Subsec. (e). Pub.L. 93-87, § 108, added subsec. (e).
1970 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub.L. 91-605, § § 106(a), 117(d), 130, 141, inserted definitions of
“urbanized area” and “Federal-aid urban system”, substituted “subsection (e)” for “subsection (d)”
in definition of “Interstate
System”, included within the costs of construction, under the definition of “construction”,
relocation assistance, acquisition of replacement housing sites, acquisition, and rehabilitation,
relocation, and construction of replacement housing, and substituted “acquisition” for “costs” of
rights-of-way, broadened definition of “Indian reservation roads and bridges” to include roads and
bridges on State controlled Indian reservations, trust lands, and restricted Indian lands, as well
as roads and bridges on such lands under Federal control, and added to the definitions of “forest
highway” and “public lands highways” provisions to insure that these highways be on the Federal-aid
systems.
Subsec. (b). Pub.L. 91-605, § 104(a), substituted “twenty years” for “eighteen years” and “June 30, 1976” for “June 30, 1974”.
Subsec. (c). Pub.L. 91-605, § 107, substituted “any officer or employee in the executive branch of
the Federal Government” for “any officer or employee of any department, agency, or instrumentality of the executive branch of the Federal Government” and “Highway Trust Fund” for “highway trust fund”
Subsec. (d). Pub.L. 91-605, § 107, substituted provisions prohibiting expenditure of funds from the
Highway Trust Fund by any department other than the Federal Highway Administration unless these
funds are identified and included as a line item in an appropriation Act and are to meet obligations
incurred under this title attributable to the construction of Federal aid highways or for planning,
research, or development, or as otherwise specifically authorized to be appropriated from the
Highway Trust Fund by Federal-aid highway legislation for provisions
expressing essentially the same prohibitions but permitting expenditures to meet obligations
incurred under this title attributable to Federal-aid highways, and contracted for in accordance
with the Act of March 4, 1915, as amended

Page 24
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
[section 1535 of Title 31, Money and Finance], relating to work or services not usually performed by
the Federal Highway Administration, or relating to the furnishing of materials, supplies or
equipment, and expenditures specifically identified in the budget and included in an appropriation
Act.
1968 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub .L 90-495, § 8, added “and other areas administered by the Forest
Service” following “national forests” and “national forest” in the definitions of “forest road or
trail” and “forest development roads and trails”.
Subsec. (b). Pub.L. 90-495, § 4(a), substituted a reference to “eighteen years’ appropriation” for
reference to “sixteen years’ appropriation” and substituted “June 30, 1974” for “June 30, 1972”.
Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub.L. 90-495, § 15, added subsecs. (c) and (d).
1966 Amendments. Subsec. (b). Pub.L. 89-574 substituted a reference to “sixteen years’
appropriation” for reference to “fifteen years’ appropriation” and substituted “June 30, 1972” for
“June 30, 1971”.
1964 Amendments. Subsec. (b). Pub.L. 88-423 substituted “fifteen years” for “thirteen years” and
“June 30, 1971” for “June 30, 1969.”
1962 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub.L. 87-866 inserted the definition of “public lands development
roads and trails.”
1960 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub.L. 86-624 substituted “fifty States, the District of Columbia, or
Puerto Rico” for “forty-nine States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, or Puerto Rico” in the
definition of “State.”
1959 Amendments. Subsec. (a). Pub .L. 86-70 substituted in the definition of “State” the words
“forty-nine States, the District of Columbia, Hawaii” for “forty-eight States, the District of
Columbia, Hawaii, Alaska.”
Effective and Applicability Provisions
1998 Acts. Section 9016 of Pub.L. 105-206 provided that: “This title and the amendments made by this
title [Title IX (§ 9001 to 9016) of Pub.L. 105- 206, July 22, 1998, 112 Stat 834, enacting sections
154 and 164 of this title and section 1103 of Title 38, amending sections 104, 105, 110, 115, 118 to
120, 124, 129, 134, 143, 144, 188, 202,

Page 25
23 U.S.C.A. 101
and 322 of this title, section 900 of Title 2, sectins 777c, 777g, and 777g-1 of Title 16, sections
9503 and 9504 of Title 26, sections 1110, 1131, 3532, 3534, 3542, and 3687 of Title 38, and sections 5302 to
5305, 5307 to 5309, 5315, 5320, 5325, 5328, 5337, 5338, 5505, 30105, and 31314 of Title 49,
repealing sections 126 and 150 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this
section and section 144 of this title, sections 1103 and 3532 of Title 38, and section 5338 of Title 49, and amending provisions set out as notes under this
section and sections 104, 109, 138, 149, 322, 402, and 502 of this title, sections 901 and 902 of
Title 2, section 668dd of Title 16, section 1110 of Title 38, and sections 111, 5301, 5307, 5309,
5310, and 31136 of Title 49] shall take effect simultaneously with
the enactment of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century [Pub.L. 105-178, June 9, 1998,
112 Stat. 107]. For purposes of all Federal laws, the amendments made by this title [Title IX of
Pub.L. 105-206] shall be treated as being included in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century [Pub.L. 105-178] at the time of
the enactment of such Act [June 9, 1998], and the provisions of such Act (including the amendments
made by such Act fPub.L. 105-178j) (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act [July 22, 1998]) that
are amended by this title [Title IX of Pub.L. 105-206] shall be treated as not being enacted.”
1991 Acts. Amendment by Pub.L. 102-240 effective on December 18, 1991, to be applicable to funds
authorized to be appropriated or made av-ailable after Sept. 30, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 1100(a), (b) of Pub.L. 102-240, set out as a note under section 104 of this title.
1970 Acts. Section 147 of Publ. 91-605 provided that: “The amendments made by section 117 [enacting
section 510, amending section 101 of this title, and renumbering sections 511 and 512 of this title], 120 [amending note set
out under section 502 of this tide], and 137 of this Act [amending section 506 of this title] shall
not take effect if before the effective date of this Act [Dec. 31, 1970] the Uniform Relocation
Assistance and Land Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 has been enacted into law.” The Uniform Relocation Assistance and Land
Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, enacted as Pub.L. 91-646, 84 Stat. 1894, was approved Jan. 2, 1971, whereas this Act
(Title I of Pub.L. 91- 605) was approved Dec. 31, 1970, therefore the amendments made by sections 117, 120, and 137 of
Title I of Pub.L. 91-605 took effect. 1968 Acts. Section 37 of Pub.L. 90-495, as amended Pub.L. 91-605, Title I, § 120, Dec. 31, 1970, 84
Stat. 1725, provided that:

Page 26
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this section, this Act and the amendments
made by this Act [enacting sections 135, 139, 140, 141, and 501 to 511 of this title amending
sections 101, 103, 104, 108, 112, 113, 115, 116, 120, 125, 128, 129, 131, 135, 136, 138, 205, 319,
and 402 of this title, section 636 of Title 15 Commerce and Trade and section 1653 of Title 49,
Appendix, Transportation, repealing section 133 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes
under sections 101, 104, 108, 125, 134, 501, 502, and 510 of this title] shall take effect on the
date of its enactment [Aug. 23, 1968], except that until July 1, 1970, sections 502, 506507, and
508 of title 23, United States Code, as added by this Act, shall be applicable to a State only to
the extent that such State is, able under its laws to comply with such sections. Except as otherwise
provided in subsection (b) of this section, after July 1, 1970, such sections shall be completely
applicable to all States. Section 133 of title 23, United States Code,
shall not apply to any State if sections 502, 505, 506, 507, and 508 of title 23, United States
Code, are applicable in that State, and effective July 1, 1970, such section 133 is repealed.
“(b) In the case of any State (1) which is required to amend its constitution to comply with
sections 502505506507, and 508 of title 23, United States Code, and (2) which cannot submit
the required constitutional amendment for ratification prior to July 1, 1970, the date of July 1,
1970, contained in subsection (a) of this section shall be extended to July 1, 1972.”
1959 Acts. Section 21(e) of Pub.L. 86-70 provided in part that the amendments of subsec. (a) of this
section and § § 104(b), 116(a) and 120(a) of this title shall be effective on July 1, 1959.
Change of Name
The Coast and Geodetic Survey was consolidated with the National Weather Bureau in 1965 to form the
Environmental Science Services Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1965, eff. July 13, 1965, 30
F.R. 8819, 79 Stat. 1318. The Environmental Science Services Administration was abolished in 1970
and its personnel, property, records, etc., were transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration by Reorg. Plan No. 4 of 1970, eff. Oct. 3, 1970, 35 F.R. 15627, 84 Stat. 2090. By
order of the Acting Associate Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
35 F.R. 19249, Dec. 19, 1970, the Coast and Geodetic Survey was redesignated the National Ocean
Survey. See notes under section 311 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Page 27
23 U.S.C.A. 101
Transfer of Functions
All functions, powers, and duties of the Secretary of Commerce and other officers and offices of the
Department of
Commerce under this title and under specific related laws and parts of laws set out in the notes in
this title relating generally to highways and highway and traffic safety were transferred to and
vested in the Secretary of Transportation by Pub.L. 89-670, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 931, which
created the Department of Transportation. See section 1655(a)(1), (6) of Title 49, Appendix,
Transportation.
For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of
related references, see note set out under 8 U.S.C.A. § 1551.
Severability of Provisions
Section 36 of Pub.L. 90-495 provided that: “If any provision of this Act (including the amendments
made by this Act) [enacting sections 135, 139, 140, 141, and 501-511 of this title, amending
sections 101, 101 note, 103, 104, 108, 112, 113, 115, 116, 120, 125, 128, 131, 135, 136, 138, 205,
319, and 402 of this title, section 636 of Title 15,
Commerce and Trade, and section 1653 of Title 49, Transportation, repealing section 133 of this
title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 101, 104, 108, 125, 134, 501, 502,
and 510 of this title], or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid,
the remainder of this Act, and the application of the provision to other persons or circumstances
shall not be affected thereby.”
Short Title
2005 Amendments. Pub.L. 109-59, 4 1(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1144, provided that: “This Act [see
Tables for classification] may be cited as the ‘Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient
Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users or ‘SAFETEA-Lir.”
Pub.L. 109-42, § 1, July 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 435, provided that: “This Act [amending 26 U.S.C.A. § §
9503 and 9504, and 49 U.S.C.A. § 5338, enacting provisions set out as a note under 26 U.S.C.A. §
9503, and amending provisions set out as a note under 23 U.S.C.A. § 104] may be cited as the
‘Surface Transportation Extension Act of 2005, Part VI’.”

Page 28
23 U.S.C.A. 101
Pub.L. 109-37, 1. July 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 394, provided that: “This Act [amending 16 U.S.C.A. *
777c, U.S.C.A. * * 144,1,1,and, 26U.S.C.A. * * 9503 and 9504,46U.S.C.A. * 13106, and 49U.S.C.A. *
07, 5309, 5338, 31104, and 31107, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and 26
U.S.C.A. * 03, and amending provisions set out as notes under this section and 23 U.S.C.A. * * 104, 322, and
402, and 4 U.S.C.A. * * 5307, 5309, 5310, and 53381 may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation
Extension Act of 2005, Part Pub.L. 109-35, * 1, July 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 379, provided that: “This Act [amending 16 U.S.C.A. *
777c, U.S.C.A. * * 144, 157, 163, and 188,26 U.S.C.A. * * 9503 and 9504,46 U.S.C.A. * 13106, and 49
U.S.C.A. * 5307, 5309, 5338, 31104, and 31107, enacting provisions set out as notes under this
section and 26 U.S.C.A. * and amending provisions set out as notes under this section and 23 U.S.C.A. * * 104, 322, and 402,
and 49 U.S.C.A. * * 5307, 5309, 5310, and 5338] may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation
Extension Act of 2005, Part III’.”
Pub.L. 109-20, * 1, July 1, 2005, 119 Stat. 346, provided that: “This Act [amending 16 U.S.C.A. *
777c, 23 U.S.C.A. * * 144,157 163, and 188, 26 U.S.C.A. ** 9503 and 9504,46 U.S.C.A. * 13106, and 49
U.S.C.A. 5307, 5309, 5338, 31104, and 31107, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section
and 26 U.S.C.A. * and amending provisions set out as notes under this section, 23 U.S.C.A. * * 104, 322, and 4, and 49
U.S.C.A. * * 5307, 5309, 5310, and 5L3A8 may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation Extension Act
of 2005, Part Pub.L; 109-14, * 1, May 31, 2005, 119 Stat. 324, provided that: “This Act [amending 16
U.S.C.A. 4 777c, 23

Page 29
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
U.S.C.A. § 144, 157, 163, and 188, 26 U.S.C.A. § 4481, 4482, 4483, 9503, and 9504, 49 U.S.C.A. § §
5307, 5309, 5338, 31104, and 31107, and 46 U.S.C.A. 4 13106, enacting provisions set out as notes
under this section and 26 U.S.C.A. 4 4481, and amending provisions set out as notes under this
section, 23 U.S.C.A. § 104, 322, and 402, and 49 U.S.C.A. § 5307, 5309, 5310 and 5338] may be cited
as the ‘Surface Transportation Extension Act of
2005’.” 2004 Amendments. Pub.L. 108-310, § 1, Sept. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 1144, provided that: “This
Act [amending 2 U.S.C.A. § § 900 and 901, 16 U.S.C.A. § 777c, 23 U.S.C.A. § 144, 157, 163, 188, and
410, 26 U.S.C.A. 4 9503 and 9504, 46 U.S.C.A. § 13106, and 49 U.S.C.A. 4 5307, 5309, 5338, 31104,
and 31107, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and 23 U.S.C.A. § 104, 26
U.S.C.A. § 9503, and 49 U.S.C.A. § 5337, amending provisions set out as notes under this section and
2 U.S.C.A. § 901, 23 U.S.C.A. § 104, 322, and 402, and 49 U.S.C.A. § § 5307, 5309, 5310, and 5338
and repealing provisions set out as a note under 26 U.S.C.A. §
9503] may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation Extension Act of 2004, Part V’.”
Pub.L. 108-280, § 1, July 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 876, provided that: “This Act [amending 16 U.S.C.A. §
777c, 23 U.S.C.A. § § 144, 157, 163, 188, 26 U.S.C.A. § § 9503 and 9504, 46 U.S.C.A. 4 13106, and 49
U.S.C.A. 4 5307, 5309, 5338, 31104, and 31107, enacting provisions set out as notes under 26
U.S.C.A. § 9503, amending provisions set out as notes under 23 U.S.C.A. § § 101, 104, 322, and 402,
and 49 U.S.C.A. § § 5307, 5309, and 5310, and repealing provisions set out as a note under 49
U.S.C.A. § 5337] may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation Extension Act of 2004, Part IV’.”
Pub.L. 108-263, § 1, June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 698, provided that: “This Act [amending 16 U.S.C.A.
777c, 23 U.S.C.A. 4 4 144, 157, 163, 188, 26 U.S.C.A. § 9503, 9504, 46 U.S.C.A. § 13106, and 49
U.S.C.A. § 5307, 5309, 5338, 31104, 31107; enacting provisions set out as a note under 26 U.S.C.A. §
9503; and amending provisions set out as notes under this section and 23 U.S.C.A. § § 104, 322, 402,
and 49 U.S.C.A. § § 5307, 5309, 5310, 5337, 5338] may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation
Extension Act of 2004, Part III’.”
Pub.L. 108-224, § 1, Apr. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 627, provided that: “This Act [amending 16 U.S.C.A. §
777c, 23 U.S.C.A. § 144, 157, 163, and 188, 26 U.S.C.A. § 9503 and 9504, 46 U.S.C.A. § 13106, and 49
U.S.C.A. § 5307, 5309, 5338, 31104, and 31107, enacting provisions set out as a note under 26
U.S.C.A. § 9503, and amending

Page 30
23 U.S.C.A. 101
provisions set out as notes under this section and 23 U.S.C.A. § 104, 322 and 402, and 49 U.S.C.A. §
5307, 5309, 5310, 5337 and 5338] may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation Extension Act of 2004,
Part II’.”
Pub.L. 108-202, 4 1, Feb. 29, 2004, 118 Stat. 478, provided that: “This Act [amending 16 U.S.C.A. §
777c, 23 U.S.C.A. § 144, 157, 163, and 188, 26 U.S.C.A. § 9503 and 9504, 46 U.S.C.A. 4 13106, and 49
U.S.C.A. 4 5307, 5309, 5338, 31104, and 31107, enacting provisions set out as a note under 26
U.S.C.A. § 9503, and amending provisions set out as notes under this section and 23 U.S.C.A. § 104,
322, and 402, and 49 U.S.C.A. § 4 5309, 5307, 5310 5337, and 5338] may be cited as the ‘Surface
Transportation Extension Act of 2004’.” This Act is also
known as the Surface Transportation Extension Act of 2004, Part I.
2003 Amendments. Pub.L. 108-88, 4 1, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1110, provided that: “This Act
[amending 2 U.S.C.A. § § 900 and 901 16 U.S.C.A. § 777c, 23 U.S.C.A. § 144, 157, 163, 188, and 410,
26 U.S.C.A. § 9503 and 9504, 46 U.S.C.A. § 13106, and 49 U.S.C.A. § 4 5307, 5309, 5337, 5338,
31104, and 31107, enacting provisions set out as notes under 23 U.S.C.A. § 104, 26 U.S.C.A. § 9503,
and 49 U.S.C.A. § 5337, and amending provisions set out as notes under 2 U.S.C.A. § 901, 23 U.S.C.A. § § 101, 322, and 402, and 49
U.S.C.A. § § 5309, 5310, and 5338] may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation Extension Act of 2003’.”
1998 Amendments. Section 9001 of Publ. 105-206 provided that: “This title [Title IX (§ § 9001 to
9016) of Pub.L. 105-206, July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 834, enacting 23 U.S.C.A. § § 154 and 164 and 38
U.S.C.A. § 1103, amending 2 U.S.C.A. § 900, 16 U.S.C.A. § 777c, 1771, and 777g-1, 23 U.S.C.A. § 104,
105, 110, 115, 118 to 120, 124, 129, 134, 143, 144, 188, 202, and 322, 26 U.S.C.A. 4 4 9503 and 9504, 38 U.S.C.A.
4 1110, 1131, 3532, 3534, 3542, and 3687, and 49 U.S.C.A. § 5302 to 5305, 5307 to 5309, 5315, 5320, 5325,
5328, 5337, 5338, 5505, 30105, and 31314, repealing 23 U.S.C.A. § 126 and 150, enacting provisions set out as notes
under this section and 23 U.S.C.A. § 144, 38 U.S.CA. § 4 1103 and 3532, and 49 U.S.C.A. § 5338, and amending
provisions set out as notes under this section, 2 U.S.C.A. § 901 and 902, 16 U.S.C.A. § 668dd, 38
U.S.C.A. § 1110, 23 U.S.C.A. § 104, 109, 138, 149, 322, 402 and 502, and 49 U.S.C.A. § § 111, 5301,
5307, 5309, 5310, and 31136] may be cited as the ‘TEA 21 Restoration Act’.”
Section 1(a) of Pub.L. 105-178 provided that: “This Act [Pub.L. 105-178, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat.
107, for complete classification of which to the Code, see Tables] may be cited as the ‘Transportation Equity Act for
the 21st

Page 31
23 U.S.CA. § 101
Century’.”
Section 1501 of Pub.L. 105-178 provided that: “This chapter [Chapter 1 (§ § 1501 to 1504) of
Subtitle E of Title I of Pub.L. 105-178, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 241, enacting subchapters I and II
headings and sections 181 to 189 of this title, amending section 301 of Title 49, and enacting
provisions set out as a note under section 181 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Transportation
Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act of 1998’.”
1997 Amendments. Pub.L. 105-130, § 1, Dec. 1, 1997, 111 Stat. 2552, provided that: “This Act
[amending sections 104, 321, 326, and 410 of this title, sections 111, 5309 5337, 5338, 30308, and
31104 of Title 49, sections 9503, 9504, and 9511 of Title 26, enacting provisions set out as notes
under this section, section 104 of Title 26, and
amending provisions set out as notes under this section and section 307 of this title] may be cited
as the ‘Surface Transportation Extension Act of 1997′.”
1995 Amendments. Section 1(a) of Pub.L. 104-59 provided that: “This Act [enacting section 161 of
this title, amending this section and sections 103, 104, 106, 109, 111, 112, 115, 116, 120, 122,
127, 129, 130, 131, 133, 134,
141, 144, 149, 152, 153, 217, 303, 306, 307, 323, 409, and 410 of this title, sections 1261 and 1262
of Title 16, Conservation, sections 7506 and 12186 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and
sections 5316, 5331, 20140,
30308, 31112, 31136, 31306, and 45102 of Title 49, Transportation, repealing section 154 of this
title, enacting
provisions set out as notes preceding this section, under this section and sections 104, 109, 130,
141, 153, 154, 307,
309, 401, and 408 of this title, section 403 of Title 16, section 7511a of Title 42, and section
31136 of Title 49,
amending provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 104, 109, 127, 149, and 307 of
this title, and
repealing provisions set out as notes preceding this section and under section 112 of this title]
may be cited as the
National Highway System Designation Act of 1995’.”
1987 Amendments. Section 1(a) of Pub.L. 100-17 provided that: “This Act [enacting sections 151, 156,
and 409 of
this tide, section 508 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, section 4604 of Title 42, The
Public Health and
Welfare, and sections 1607a-2, 1619, 1620, and 1621 of Title 49, Appendix, Transportation, amending
this section and sections 103, 104, 106, 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122,
123, 125, 127, 129, 130, 138, 140, 144, 152, 154, 157, 204, 210, 215, 217, 307, 315, 319, 321, 323,
401, 402, and 408 of this title, section 4601-11 of Title 16, Conservation, section 1761 of Title
18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, sections 4041, 4051,

Page 32
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
4052, 4071, 4081, 4221, 4481, 4482, 4483, 6156, 6412, 6420, 6421, 6427, and 9503 of Title 26,
Internal Revenue Code, sections 494 and 1414 of Title 33, sections 4601, 4621, 4622, 4623, 4624,
4625, 4626, 4630, 4631, 4633, 4636, 4638, 4651, and 4655 of Title 42, and sections 303, and 10922 of
Title 49, and sections 1602, 1603, 1604, 1607, 1607a, 1607a-1, 1607c, 1608, 1612, 1613, 1614, 1617,
1655, 2311, 2314, and 2716 of Title 49, Appendix, repealing sections 114 note, 130 note, 211, 213,
217 notes, 219,. and 322 of this title, sections 498a, 498b, 503-507, 526, 526a, 526a note, 529, and
535d of Title 33, and sections 4634 and 4637 of Title 42, enacting provisions set out as notes under
this section and sections 103, 104, 116, 120, 125, 127, 130, 144, 202, 307, 401, and 402 of this
title, sections 1, 4052, and 4481 of Title 26, section 4601 of Title 42, section 10922 of Title 49,
and sections 1601, 1602, 1608, and 2204 of Title 49, Appendix, amending provisions set out as notes
under this section and sections 103, 104, 130, 141, 144, 146, and 401 of this title, and repealing
provisions set out as notes under sections 114, 130, and 217 of this title and section 526a of Title
33] may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act of 1987’.”
Section 101 of Title I of Pub.L. 100-17 provided that: “This title [enacting sections 151, 156, and
409 of this title and section 508 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, amending this
section and sections 103, 104, 106,
109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 127, 129, 130, 138, 140, 144,
152, 154, 157, 204, 210, 215, 217, 307, 315, 319, 321, 323,401, and 402 of this title, section 1761
of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, sections 494 and 1414 of Title 33, section 303 of Title
49, Transportation, and sections 1655, 2311, and 2716 of Title 49, Appendix, repealing sections 211,
213, 219, and 322 of this title and sections 498a, 49, 503 to 507, 526, 526a, 529, and 535d of Title
33, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 103, 104, 116, 120, 125,
127, 130, 144, 202, 307, and 402 of this title, amending provisions set out as notes under this
section and sections 103, 104, 130, 141, 144, and 146 of this title, and repealing provisions set
out as notes under sections 114, 130, and 217 of this title and section 526a of Title 331 may be
cited as the ‘Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1987’.”
1983 Amendments. Section 1 of Pub.L. 97-424 provided: “That this Act [enacting section 157 of this
title, sections
4051 to 4053 and 9503 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and sections 1601c, 1607a, 1607a-1, 1617,
1618, and
2301 to 2315 of Title 49, Appendix, Transportation, amending this section and sections 103, 105,
109, 112, 113,
114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 122, 125, 127, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 150, 152, 201, 202, 203,
204, 210, 214,

Page 33
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
217, 218, 307, and 402 of this title, section 713c-3 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, sections 4601
-11 and 1606a of Title 16, Conservation, sections 39, 44E, 46, 48,103¾ 167, 168, 274, 851, 852, 874,
882, 3454, 4041, 4061, 4063,
4071, 4081, 4101, 4102, 4221, 4222, 4481, 4482, 4483, 6049, 6156, 6201, 6206, 6362, 6412, 6416,
6420, 6421, 6427, 6504, 6675, 7210, 7603, 7604, 7605, 7609, 7610, and 9502 of Title 26, section 1414
of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, sections 602 and 1382a of Title 42, The Public Health
and Welfare, sections 1474, 1475, and 1479 of former Title 46, Shipping, section 1273 of Title 46,
Appendix, sections 11909 and 11914 of Title 49, and sections 1602, 1603, 1604, 1607c, 1608, 1611,
1612, 1614, 2204, 2205, 2206 of Title 49, Appendix, repealing sections 206 to 209 of this title,
sections 4091 to 4094, and 6424. of Title 26, and sections 1604a, 1617, and 1618 of
Title 49, Appendix, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 103, 104,
105, 109, 111, 119, 120, 125, 144, 146, 154, 307, 401, and 408 of this title, section 713c-3 of
Title 15, sections 1, 39, 46, 165, 274,
3304, 4041, 4051, 4061, 4071, 4081, 4481, 6012, 6427, and 9503 of Title 26, section 602 of Title 42,
and sections
1601, 1612, and 2315 of Title 49, Appendix, amending provisions set out as notes under this section
and sections
103, 130, 307, and 401 of this title, sections 165 and 3304 of Title 26, and section 10927 of Title
49, and repealing provisions set out as notes under this section and section 104 of this title,
section 120 of Title 26, and section 1602
of Title 49, Appendix] may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982’.”
Section 101 of Title I of Pub.L. 97-424 provided that: “This title [enacting section 157 of this
title, amending this section and sections 103, 105, 109, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120,
122, 125, 127, 137, 139, 140,’142, 144, 150, 152, 201, 202, 203, 204, 210, 214, 217, 218, and 307 of
this title, repealing sections 206 to 209 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under
this section and sections 103, 104, 105, 109, 111, 119, 120, 125, 144, and 146 of this title, and
section 2315 of Title 49, Appendix, Transportation, amending provisions set out as notes under this
section and sections 130 and 307 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under this
section and section 104 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Highway Improvement Act of 1982’.”
1982 Amendments. Section 1 of Pub.L. 97-327, Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1611, provided: “That this Act
[amending section 144 of this title and provisions set out as notes under this section and under
section 130 of this title, and
enacting provisions set out as notes under section 104 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal-
Aid Highway Act of 1982’.”

Page 34
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
1981 Amendments. Pub.L. 97-134, § 13, Dec. 29, 1981,95 SMt. 1703, provided that: “This Act [amending
sections 104, 119, and 139 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section
and section 104 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1981’.”
1978 Amendments. Section 1 of Pub.L. 95-599 provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 119, 146,
and 407 of this title, and sections 1602-1, 1607, 1614, 1615, 1616, 1617 and 1618 of Title 49,
Appendix, Transportation, amending this section and sections 103, 104, 105, 109, 111, 116, 118, 120,
122, 124, 125, 129, 131, 134, 141, 144, 148, 151, 152, 154, 155, 215, 217, 219, 320, 402, and 406 of this
title, section 1418 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 4601-11 of Title 16, Conservation, sections
39, 4041, 4061, 4071, 4081, 4481, 4482, 6156, 6412, 6421, 6427, 7210, 7603, 7604, 7605, 7609, and 7610 of
Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 201 of Title 40, Appendix, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, sections
303, 1602, 1603, 1604, 1607b, 1607c, 1608, 1611, 1612, and 1613 of Title 49, Appendix, repealing
section 153 of this title and sections 1607, 1607a, and 1614 of Title 49, Appendix, and enacting
provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 103, 104, 109, 111, 120, 122, 124, 129,
130, 134, 135, 141, 142, 144, 146, 215, 217, 307, 320, 401, 402, and 403 of this title, section 6427
of Title 26, section 201 of Title 40, Appendix, section 5904 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare,
section 883 of Title 46, Appendix, Shipping, and sections 1601, 1602, 1604, 1605, 1612 and 1653 of Title 49,
Appendix] may be cited as the ‘Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1978’.”
Section 101 of Pub.L 95-599 provided that: “This title [enacting sections 119 and 146 of this title,
amending this section and sections 103, 104, 105, 109, 111, 116, 118, 120, 122, 124, 125, 129, 131,
134, 141, 144, 148, 151, 152, 155, 203, 215, 217, 219, 320, and 406 of this title and section 201 of
Title 40, Appendix, Public Buildings, Propertyand Works, repealing section 153 of this title and
provisions set out as notes under this section
and section 1605 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as
notes under this section and sections 103, 104, 109, 111, 120, 122, 124, 129, 130, 134, 135, 141,
142, 144, 146, 217, 307, and 320 of this title, section
201 of Title 40, Appendix, section 5904 of Title 42, section 883 of Title 46, Appendix, Shipping,
and section 1653 of Title 49, Appendix, Transportation] may be cited as the ‘Federal-Aid Highway Act
of 1978’.” Section 501 of Pub.L. 95-599 provided that “This title [amending section 4601-11 of Title 16,
Conservation, sections 39, 4041, 4061, 4071, 4081, 4481, 4482, 6156, 6412, 6421, 6427, 7210, 7603, 7604,
and 7605 of Title 26,


Page 35
23 U.S.C.A. 101
Intrical Revenue Code, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 120 and 307 of this
title and section 6477 of Title 26] may be cited as the ‘Highway Revenue Act of 1978’.”
1916 Amendments. Pub.L. 94-280, Title I, § 101, May 5, 1976, 90 Stat. 425, provided that: “This
title [enacting sestion 156 of this title, amending this section and sections 103, 104, 106, 108,
117, 118, 121, 125, 127, 129, 131, 13. 139, 140, 142, 147, 152, 153, 202, 203, 217, 219, 319, and
320 of this title, repealing sections 146 and 405
ofth1s title, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 103, 104, 124,
134, 135, 215, 218, 379, and 320 of this title and section 1605 of Title 49, Appendix,
Transportation, and amending provisions set out as rides ander this section and sections 120, 130,
and 142 of this title and section 1605 of Title 49, Appendix] may be citc1 as the ‘Federal-Aid
Highway Act of 1976’.”
1974 Amendments. Pub.L. 93-643, § 1, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2281, provided: “That this Act [which
enacted sestions 141, 154, 155, 219, and 406 of this title, amended this section and sections 103,
115, 127, 129, 131, 136,
144, 208, 320, 322, 323, and 405 of this title, enacted provisions set out as notes under this
section and sections 142, 217, and 320 of this title, amended provisions set out as notes under this
section and sections 130 and 142 of this tile, and repealed provisions set out as a note under this
section] may be cited as the ‘Federal-Aid Highway
Anelidments of 1974’.”
1W3 Amendments. Pub.L. 93-87, Title I. § 101. Aug. 13, 1973, 87 Stat. 250, provided that: “This
title [enacting
sections 145 to 150, 217, 218, 323, and 324 of this title and section 1602a of Title 49, Appendix,
Transportation,
anending this section and sections 103 to 105, 108, 109, 114, 117, 121, 126, 129, 135, 140, 142,
143, 149, 207, 303, 3ff to 310, 312, 314, and 320 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as
notes under this section and sections 10% 104, 120, 130, 142, 218, 307, 319, and 320 of this title
and sections 1608 and 1637 of Title 49, Appendix] may
becited as the ‘Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973’.”
1910 Amendments. Section 101 of the Pub.L. 91-605 Title I, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1713, provided
that: “This title [eaaatitg sections 142, 143, 215, 216, 321, and 510 of this title, amending this
section and sections 103, 104, 105, lifi, 109, 120, 125, 128, 129, 131, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139,
140, 303, 307, 320, 506, 511, 512 of this title and sedion 517 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable
Waters, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section
aid sections 104, 120, 129, 131, 134, 215, 216, 303, 307, 320, and 510 of this title] may be cited
as the ‘Federal-Aid

Page 36
23 U.S.C.A. 101
Highway Act of 1970′”
196Amendments Pub .L. 90-495, § 1, Aug 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 815, provided that “This Act [enactmg
sections 135,139 140, and 141 of this title, amending this section and sections 103 104 108 112 113,
115 116 120 125, 128,129, 131, 135, 136, 138, 205, 319, 402 and 501 to 512 of this title, section
636 of Title 15, Commerce and Track and section 1653 of Title 49 Appendix, Transportation, repealmg
section 133 of this title, amending provisions set out as a note under this section, and enacting
provisions formerly set out as notes under this section and sections 104, 108, 125, 134, 501, 502,
and 510 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal-Aid Highway Act of
196g.”
196Amendments. Section 1 of Pub.L. 89-574, Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 766, provided that: “This Act
[enacting secliras 120 and 138 of this title, amending this section and sections 104, 109, 118, 120,
125, 131, 136, 302, and 319 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this
section and sections 106, 108, 125, 133, and 137 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal-Aid
Highway Act of 1966’.”
1965Aniendments. Pub.L. 89-285, § 403, Oct. 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 1033, provided that: “This Act
[enacting section 136 of this title and provisions set out as notes under sections 131 and 135 of
this title and amending sections 131 and 319 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Highway
Beautification Act of 1965’.”
19& Amendments. Pub.L. 88-423 § 1, Aug. 13, 1964, 78 Stat. 397, provided that: “This Act [amending
this seciisn and sections 104, 205, 209 and 320 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal-Aid
Highway Act of 1964’.”
1961 Amendments. Pub.L. 88-157, § 1, Oct. 24, 1963, 77 Stat. 276, provided: “That this Act [amending
sections 104,106, 109, 121, 131, and 307 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Federal-Aid Highway
Amendments Act of 1963’.”
1962.Amendments. Pub.L. 87-866, § 1, Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1145, provided that: “This Act
[enacting sections 133,134 and 214 of this title, amending this section and sections 103, 104, 203
and 307 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 307 of this title]
may be cited as the ‘Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1962’.”
1961 Amendments. Pub.L. 87-61, § 101, June 29, 1961, 75 Stat. 122, provided that: “This Act
[enacting section 615fi of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, amending sections 111, 131 and 210 of
this title and sections 4041, 4061,

Page 37
23 U.S.C…A. § 101
4071, 4)81, 4218, 4221, 4226, 4481, 4482, 6412, 6416, 6421 and 6601 of Title 26, enacting provisions
set out as notes under this section and section 104 of this title and under section 4041 of Title
26, and amending provisions set out as notes under this section and section 120 of this title] may
be cited as the ‘Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1961’.”
1960 Amendments. Pub.L. 86-657, § 1, July 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 522, provided that: “This Act [enacting
section 132 of this title and amending sections 104, 114, 120, 129, 203, 205, 210 and 305 of this
title] may be cited as the ‘Federal Highway Act of 1960’.”
1959 Amendments. Publ.,. 86-342, Title I, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 611, provided that: “This Act
[amending sections 125, 131, 137 and 320 of this title, and sections 4041, 4081, 4082, 4226, 6412,
6416 and 6421 of Title 26,
Internal Revenue Code, enacting notes set out under section 307 of this title and section 4082 of
Title 26, and amending notes set out under this section and sections 104 and 120 of this title] may
be cited as the ‘Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1959’.”
General Definitions
Puh.L. 109-59, § 2¾ Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1153, provided that: “In this Act [the Safe,
Accountable, Flexible,
Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users or SAFETEA-LU, Pub.L. 109-59, Aug. 10, 2005,
119 Stat. 1144; see Tables for classification], the following definitions apply:
“(1) Itepartment.–The term ‘Department’ means the Department of Transportation.
“(2) Secretary.–The term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Transportation.”
Definition of State
Puh.L. 109-59. Title I, § 1120(c), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1172, provided that: “For the purposes
of apportioning
funds under sections 104, 105, 130, 144, and 206 of title 23, United States Code, and section 1404
[23 U.S.C.A. § 402 nine], relating to the safe routes to school program, the term ‘State’ means any
of the 50 States and the District of Cohunbia.?’
Projects of National and Regional Significance

Page 38
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
Pub.L. 109-59, Title I. 1301, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1198, provided that:
“(a) Findings.–Congress finds the following:
“(1) Under current law, surface transportation programs rely primarily on formula capital
apportionments to States.
“(2) Despite the significant increase for surface transportation program funding in the
Transportation Equity Act of the 21st Century [Pub.L. 105- 178, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat 107, as
amended, also known as TEA 21, and BESThA, the Building Efficient Surface Transportation and Equity
Act; see Tables for classification], current levels of investment are insufficient to fund critical
high-cost transportation infrastructure facilities that address critical national economic and
transportation needs.
“(3) Critical high-cost transportation infrastructure facilities often include multiple levels of
government, agencies, modes of transportation, and transportation goals and planning processes that
are not easily addressed or funded within existing surface transportation program categories.
“(4) Projects of national and regional significance have national and regional benefits, including
improving economic productivity by facilitating international trade, relieving congestion, and
improving transportation safety by facilitating passenger and freight movement
“(5) The benefits of projects described in paragraph (4) accrue to local areas, States, and the
Nation as a result of the e&ct such projects have on the national transportation system.
“(6) A program dedicated to constructing projects of national and regional significance is necessary
to improve the safe, secure, and efficient movement of people and goods throughout the United States
and improve the health and welfare of the national economy.
“(b) Establishment of program.–The Secretary shall establish a program to provide grants to States
for projects of national and regional significance.
“(c) Definitions.–In this section [this note], the following definitions apply:

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
“(1) EliIe project costs.–The term ‘eligible project costs’ means the costs of–
“(A) tkvelopment phase activities, including planning, feasibility analysis, revenue forecasting,
environmental reviews preliminary engineering and design work, and other preconstruction activities;
and
“(B) construction, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and acquisition of real property (including land
related to the project and improvements to land), environmental mitigation, construction
contingencies, acquisition of equipment, and operational improvements.
“(2) Eligible project.–The term ‘eligible project’ means any surface transportation project
eligible for Federal
assistance under title 23, United States Code, including freight railroad projects and activities
eligible under such title.
“(3) Stste.The term ‘State’ has the meaning such term has in section 101(a) of title 23, United
States Code [subsec. (a) of this section]. — 0.0k C° 113nri. *5) 43443″t’S e–,
“(d) Elig,illility.–To be eligible for assistance under this section [this note], a project shall
have eligible project costs that are reasonably anticipated to equal or exceed the lesser of–
“(1) $500,000,000; or
“(2) 75 percent of the amount of Federal highway assistance funds apportioned for the most recently
completed
fiscal year to the State in which the project is located.
“(e) Apprmations.–Each State seeking to receive a grant under this section [this note] for an
eligible project shall submit to the Secretary an application in such form and in accordance with
such requirements as the Secretary shall
establish.
“(f) Competitive grant selection and criteria for grants.–
“(1) In general.–The Secretary shall–
“(A) establish criteria for selecting among projects that meet the eligibility criteria specified in
subsection (d)

Page 40
23 U.S.C.A. 101 [of this note];
“(B) conduct a national solicitation for applications; and
“(C) award grants on a competitive basis.
“(2) Criteria for grants.–The Secretary may approve a grant under this section [this note] for a
project only if the Secretary determines that the project–
“(A) is based on the results of preliminary engineering;
“(B) Islustified based on the ability of the project–
“(i) to generate national economic benefits, including creating jobs, expanding business
opportunities, and impacting the gross domestic product;
“(ii) to reduce congestion, including impacts in the State, region, and Nation;
“(iii) to improve transportation safety, including reducing transportation accidents, injuries, and
fatalities;
“(iv) to otherwise enhance the national transportation system; and
“(v) to gamer support for non-Federal financial commitments and provide evidence of stable and
dependable financing sources to construct, maintain, and operate the infrastructure facility; and
“(C) is supported by an acceptable degree of non-Federal financial commitments, including evidence
of stable and dependable financing sources to construct, maintain, and operate the infrastructure
facility.
“(3) Selection considerations.–In selecting a project under this section [this note], the Secretary
shall consider the extent to which the project–
“(A) leverages Federal investment by encouraging non-Federal contributions to the project, including
contributions from public-private partnerships;
(B) uses new technologies, including intelligent transportation systems, that enhance the efficiency
of the

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
project; and
“(C) helps maintain or protect the environment.
“(4) Preliminary engineering.–In evaluating a project under paragraph (2)(A), the Secretary shall
analyze and consider the results of preliminary engineering for the project.
“(5) Non-Federal financial commitment.–
“(A) Evaluation of project.–In evaluating a project under paragraph (2)(C), the Secretary shall
require that–
“(i) the proposed project plan provides for the availability of contingency amounts that the
Secretary determines to be reasonable to cover unanticipated cost increases; and
“(ii) each proposed non-Federal source of capital and operating fmancing is stable, reliable, and
available
within the proposed project timetable.
“(B) Considerations.–In assessing the stability, reliability, and availability of proposed sources
of non-Federal financing under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall consider–
“(i) existing financial commitments;
“(ii) the degree to which financing sources are dedicated to the purposes proposed;
“(iii) any debt obligation that exists or is proposed by the recipient for the proposed project; and
“(iv) the extent to which the project has a non-Federal financial commitment that exceeds the
required non- Federal share of the cost of the project
“(6) Regulations.–Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2005],
the Secretary shall issue regulations on the manner in which the Secretary will evaluate and rate
the projects based on the results
of preliminary engineering, project justification, and the degree of non-Federal financial
commitment, as required under this subsection.

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
“(7) Project evaluation and rating.–
“(A) In general.–A proposed project may advance from preliminary engineering to final design and
construction only if the Secretary finds that the project meets the requirements of this subsection
and there is a reasonable likelihood that the project will continue to meet such requirements.
“(B) Evaluation and rating.–In making such findings, the Secretary shall evaluate and rate the
project as ‘highly recommended’, ‘recommended’, or ‘not recommended’ based on the results of
preliminary- engineering, the project justification criteria, and the degree of non-Federal
financial commitment, as required under this subsection. In rating the projects, the Secretary shall
provide, in addition to the overall project rating, individual ratings for each of the criteria
established under the regulations issued under paragraph (6).
“(g) Letters of intent and full funding grant agreements.–
“(1) Letter of intent.–
“(A) In general.–The Secretary may issue a letter of intent to an applicant announcing an intention
to obligate, for a project under this section [this note], an amount from future available budget
authority specified in law that is not more than the amount stipulated as the financial
participation of the Secretary in the project.
“(B) Notification.–At least 60 days before issuing a letter under subparagraph (A) or entering into
a full Banding grant agreement, the Secretary shall notify in writing the Committee on
Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment
and Public Works of the Senate of the proposed letter or agreement. The Secretary shall include with
the notification a copy of the proposed letter or agreement as well as the evaluations and ratings
for the project.
“(C) Not an obligation.–The issuance of a letter is deemed not to be an obligation under. sections
1108(c), 1108(d), 1501, and 1502(a) of title 31. United States Code, or an administrative
commitment.
“(1)) Obligation or commitment.–An obligation or administrative commitment may be made only when

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23 U.SC.A. § 101
contract authority is allocated to a project
“(2) Full funding grant agreement–
“(A) In generaLA project financed under this subsection shall be carried out through a full funding
grant agreement. The Secretary shall enter into a full funding grant agreement based on the
evaluations and ratings required under subsection (f)(7) [of this note].
“(B) Terms.–If the Secretary makes a full funding grant agreement with an applicant, the agreement
shall–
“(i) establish the terms of participation by the United States Government in a project under this
section [this note];
“(ii) establish the maximum amount of Government financial assistance for the project;
“(ill) cover the period of time for completing the project, including a period extending beyond the
period of an authorization; and
“(iv) make timely and efficient management of the project easier according to the laws of the United
States.
“(C) Agreement.–An agreement under this paragraph obligates an amount of available budget authority
specified in law and may include a commitment, contingent on amounts to be specified in law in
advance for commitments under this paragraph, to obligate an additional amount from future available
budget authority specified in law. The agreement shall state that the contingent commitment is not
an obligation of the Government. Interest and other financing costs of efficiently carrying out a
part of the project within a reasonable time are a cost of carrying out the project under a full
funding grant agreement, except that eligible costs may not be more than the cost of the most
favorable financing terms reasonably available for the project at the time of borrowing. The
applicant shall certify, in a way satisfactory to the Secretary, that the applicant has shown
reasonable diligence in seeking the most favorable financing terms.
“(3) Amounts.–The total estimated amount of future obligations of the Government and contingent
commitments to incur obligations covered by all outstanding letters of intent and full funding grant
agreements may be not more

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
than the greater of the amount authorized to carry out this section [this note] or an amount
equivalent to the last fiscal years of funding authorized to carry out this section [this note] less
an amount the Secretary reasonabl: estimates is necessary for grants under this section not covered
by a letter. The total amount covered by nev letters and contingent commitments included in full
funding grant agreements may be not more than a limitatioi specified in law.
“(h) Grant requirements.–
“(1) In general.–A grant for a project under this section [this note] shall be subject to all of
the requirements of
title 23, United States Code.
“(2) Other terms and conditions.–The Secretary shall require that all grants under this section
[this note] be subject to all terms, conditions, and requirements that the Secretary decides are
necessary or appropriate for purposes of this section [this note], including requirements for the
disposition of net increases in value of real property resulting from the project assisted under
this section [this note].
“(i) Government’s share of project cost.–Based on engineering studies, studies of economic
feasibility, and information on the expected use of equipment or facilities, the Secretary shall
estimate the cost of a project receiving assistance under this section [this note]. A grant for the
project is for 80 percent of the project cost, unless the grant recipient requests a lower grant
percentage. A refund or reduction of the remainder may be made only if a refund of a proportional
amount of the grant of the Government is made at the same time.
“(j) Fiscal capacity considerations.–If the Secretary gives priority consideration to fmancing
projects that include more than the non-Government share required under subsection (i) [of this
note] the Secretary shall give equal
consideration to differences in the fiscal capacity of State and local governments.
“(k) Reports.–
“(1) Annual report.Not later than the first Monday in February of each year, the Secretary shall
submit to the
Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on
Environment and Public Works of the Senate a report that includes a proposal on the allocation of
amounts to be

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
made available to finance grants under this section [this note].
“(2) Recommendations on funding.–The annual report under this paragraph shall include evaluations
and ratings, as required under subsection (f) [of this note]. The report shall also include
recommendations of projects for funding based on the evaluations and ratings and on existing
commitments and anticipated funding levels for the next 3 fiscal years and for the next 10 fiscal
years based on information currently available to the Secretary.
“(1) Applicability of title 23.–Funds made available to carry out this section shall be available
for obligation in the
same manner as if such funds were apportioned under chapter 1 of title 23, United States Code [this
chapter]; except that such funds shall not be transferable and shall remain available until expended
and the Federal share of the cost
of a project under this section shall be as provided in this section [this note]
“(m) Designated projects.–Notwithstanding any other provision of this section [this note], the
Secretary shall allocate for each of fiscal years 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009, from funds made
available to carry out this section, 10 percent, 20 percent, 25 percent, 25 percent, and 20 percent
respectively, of the following amounts for grants to carry out the following projects under this
section [this note]:
[Table of ‘State, Project Description, and Amount’ omitted.]”
National Corridor Infrastructure Improvement Program
Publ.,. 109-59, Title I, 4 1302. Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1204, provided that:
“(a) In general.–The Secretary shall establish and implement a program to make allocations to
States for highway
construction projects in corridors of national significance to promote economic growth and
international or interregional trade pursuant to the selection factors provided in this section
[this note]. A State must submit an application to the Secretary in order to receive an allocation
under this section [this note].
“(b) Selection process.–
“(1) Priority.–In the selection process under this section [this note], the Secretary shall give
priority to projects in

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23 U.S.CA. § 101
corridors that are a part of, or will be designated as part of, the Dwight D. Eisenhower National
System of Interstate and Defense Highways after completion of the work described in the application
received by the Secretary and to any project that will be completed within 5 years of the date of
the allocation of funds for the project.
“(2) Selection factors.–In making allocations under this section [this note], the Secretary shall
consider the following factors:
“(A) The extent to which the corridor provides a link between two existing segments of the
Interstate System.
“(B) The extent to which the project will facilitate major multistate or regional mobility and
economic growth and development in areas underserved by existing highway infrastructure.
“(C) The extent to which commercial vehicle traffic in the corridor–
“(i) has increased since the date of enactment [Dec. 8, 1993] of the North American Free Trade
Agreement Implementation Act (16 U.S.C. 4401 et seq. [sic; probably should be 16 U.S.C.A. § 3301 et
seq.]); and
“(ii) is projected to increase in the future.
“(D) The extent to which international truck-borne commodities move through the corridor.
“(E) The extent to which the project will make improvements to an existing segment of the Interstate
System
that will result in a decrease in congestion.
“(F) The reduction in commercial and other travel time through a major freight corridor expected as
a result of the project.
“(G) The value of the cargo carried by commercial vehicle traffic in the corridor and the economic
costs arising
from congestion in the corridor.
“(II) The extent of leveraging of Federal funds provided to carry out this section [this note],
including–

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
“(i) use of innovative financing;
“(ii) combination with fl.mding provided under other sections of this Act [the Safe, Accountable,
Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users or SAFETEA-LTJ, Pub.L. 109-59,
Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1144; see Tables for classification] and title 23, United States Code; and
“(lii) combination with other sources of Federal, State, local, or private funding.
“(c) Applicability of title 23..–Funds made available by section 1 101(a)(10) of this Act [ub.L.
109-59, Title I, 1 101(a)(l0), Aug. 10, 2005 119 Stat. 1154, which is not classified to the Code] to
carry out this section [this note] shall be available for obligation in the same manner as if such
funds were apportioned under chapter 1 of title 23, United States Code [this chapter]; except that
such funds shall remain available until expended, and the Federal share of the cost of a project
under this section [this note] shall be determined in accordance with section 120 of such title [23
U.S.C.A. 1201.
“(d) State defined.–In this section, the term ‘State’ has the meaning such term has in section 101
(a) of title 23, United States Code [subsec. (a) of this section].
“(e) Designated projects.The Secretary shall allocate for each of fiscal years 2005, 2006, 2007,
2008, and 2009, from funds made available to carry out this section [this note], 10 percent, 20
percent, 25 percent, 25 percent, and 20 percent respectively, of the following amounts for grants to
carry out the following projects under this section [this note]:
[Table of ‘State, Project Description, and Amount’ omitted.]”
Coordinated Border hifrastmcture Program
Pub.L. 109-59, Title L 4 1303, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1207, provided that:
“(a) General authority.–The Secretary shall implement a coordinated border infrastructure program
under which the Secretary shall distribu flmds to border States to improve the safe movement of
motor vehicles at or across the border between the United States and Canada and the border between
the United States and Mexico

Page 48
23 U.S.C.A. 101
“(b) Eligible uses.–Subject to subsection (d) [of this note], a State may use funds apportioned
under this section [this note] only for–
“(1) improvements in a border region to existing transportation and supporting infrastructure that
facilitate cross- border motor vehicle and cargo movements;
“(2) construction of highways and related safety and safety enforcement facilities in a border
region that facilitate motor vehicle and cargo movements related to international trade;
“(3) operational improvements in a border region, including improvements relating to electronic data
interchange and use of telecommunications, to expedite cross border motor vehicle and cargo
movement;
“(4) modifications to regulatory procedures to expedite safe and efficient cross border motor
vehicle and cargo
movements; and
“(5) international coordination of transportation planning, programming, and border operation with
Canada and Mexico relating to expediting cross border motor vehicle and cargo movements.
“(c) Apportionment of funds.–On October 1 of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall apportion among
border States sums authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section [this note] for such
fiscal year as follows:
“(1) 20 percent in the ratio that
“(A) the total number of incoming commercial trucks that pass through the land border ports of entry
within the boundaries of a border State, as determined by the Secretary; bears to
“(B) the total number of incoming commercial trucks that pass through such ports of entry within the
boundaries of all the border States, as determined by the Secretary.
“(2) 30 percent in the ratio that–
“(A) the total number of incoming personal motor vehicles and incoming buses that pass through land
border

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
ports of entry within the boundaries of a border State, as determined by the Secretary; bears to
“(B) the total number of incoming personal motor vehicles and incoming buses that pass through such
ports of entry within the boundaries of all the border States, as determined by the Secretary.
“(3) 25 percent in the ratio that–
“(A) the total weight of incoming cargo by commercial trucks that pass through land border ports of
entry
within the boundaries of a border State, as determined by the Secretary; bears to
“(B) the total weight of incoming cargo by commercial trucks that pass through such ports of entry
within the boundaries of all the border States, as determined by the Secretary.
“(4) 25 percent of the ratio that–
“(A) the total number of land border ports of entry within the boundaries of a border State, as
determined by the Secretary; bears to
“(B) the total number of land border ports of entry within the boundaries of all the border States,
as determined by the Secretary.
“(d) Projects in Canada or Mexico.–A project in Canada or Mexico, proposed by a border State to
directly and
predominantly facilitate cross-border motor vehicle and cargo movements at an international port of
entry into the
border region of the State, may be constructed using funds apportioned to the State under this
section [this note] if,
before obligation of those funds, Canada or Mexico, or the political subdivision of Canada or Mexico
that is responsible for the operation of the facility to be constructed, provides assurances
satisfactory to the Secretary that any facility constructed under this subsection will be–
“(1) constructed in accordance with standards equivalent to applicable standards in the United
States; and
“(2) properly maintained and used over the useful life of the facility for the purpose for which the
Secretary is
allocating such funds to the project.

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
“(e) Transfer of funds to the General Services Administration.
“(1) State funds.–At the request of a border State, funds apportioned to the State under this
section [this note] may be transferred to the General Services Administration for the purpose of
funding one or more projects described in subsection (b) [of this note] if–
“(A) the Secretary determines, after consultation with the transportation department of the border
State, that the General Services Administration should carry out the project; and
“(B) the General Services Administration agrees to accept the transfer of, and to administer, those
funds in accordance with this section [this note].
“(2) Non-Federal share.–
“(A) In general.–A border State that makes a request under paragraph (1) shall provide directly to
the General Services Administration, for each project covered by the request, the non-Federal share
of the cost of the project.
“(B) No augmentation of appropriations.–Funds provided by a border State under subparagraph (A)–
“(1) shall not be considered to be an augmentation of the appropriations made available to the
General Services Administration; and
“(ii) shall be
“(I) administered, subject to paragraph (1)(B), in accordance with the procedures of the General
Services Administration; but
“(II) available for obligation in the same manner as if the funds were apportioned under chapter 1
of title 23, United States Code [this chapter].
“(3) Obligation authority.Obligation authority shall be transferred to the General Services
Administration for a

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
project in the same manner and amount as the funds provided for the project under paragraph (1).
“(4) Limitation on transfer of funds.–No State may transfer to the General Services Administration
under this subsection an amount that is more than the lesser of–
“(A) 15 percent of the aggregate amount of funds apportioned to the State under this section [this
note] for such fiscal year; or
“(B) $5,000,000.
“(f) Applicability of title 23.–Funds made available to carry out this section [this note] shall be
available for obligation in the same manner as if such funds were apportioned under chapter 1 of
title 23, United States Code [this chapter]; except that, subject to subsection (e) [of this note],
such funds shall not be transferable and shall remain available until expended, and the Federal
share of the cost of a project under this section [this note] shall be determined in accordance with
section 120 of such title [23 U.S.C.A. § 120].
“(g) Definitions.–In this section [this note], the following definitions apply:
“(1) Border region.–The term ‘border region’ means any portion of a border State within 100 miles
of an international land border with Canada or Mexico.
“(2) Border state.–The term ‘border State’ means any State that has an international land border
with Canada or
Mexico.
“(3) Commercial truck.–The term ‘commercial truck’ means a commercial motor vehicle as defined in
section 31301(4) (other than subparagraph (B)) of title 49, United States Code.
“(4) Motor vehicle.–The term ‘motor vehicle’ has the meaning such term has under section 101(a) of
title 23, United States Code [subsec. (a) of this section].
“(5) State.–The term ‘State’ has the meaning such term has in section 101(a) of such title 23
[subsec. (a) of this section].”

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
Section 1119 of Pub.L. 105-178 provided that:
“(a) General authority.–The Secretary shall establish and implement a coordinated border
infrastructure program under which the Secretary may make allocations to border States and
metropolitan planning organizations for areas within the boundaries of 1 or more border States for
projects to improve the safe movement of people and goods at or across the border between the United
States and Canada and the border between the United States and Mexico.
“(b) Eligible uses.–Allocations to States and metropolitan planning organizations under this
section [this note] may
only be used in a border region for–
“(1) improvements to existing transportation and supporting infrastructure that facilitate cross-
border vehicle and
cargo movements;
“(2) construction of highways and related safety and safety enforcement facilities that will
facilitate vehicle and
cargo movements related to international trade;
“(3) operational improvements, including improvements relating to electronic data interchange and
use of
telecommunications, to expedite cross border vehicle and cargo movement;
“(4) modifications to regulatory procedures to expedite cross border vehicle and cargo movements;
“(5) international coordination of planning, programming, and border operation with Canada and
Mexico relating
to expediting cross border vehicle and cargo movements; and
“(6) activities of Federal inspection agencies.
“(c) Selection criteria.–The Secretary shall make allocations under this section [this note] on the
basis of–
“(1) expected reduction in commercial and other motor vehicle travel time through an international
border
crossing as a result of the project;
“(2) improvements in vehicle and highway safety and cargo security related to motor vehicles
crossing a border
with Canada or Mexico;

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(3) strategies to increase the use of existing, underutilized border crossing facilities and
approaches;
“(4) leveraging of Federal funds provided under this section, including use of innovative financing,
combination of such funds with funding provided under other sections of this Act [Pub.L. 105-178,
June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 107, see Tables for classification], and combination with other sources of
Federal, State, local, or private flmding;
“(5) degree of multinational involvement in the project and demonstrated coordination with other
Federal agencies responsible for the inspection of vehicles, cargo, and persons crossing
international borders and their counterpart agencies in Canada and Mexico;
“(6) improvements in vehicle and highway safety and cargo security in and through the gateway or
affected port of entry concerned;
“(7) the degree of demonstrated coordination with Federal inspection agencies;
“(8) the extent to which the innovative and problem solving techniques of the proposed project would
be applicable to other border stations or ports of entry;
“(9) demonstrated local commitment to implement and sustain continuing comprehensive border or
affected port of entry planning processes and improvement programs; and
“(10) such other factors as the Secretary determines are appropriate to promote border
transportation efficiency and safety.
“(d) Construction of transportation infrastructure for law enforcement purposes.–At the request of
the Administrator of General Services, in consultation with the Attorney General, the Secretary may
transfer, during the period of fiscal years 1998 through 2001, not more than $10,000,000 of the
amounts made available by section 1101 [section 1101 of PubL. 105-178, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 111,
classified in part as a note under this section] to carry out this section [this note] and section
1118 [section 1118 of Pub.L. 105-178, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 161, set out as a note under this
section] to the Administrator of General Services for the construction of transportation
infrastructure necessary for law enforcement in border States.

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(e) Dermitions.–In this section [this note], the following definitions apply:
“(1) Border region.–The term ‘border region’ means the portion of a border State in the vicinity of
an international border with Canada or Mexico.
“(2) Border State.–The term ‘border State’ means any State that has a boundary in common with
Canada or Mexico.”
Delta Region Transportation Development Program
Pub.L. 109-59, Title I, 4 1308, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1218, provided that:
“(a) In general.–The Secretary shall carry out a program in the 8 States comprising the Delta
Region (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee) to–
“(1) support and encourage multistate transportation planning and corridor development;
“(2) provide for transportation project development;
“(3) facilitate transportation decisionmaking; and
“(4) support transportation construction.
“(b) Eligible recipients.A State transportation department or metropolitan planning organization in
a Delta Region State may receive and administer funds provided under the program.
“(c) Eligible activities.–The Secretary shall make allocations under the program for multistate
highway planning,
development, and construction projects.
“(d) Other provisions regarding eligib’ffity.–All activities funded under this program shall be
consistent with the continuing, cooperative, and comprehensive planning processes required by
sections 134 and 135 of title 23, United States Code.
“(e) Selection criteria.–The Secretary shall select projects to be carried out under the program
based one

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(1) Whether the project is located–
“(A) in an area under the authority of the Delta Regional Authority; and
“(B) on a Federal-aid highway;
“(2) endorsement of the project by the State department of transportation; and
“(3) evidence of the ability of the recipient of funds provided under the program to complete the
project.
“(0 Program priorities.–In administering the program, the Secretary shall–
“(1) encourage State and local officials to work together to develop plans for multimodal and
multijurisdictional
transportation decisionmaking; and
“(2) Give priority to projects that emphasize multimodal planning, including planning for
operational
improvements that–
“(A) increase the mobility of people and goods;
“(B) improve the safety of the transportation system with respect to catastrophic natural disasters
or disasters caused by human activity; and
“(C) contribute to the economic vitality of the area in which the project is being carried out.
“(g) Federal share.–Amounts provided by the Delta Regional Authority to carry out a project under
this subsection may be applied to the non-Federal share of the project required by section 120 of
title 23, United States Code.
“(h) Funding–
” (1) In general.–There is authorized to be appropriated from the Highway Trust Fund (other than
the Mass Transit Account) to carry out this section [this note] $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years
2006 through 2009.

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(2) Contract authority.–Funds made available to carry out this section [this note] shall be
available for obligation in the same manner as if such funds were apportioned under chapter 1 of
title 23, United States Code [this chapter]; except that such funds shall not be transferable and
shall remain available until expended.”
Motorcyclist Advisory Council
Pub.L. 109-59, Title I, 1914, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1478, provided that:
“(a) In general.–The Secretary, acting through the Administrator of the Federal Highway
Administration, in consultation with the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House
of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate, shall appoint a
Motorcyclist Advisory Council to coordinate with and advise the Administrator on infrastructure
issues of concern to motorcyclists, including–
“(1) bather design;
“(2) road design, construction, and maintenance practices; and
“(3) the architecture and implementation of intelligent transportation system technologies.
“(b) Composition.–The Council shall consist of not more than 10 members of the motorcycling
community with professional expertise in national motorcyclist safety advocacy, including–
“(1) At least–
“(A) one member recommended by a national motorcyclist association;
“(B) one member recommended by a national motorcycle riders foundation;
“(C) one representative of the National Association of State Motorcycle Safety Administrators;
“(D) two members of State motorcyclists’ organizations;
“(E) one member recommended by a national organization that represents the builders of highway
infrastructure;

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(F) one member recommended by a national association that represents the traffic safety systems
industry; and
“(G) one member of a national safety organization; and
“(2) at least one, and not more than two, motorcyclists who are traffic system design engineers or
State transportation department officials.”
Treatment of Funds
Pub.L. 109-14. 4 7(s), May 31, 2005, 119 Stat. 334, provided that: “Amounts made available under the
amendments made by this section [Surface Transportation Extension Act of 2005, Pub.L. 109-14, 4 7,
May 31, 2005, 119 Stat. 330, which amended 49 U.S.CA. § 4 5307, 5309, and 5338, and amended
provisions set out as notes under 23 U.S.C.A. § 322 and 49 U.S.C.A. 4 § 5309, 5310, and 5338] shall
be treated for purposes of section 1101(b) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (23
U.S.C. 101 note) as amounts made available for programs under title III of such Act fPub.L. 105-178,
Title III, § 3001 et seq., June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 338, known as the Federal Transit Act of 1998;
see Tables for classification].”
Pub.L. 108-310, § 8(t), Sept. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 1158, provided that: “Amounts made available
under the amendments made by this section [amending 49 U.S.C.A. § 5307, 5309, and 5338, enacting
provisions set out as a note under 49 U.S.C.A. 4 5337, and amending provision set out as notes under
23 U.S.C.A. 4 322, and 49 U.S.C.A. 4 4 5307, 5309, 5310 and 5338] shall be treated for purposes of
section 1101(b) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (23 U.S.C. 101 note) as
amounts made available for programs under title III of such Act [Pub.L. 105-178, Title III, § 3001
et seq., June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 338, known as the Federal Transit Act of 1998; see Tables for
complete classification].”
Pub.L. 108-88, § 8(t), Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1126, as amended Pub.L. 108-202, § 9(t), Feb. 29,
2004, 118 Stat. 489; Pub.L. 108-224, § 7(t), Apr. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 637; Pub.L. 108-263, § 7(t),
June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 708; Pub.L. 108-280, § 7(t), July 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 885, provided that:

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(1) In general.–Amounts made available under the amendments made by this section [amending 49
U.S.C.A. § 5307, 5309, 5337, 5338, enacting provisions set out as notes under 49 U.S.C.A. § 5337,
amending provisions set out as notes under 23 U.S.C.A. § 322 and 49 U.S.C.A. § § 5309, 5310, 5338],
by section 9 of the Surface Transportation Extension Act of 2004 [Pub.L. 108-202, § 9, Feb. 29,
2004, 118 Stat. 478; see Tables for complete classification]¾ [sic] by section 7 of the Surface
Transportation Extension Act of 2004, Part II [Pub .L. 108-224, § 7, Apr. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 637;
see Tables for complete classification] [sic; probably should be a comma] by section 7 of the
Surface Transportation Extension Act of 2004, Part III [Pub.L. 108-263, § 7, June 30, 2004, 118
Stat. 698; see Tables for complete classification], and by section 7 of the Surface Transportation
Extension Act of 2004, Part IV [Pub.L. 108-280, 7, July 15, 2004, 118 Stat. 882, which amended this
note; see Tables for complete
classification] shall be treated for purposes of section 1101(b) of the Transportation Equity Act
for the 21st Century
(23 U.S.C. 101 note) as amounts made available for programs under title III of such Act [Pub.L. 105
-178, Title III,
June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 338, known as the Federal Transit Act of 1998, sections 3037 and 3038 of
which are set out
as notes under 49 U.S.C.A. § 5309 and 5310, respectively; see Tables for complete classification].
“(2) Transfers.–Funds authorized by or made available under this section shall be transferred in
accordance with the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2004 [Publ. 108-199, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat.
3; see Tables for complete
classification].”
Definitions
Section 2 of Pub.L. 105-178 provided that: “In this Act [Transportation Equity Act for the 21st
Century, Pub.L.
105-178, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 107, for complete classification of which to the Code, see Short
Title note set out
under this section and Tables], the following definitions apply:
“(1) Interstate System.–The term ‘Interstate System’ has the meaning such term has under section
101 of title 23, United States Code [this section].
“(2) Secretary.–The term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Transportation.”
Disadvantaged Business Enterprises

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
Pub.L. 109-59, Title I, §, 1101(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1156, provided that:
“(1) Definitions.–In this subsection [Pub.L. 109-59, Title I. § 1101(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat
1156, which enacted this note], the following definitions apply:
“(A) Small business concern.–The term ‘small business concern’ has the meaning that term has under
section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632), except that the term shall not include any concern or group of concerns controlled by the same socially and economically disadvantaged individual or individuals which has average annual gross receipts over the preceding 3 fiscal years in excess of $19,570, 000, as adjusted annually by
the Secretary for inflation.
“(B) Socially and economically disadvantaged individuals.–The term ‘socially and economically
disadvantaged individuals’ has the meaning that term has under section 8(d) of the Small Business
Act (15 U.S.C. 637(d)) and relevant subcontracting regulations issued pursuant to that Act, except
that women shall be presumed to be socially and economically disadvantaged individuals for purposes
of this subsection [this note].
“(2) General rule.–Except to the extent that the Secretary determines otherwise, not less than 10
percent of the amounts made available for any program under titles I, ILI, and V of this Act [the
Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users or SAFETEA-LU,
Pub.L. 109-59, Titles I [§ 1101 et seq.], ifi [§ 3001 et seq.], and V [§ 5101 et seq.], Aug. 10,
2005, 119 Stat. 1153, 1544, 1779; see Tables for complete classification] and section 403 of title
23, United States Code [23 U.S.C.A. § 403], shall be expended through small business concerns owned
and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals.
“(3) Annual listing of disadvantaged business enterprises.–Each State shall annually–
“(A) survey and compile a list of the small business concerns referred to in paragraph (1) and the
location of the
concerns in the State; and
“(B) notify the Secretary, in writing, of the percentage of the concerns that are controlled by
women, by socially
and economically disadvantaged individuals (other than women), and by individuals who are women and
are

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
otherwise socially and economically disadvantaged individuals.
“(4) Uniform certification.–The Secretary shall establish minimum uniform criteria for State
governments to use in certifying whether a concern qualifies for purposes of this subsection [this
note]. The minimum uniform criteria shall include, but not be limited to, on-site visits, personal
interviews, licenses, analysis of stock ownership, listing of equipment analysis of bonding
capacity, listing of work completed resume of principal owners financial capacity, and type of work
preferred.
fl(5) Compliance with court orders.–Nothing in this subsection [this note] limits the eligibility
of an entity or person to receive funds made available under titles 1, III, and V of this Act [the
Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users or SAFETEA-LU,
Pub.L. 109-59, Titles I [ 1101 et seq.], Ill [ 3001 et seq.], and V [ 5101 et seq.], Aug. 10, 2005,
119 Stat. 1153, 1544, 1779; see Tables for complete classification] and section 403 of title 23.
United States Code [23 U.S.C.A. 4031, if the entity or person is prevented, in whole or in part,
from complying with paragraph (1) because a Federal court issues a final order in which the court
finds that the requirement of paragraph (1), or the program established under paragraph (1), is
unconstitutional.”
Similar provisions were contained in the following prior Acts:
Pub.L. 105-178, Title I, § 1101(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 113.
Pub.L. 102-240, Title I, § 1003ThLDec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1919.
Pub.L. 100-17, Title I, § 106(c), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 145.
[Any reference in any provision of law enacted before Jan. 4, 1995, to the Committee on Public Works
and Transportation of the House of Representatives treated as referring to the Committee on
Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives, see section 1(a)(9) of Pub.L.
104-14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress.]
State Defined

Page 61
23 U.S.CA. § 101
Section 1103(n) of Pub.L. 105-178, as amended Pub.L. 105-206, Title IX, § 9002(c)(2), July 22, 1998,
112 Stat. 835, provided that: “For the purposes of apportioning funds under sections 104, 105, 144,
and 206 of title 23, United States Code [sections 104, 105, 144, and 206 of this title], the term
‘State’ means any of the 50 States and the District of Columbia.”
National Corridor Planning and Development Program
Section 1118 of Pub.L. 105-178 provided that:
“(a) In general.–The Secretary shall establish and implement a program to make allocations to
States and metropolitan planning organizations for coordinated plaxming, design, and construction of
corridors of national significance, economic growth, and international or interregional trade. A
State or metropolitan planning organization may apply to the Secretary for allocations under this
section.
“(b) Eligibility of corridors.–The Secretary may make allocations under this section with respect
to–
“(1) high priority corridors identified in section 1105(c) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation
Efficiency Act of 1991 [Pub.L. 102-240, Title I, § 1105(c), 105 Stat. 2032, which was not
classified to the Code]; and
“(2) any other significant regional or multistate highway corridor not described in whole or in part
in paragraph (1) selected by the Secretary after consideration of
“(A) the extent to which the annual volume of commercial vehicle traffic at the border stations or
ports of entry of each State–
“(1) has increased since the date of enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement
Implementation
Act (Public Law 103-182) [Dec. 8, 1993]; and
“(ii) is projected to increase in the future;
“(B) the extent to which commercial vehicle traffic in each State–

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(i) has increased since the date of enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement
Implementation Act (Public Law 103-182) [Dec. 8, 1993]; and
“(ii) is projected to increase in the future;
“(C) the extent to which international truck-borne commodities move through each State;
“(D) the reduction in commercial and other travel time through a major international gateway or
affected port of entry expected as a result of the proposed project including the level of traffic
delays at at-grade highway crossings of major rail lines in trade corridors;
“(E) the extent of leveraging of Federal funds provided under this subsection, including– 11(i) use
of innovative financing;
“(li) combination with funding provided under other sections of this Act [the Transportation Equity
Act for the 21st Century, Pub.L. 105-178, July 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 107, for classification of which
to the Code, see Short Title of 1998 Amendments note under this section and Tables] and title 23,
United States Code [this title]; and
“(ffl) combination with other sources of Federal, State, local, or private funding including State,
local, and private matching funds;
“(F) the value of the cargo carried by commercial vehicle traffic, to the extent that the value of
the cargo and congestion impose economic costs on the Nation’s economy; and
“(G) encourage or facilitate major multistate or regional mobility and economic growth and
development in areas underserved by existing highway infrastructure.
“(c) Purposes.–Allocations may be made under this section for 1 or more of the following purposes:
“(1) Feasibility studies.
“(2) Comprehensive corridor planning and design activities.

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(3) Location and routing studies.
“(4) Multistate and intrastate coordination for corridors described in subsection (b) [of this
note].
“(5) After review by the Secretary of a development and management plan for the corridor or a usable
component thereof under subsection (b) [of this note]–
“(A) environmental review; and
“(B) construction.
“(d) Corridor development and management plan.–A State or metropolitan planning organization
receiving an allocation under this section shall develop, and submit to the Secretary for review, a
development and management plan for the corridor or a usable component thereof with respect to which
the allocation is being made. Such plan shall include, at a minimum, the following elements:
“(1) A complete and comprehensive analysis of corridor costs and benefits.
“(2) A coordinated corridor development plan and schedule, including a timetable for completion of
all planning
and development activities, environmental reviews and permits, and construction of all segments.
“(3) A finance plan, including any innovative financing methods and, if the corridor is a multistate
corridor, a
State-by-State breakdown of corridor finances.
“(4) The results of any environmental reviews and mitigation plans.
“(5) The identification of any impediments to the development and construction of the corridor,
including any
environmental, social, political and economic objections.
In the case of a multistate corridor, the Secretary shall encourage all States having jurisdiction
over any portion of such corridor to participate in the development of such plan.
“(e) Applicability of Title 23.–Funds made available by section 1101 of this Act [Pub.L. 105-178,
Title I, § 1101,
June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 111, classified in part as a note under this section] to carry out this
section and section 1119

Page 64
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
[section 1119 of Pub.L. 105-178, set out as a note under this section] shall be available for
obligation in the same manner as if such funds were apportioned under chapter 1 of title 23, United
States Code [section 101 et seq. of this title].
“(f) Coordination of planning.–Planning with respect to a corridor under this section [this note]
shall be coordinated with transportation planning being carried out by the States and metropolitan
planning organizations along the corridor and, to the extent appropriate, with transportation
planning being carried out by Federal land
management agencies, by tribal governments, or by government agencies in Mexico or Canada.
“(g) State defined.–In this section [this note], the term ‘State’ has the meaning such term has
under section 101 of
title 23, United States Code [this section].”
Highway Economic Requirement System
Section 1213(a) of Pub.L. 105-178 provided that:
“(1) Methodology.–
“(A) Evaluation.–The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct an evaluation of the
methodology
used by the Department of Transportation to determine highway needs using the highway economic
requirement
system (in this subsection referred to as the ‘model’).
“(B) Required element.–The evaluation shall include an assessment of the extent to which the model
estimates an optima/ level of highway infrastructure investment, including an assessment as to when
the model may be overestimating or underestimating investment requirements.
“(C) Report to Congress.–Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [June 9,
1998], the Comptroller General shall submit to Congress a report on the results of the evaluation.
“(2) State investment plans.–
“(A) Study.–In consultation with State transportation departments and other appropriate State and
local officials,
the Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study on the extent to which the model
can be used

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
to provide States with useful information for developing State transportation investment plans and
State infrastructure investment projections
“(B) Required elements.–The study shall–
“(i) identify any additional data that may need to be collected beyond the data submitted, before
the date of enactment of this Act [June 9, 19981, to the Federal Highway Administration through the
highway performance monitoring system; and
“(ii) identify what additional work, if any, would be required of the Federal Highway Administration
and the States to make the model useful at the State level.
“(C) Report to Congress.–Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [June 9,
1998], the Comptroller General shall submit to Congress a report on the results of the study.”
Southwest Border Transportation Infrastructure
Section 1213(d) of Pub.L. 105-178 provided that:
“(1) Assessment.–The Secretary shall conduct a comprehensive assessment of the state of the
transportation infrastructure on the southwest border between the United States and Mexico (in this
subsection referred to as the ‘border’).
“(2) Consultation.–In carrying out the assessment, the Secretary shall consult with–
“(A) the Secretary of State;
“(B) the Attorney General;
“(C) the Secretary of the Treasury;
“(I)) the Commandant of the Coast Guard;

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(E) the Administrator of General Services;
“(F) the American Commissioner on the International Boundary Commission, United States and Mexico;
“(G) State agencies responsible for transportation and law enforcement in border States; and “(II)
municipal governments and transportation authorities in sister cities in the border area
“(3) Requirements.–In carrying out the assessment, the Secretary shall–
“(A) assess the flow of commercial and private traffic through designated ports of entry on the
border;
“(B) assess the adequacy of transportation infrastructure in the border area, including highways,
bridges, railway
lines, and border inspection facilities;
“(C) assess the adequacy of law enforcement and narcotics abatement activities in the border area,
as the activities relate to commercial and private traffic and infrastructure;
“(D) assess future demands on transportation infrastructure in the border area; and
“(E) make recommendations to facilitate legitimate cross-border traffic in the border area, while
maintaining the
integrity of the border.
“(4) ReportNot later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [June 9, 1998], the
Secretary shall submit
to Congress a report on the assessment conducted under this subsection, including any related
legislative and
administrative recommendations.”
Transportation, Community, and System Preservation Program
Pub..L. 109-59, Title I. § 1117(a) to (g), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1177, provided that:
“(a) EstablishmentIn cooperation with appropriate State, tribal, regional, and local governments,
the Secretary
shall establish a comprehensive program to address the relationships among transportation,
community, and system
preservation plans and practices and identify private sector-based initiatives to improve such
relationships.

Page 67
23 U.S.C.A. 101
“(b)Ptirpose.–Through the program under this section, the Secretary shall facilitate the planning,
development, and implementation of strategies to integrate transportation, community, and system
preservation plans and practices that address one or more of the following:
“(1) Improve the efficiency of the transportation system of the United States.
“(2) Reduce the impacts of transportation on the environment.
“(3) Reduce the need for costly future investments in public infrastructure.
“(4) Provide efficient access to jobs, services, and centers of trade.
“(5) Examine community development patterns and identify strategies to encourage private sector
development that achieves the purposes identified in paragraphs (1) through (4).
“(e) General authority.–The Secretary shall allocate funds made available to carry out this section
to States,
metropolitan planning organizations, local governments, and tribal governments to carry out eligible
projects to integrate transportation, community, and system preservation plans and practices.
“(d) Eligibility.–A project described in subsection (c) is an eligible project under this section
if the project–
“(I) is eligible for assistance under title 23 or chapter 53 of title 49, United States Code; or
“(2) is to conduct any other activity relating to transportation, community, and system preservation
that the Secretary determines to be appropriate, including corridor preservation activities that are
necessary to implement
one or more of the following:
“(A) Transit-oriented development plans.
“(B) Traffic calming measures.
“(C) Other coordinated transportation, community, and system preservation practices.
“(e) Criteria.–In allocating funds made available to carry out this section [this note], the
Secretary shall give

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
priority consideration to applicants that–
“(I) Have instituted preservation or development plans and programs that–
are coordinated with State and local preservation or development plans, including transit-oriented
development plans,
W(B) promote cost-effective and strategic investments in transportation infrastructure that minimize
adverse impacts on the environment; or
“(C) promote innovative private sector strategies;
“(2) Have instituted other policies to integrate transportation, community, and system preservation
practices, such as
“(A) spending policies that direct funds to high-growth areas;
“(B) urban growth boundaries to guide metropolitan expansion;
“(C) ‘green corridors’ programs that provide access to major highway corridors for areas targeted
for efficient and compact development; or
“(D) other similar programs or policies as determined by the Secretary;
11(3) have preservation or development policies that include a mechanism for reducing potential
impacts of transportation activities on the environment;
11(4) demonstrate a commitment to public and private involvement, including the involvement of
nontraditional partners in the project team; and
“(5) examine ways to encourage private sector investments that address the purposes of this section.
“(1) Equitable distribution.–In allocating funds to carry out this section [this note], the
Secretary shall ensure the equitable distribution of funds to a diversity of populations and
geographic regions.

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
“(g)
“(1)lit general.–There is authorized to be appropriated from the Highway Trust Fund (other than the
Mass Trantit Account) to carry out this section [this note] $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2005 and
$61,250,000 for each of fiscalyears 2006 through 2009.
“(2) Contract authority.–Funds made available to carry out this section [this note] shall be
available for oblization in the same manner as if the funds were apportioned under chapter 1 of
title 23, United States Code
[this chapter]; except that such funds shall not be transferable, and the Federal share for projects
and activities
carried out with such funds shall be determined in accordance with section 120(b) of title 23,
United States Code
[23 1T.S.C.A. § 120(b)].”
Pub.L.105-178, Title I, § 1221, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 221, as amended Pub.L. 108-88, § 5(a)(9),
Sept. 30, 2003,
117 SW. 1114; Pub.L. 108- 202, § 5(a)(9), Feb. 29, 2004, 118 Stat. 481; Pub.L. 108-224, § 4(a)(9).
Apr. 30, 2004,
118 Silt. 629; Pub.L. 108-263, § 4(a)(9), June 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 700; Pub.L. 108-280, § 4(a)(9),
July 30, 2004,
118 Stit. 879; Pub.L. 108-310, § 5(a)(9), Sept. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 1149; Pub.L. 109- 14. § 4(a)
(9), May 31, 2005,
119 Std. 327; Pub.L. 109-20, § 4(a)(9), July 1, 2005, 119 Stat. 348; Pub.L. 109-35, § 4(a)(9),
July 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 31; Pub.L. 109-37, § 4(a)(9), July 22, 2005, 119 Stat. 396; Pub.L. 109-40,
§ 4(a)(9), July 28, 2005, 119
Stat. 42, which established a pilot program to investigate and address the relationships between
transportation and
commlnity and system preservation, was repealed by Pub.L. 109-59, Title I, § 1117(h), Aug. 10, 2005,
119 Stat.
1179.
Transprtation Assistance for Olympic Cities
Sectioa 1223 of Pub.L. 105-178, as amended Pub.L. 105-206, Title IX, § 9003(0, July 22, 1998, 112
Stat. 842, providsd that:
“(a) hrpose.–The purpose of this section [this note] is to authorize the provision of assistance
for, and support of,
State and local efforts concerning surface transportation issues necessary to obtain the national
recognition and

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
economic benefits of participation in the International Olympic movement, the International
Paralympic movement, and the Special Olympics International movement by hosting international
quadrennial Olympic and Paralympic events, and Special Olympics International events, in the United
States.
(b) Priortty for transportation projects relating to Olympic, Paralympic, and Special Olympic
events.–
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, from funds available to carry out sections 118(c) and
144(g)(1) of title 23, United States Code [sections 118(c) and 144(g)(1) of this title], the
Secretary may give priority to funding for a
transportation project relating to an international quadrennial Olympic or Paralympic event, or a
Special Olympics International event, if–
“(1) the project meets the extraordinary needs associated with an international quadrennial Olympic
or
Paralyrapic event or a Special Olympics International event; and
“(2) de project is otherwise eligible for assistance under sections 118(c) and 144(g)(1) of such
title [sections
118(c)and 144(g)(1) of this title].
“(c) Transportation planning activities.–The Secretary may participate in–
“(1) pkuming activities of States and metropolitan planning organizations and transportation
projects relating to an international quadrennial Olympic or Paralympic event, or a Special Olympics
International event, under
sections 134 and 135 of title 23, United States Code [sections 134 and 135 of this title]; and
“(2) developing intermodal transportation plans necessary for the projects in coordination with
State and local
transportation agencies.
“(d) Funding.–Notwithstanding section 5001(a) [section 5001(a) of Pub.L. 105-178, June 9, 1998, 112
Stat. 419,
which was not classified to the Code], from funds made available under such section, the Secretary
may provide assistance for the development of an Olympic, a Paralympic, and a Special Olympics
transportation management plan in cooperation with an Olympic Organizing Committee responsible for
hosting, and State and local communities affected by, an international quadrennial Olympic or
Paralympic event or a Special Olympics
InternatiOnal event.

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
“(e) Transportation projects relating to Olympic, Paralympic, and Special Olympic events.–
“(1) In general.–The Secretary may provide assistance, including planning, capital, and operating
assistance, to States and local governments in carrying out transportation projects relating to an
international quadrennial Olympic or Paralympic event or a Special Olympics International event.
“(2) Federal share.–The Federal share of the cost of a project assisted under this subsection shall
not exceed 80 percent.
“(t) Eligible governments.–A State or local government shall be eligible to receive assistance
under this section only if the government is hosting a venue that is part of an international
quadrennial Olympics that is officially selected by the International Olympic Committee or Special
Olympics International.
“(g) Authorization of appropriations.–There are authorized to be appropriated from the Highway
Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account) to carry out this section [this note] such sums as
are necessary for each of fiscal years 1998 through 2003.”
Discretionary Grant Selection Criteria and Process
Section 1311 of Pub.L. 105-178, as added Pub.L. 105-206, Title IX, 9004(a), July 22, 1998, 112
Stat. 842, provided that:
“(a) Establishment of criteria.–The Secretary shall establish criteria for all discretionary
programs funded from the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account). To the extent
practicable, such criteria shall conform to the Executive Order No. 12893 (relating to
infrastructure investment).
“(b) Selection process.–
“(1) Limitation on acceptance of applications.–Before accepting applications for grants under any
discretionary program for which funds are authorized to be appropriated from the Highway Trust Fund
(other than the Mass Transit Account) by this Act [the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st
Century, Pub.L. 105- 178, see Tables for classification] (including the amendments made by this
Act), the Secretary shall publish the criteria established

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
under subsection (a) [of this note]. Such publication shall identify all statutory criteria and any
criteria established by regulation that will apply to the program.
“(2) Explanation.–Not less often than quarterly, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on
Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of
the House of Representatives a list of the projects selected under discretionary programs funded
from the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account) and an explanation of how the
projects were selected based on the criteria
established under subsection (a) [of this note].
“(c) Minimum covered programs.–At a minimum, the criteria established under subsection (a) [of this
note] and the selectionprocess established by subsection (b) [of this note] shall apply to the
following programs:
“(1) The intelligent transportation system deployment program under title V [Title V (sections 5001
to 5213) of Pub.L. 105-178, see Tables for classification].
“(2) The national corridor planning and development program.
“(3) The coordinated border infrastructure and safety program.
“(4) The construction of ferry boats and ferry terminal facilities.
“(5) The national scenic byways program.
“(6) The Interstate discretionary program.
“(7) The discretionary bridge program.”
Buy America
Pub.L. 97-424, Title I, 165, Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2136, as amended Pub.L. 98-229, 10, Mar. 9,
1984, 98 Stat 57; Pub.L. 100-17, Title I, § § 133(a)(6), 337(a)(1), (b), (c), Apr. 2, 1987, 101
Stat. 171, 241; Pub.L. 102-240, Title 1048, Title III, 3003(b), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1999, 2088;
Pub.L. 103-272, § 4(r), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat.

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
1371 Pub .L. 103-429 7(a)(3)(E) Oct 31 1994, 108 Stat 4389 was repealed by Pub .L. 109-59, Title
I
1903(d) Aug 10 2005, 119 Stat 1465 and its text reenacted as 23 U SC A 313 by Pub .L. 109-59 Title
1903(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1465.
IPub.L. 103429, 4 7(a). Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4388, provided in part that amendment of Pub.L.
103-272, 4(rXl), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1371, to Pub.L. 97-424, 165, formerly set out as this note,
by section 7(a) of Pub.L. 103-429, is effective July 5, 1994.]
[Pub.L. 100-17. Title III. 337(a)(1)(A), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 241, provided in part that the
amendment by that section to Pub.L. 97-424. 165. formerly set out as this note, substituting ’55’
for ’50’ is effective Oct. 1, 1989.]
IPub.L. 100-17. Title III. 337(a)(1)(B), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 241, provided in part that the
amendment by that section to Pub.L. 97-424, 165, formerly set out as this note, striking out ’55”
and inserting ’60’ was effective October 1, 1991.]
[Pub.L. 100-17, Title III, 337(a)(2), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 241, provided that:
[“(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the amendments made by subparagraphs (A) and (B) of
paragraph (1) [substituting ’55’ for ’50’ and ’60’ for ’55’, respectively, in Pub.L. 97-424, § 165,
formerly set out as this note,] shall apply only to contracts entered into on or after their
respective effective dates.
[“(B) The amendments made by paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to any supplier or
contractor or any successor in interest or assignee which qualified under the provisions of section
165(b)(3) of the Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982 [section 165(b)(3) of Pub.L. 97-424,
formerly set out as a note above] prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 2, 1987] under a
contract entered into prior to April 1, 1992.”]
[Pub.L. 100-17, Title III, k_-337(d)-Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 241, provided that: “The amendments
made by subsections (b) and (c) of this section [to Pub.L. 97-424. § 165, formerly set out as this
note] shall not apply to any contract awarded pursuant to bids which were outstanding on the date of
enactment of this Act [Apr. 2, 1987].”]
Carpool Demonstration Projects in Urban Areas; Appropriations Authorization

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
Section 120(b) of Pub .L. 93-643, relating to grants for demonstration projects designed to
encourage the use of
carpools in urban areas, was repealed by Pub.L. 95-599, Title I, § 126(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat.
2706. See section 146 of this title.
Change in Location of Interstate Segments
Section 139 of Pub.L. 97-424, as amended Pub.L. 100-457, Title III, § 348, Sept. 30, 1988, 102 Stat.
2156, provided that:
“(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 4(b) of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1981 [section
4(b) of Pub.L. 97-134, which amended section 108(b) of Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, set out as a
note under this section] the Secretary of Transportation may approve a change in location of any
Interstate route or segment and approve, in lieu thereof, the construction of such Interstate route
or segment on a new location if the original location of such route or segment meets the following
criteria: (1) it has been designated under section 103(e) of title 23, United States Code [section
103(e) of this title]; (2) it it serving Interstate travel as of the date of enactment of this
section [Jan. 6, 1983]; (3) it requires improvements which are eligible under the Federal-Aid
Highway Act of 1981 [*See Short Title of 1981 Amendments note set out under this section], and which
would either involve major modifications in
order to meet acceptable standards or result in severe environmental impacts and such major
modifications or mitigation measures relating to the environmental impacts are not cost effective.
The cost of the construction of such Interstate route or segment on new location with funds
available under section 108(b) of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, as amended [set out as a note
under this section], shall not exceed the estimated cost of the eligible improvements on the
original location as eligible under the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1981 and included in the 1983
interstate cost estimate as approved by the Congress. Such cost shall be increased or decreased, as
determined by the Secretary, based on changes in construction costs of the original location of the
route or segment as of the date of approval of each project on the new location. Upon approval of a
new location, and funds apportioned under section 104(b)(5)(A) of title 23, United States Code
[section 104(b)(5)(A) of this title], which were expended on the route or segment in the original
location shall be refunded to the Highway Trust Fund and credited to the unobligated balance of the
State’s apportionment made under section 104(b)(5)(A) of title 23, United States Code [section 104
(b)(5)(A) of this title], and other eligible Federal-aid highway funds may be substituted in

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
lieu thereof at the appropriate Federal share.
“(b) Where the Secretary of Transportation approves a relocation of an Interstate route or segment
under the
provisions of subsection (a) of this section, such route or segment shall not be eligible for
withdrawal under the provisions of section 103(e)(4) of title 23, United States Code [section 103
(e)(4) of this title], and shall be subject to the Interstate System completion deadlines provided
in subsections (d) and (e) of section 107 of the Surface
Transportation Assistance Act of 1978 [section 107(d), (e) of Pub.L. 95-599, set out as a note under
section 103 of
this title] or subject to Interstate System completion deadlines as may be determined by Congress.
“(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or of any other provision of law, any
project involving the
relocation of any Interstate route or segment that is approved by the Secretary of Transportation
under subsection (a)
shall be eligible for discretionary funds made available under section 118(b)(2)(B) of title 23,
United States Code
[section 118(b)(2)(B) of this title].”
Commemoration of Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways
Pub.L. 102-240, Title VI, § 6012, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat 2180, provided that:
“(a) Study.–The Secretary shall conduct a study to determine an appropriate symbol or emblem to be
placed on
highway signs referring to the Interstate System to commemorate the vision of President Dwight D.
Eisenhower in
creating the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways.
“(b) Report.–Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 1991], the
Secretary shall
transmit to Congress a report on the results of the study under this section.”
[For termination of reporting provisions of Pub.L. 102-240. § 6012(b), set out above, effective May
15, 2000, see
Pub.L. 104-66, § 3003, as amended, set out as a note under 31 U.S.C.A. § 1113, and page 137 of House
Document
No. 103-7.]
Compliance With Buy American Act
Section 359(c) of Pub.L. 104-59 provided that:

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(1) Study.–The Secretary shall conduct a study on compliance with the Buy American Act (41 U.S.C.
10a-10c) with respect to contracts entered into using amounts made available from the Highway Trust
Fund.
“(2) Report.–Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1995], the
Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of the study.”
Consent of Governing Body for Expenditure of Funds
Section 102(d) of Pub.L. 93-643 provided that: “No funds appropriated under the expanded definition
of this section [subsec. (a) of this section] shall be expended without the formal consent of the
governing body of the tribe band or group of Indians or Alaskan Natives for whose use the Indian
reservation roads and bridges are intended.”
Definition of “Secretary”
Section 2 of Pub.L. 100-17 provided that: “As used in this Act [see Short Title of 1987 Amendments
note set out
under this section], the term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Transportation.”
Eligibility for Federal-Aid Highway Funds of Projects Involving Improvements in Vicinity of
Interchanges
Necessary to Upgrade Safety of Primary Routes Not on Common Alignment With Interstate Route
Section 128 of Pub.L. 97-424 provided that: “In any case where a project involving a Federal-aid
primary route not on the Interstate System, and a route on the Interstate System which was
originally constructed without the expenditure of any funds authorized under section 108(b) of the
Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, as amended [set out as a note under this section], and was
subsequently added to the Interstate System both occupying a common alignment and having elements
which have been approved in concept by the Secretary of Transportation as part of a project
providing for the upgrading of an interchange on such Interstate route, the cost of improvements in
the vicinity of the interchange necessary to upgrade the safety of that part of such Federal-aid
primary route not on a common alignment with such Interstate route in an environmentally acceptable
manner shall be eligible for the expenditure of funds authorized by such section 108(b).”
Emergency Highway Energy Conservation

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
Pub .L. 93-239 1 t 3 Jan. 2, 1974, 87 Stat. 1046, 1047, as amended Pub .L. 93-643 114(c) 120
(a), Jan. 4
1975 88 Stat 2286 2289 Pub .L. 94-280, Title I 143 May 5, 1976 90 Stat 445 Pub .L. 95-599 Title I,
j() Nov 6, 1978, 92 Stat 2706, provided
“[Section 1 Short title] That this Act be cited as the ‘Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act’
“Sec. 2. [Repealed. Pub.L. 93-643, 114(c), Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2657.]
“Sec. 3. [Repealed. Pub.L. 95-599, Title I, 126(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2706.]”
Section 4 of Pub.L. 93-239 amended section 601(d) of Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended
[section 1421(d) of Title 49, Appendix, Transportation], relating to emergency locator transmitters.
Future Highway Needs; Reports to Congress
Section 121 of Pub.L. 91-605 provided that:
“(a) The Secretary of Transportation shall develop and include in the report of Congress required to
be submitted in January 1972, by section 3 of the Act of August 28, 1965 (79 Stat. 578; Public Law
89-139) [set out as a note under this section], specific recommendations for the functional
realignment of the Federal-aid systems. These recommendations shall be based on the functional
classification study made in cooperation with the State highway departments and local governments as
required by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968 [see section 17 of Pub.L. 90-495, set out as a note
under this section] and submitted to the Congress in 1970, and the functional classification study
now underway of the Federal-aid systems in 1990.
“(b) Asa part of the future highway needs report to be submitted to Congress in January 1972, the
Secretary shall also make recommendations to the Congress for a continuing Federal-aid highway
program for the period 1976 to 1990. The needs estimates to be used in developing such programs
shall be in conformance with the functional classification studies referred to in subsection (a) of
this section and the recommendations for the functional realignment required by such subsection.
“(c) The recommendations required by subsections (a) and (b) of this section shall be determined on
the basis of

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
studies now being conducted by the Secretary in cooperation with the State highway departments and
local governments, and, in urban areas of more than fifty thousand population, utilizing the
cooperative continuing comprehensive transportation planning process conducted in accordance with
section 134 of title 23, United States
Code [section 134 of this title]. The highway needs estimates prepared by the States in connection
with this report to Congress shall be submitted to Congress by the Secretary, together with his
recommendations.
“(d) As a part of the future highway needs report to be submitted to Congress in January 1972, the
Secretary shall report to Congress the Federal-aid urban system as designated, and the cost of its
construction.”
Pub.L. 89-139, § 3, Aug. 28, 1965, 79 Stat. 578, which had required the submitting of a report to
Congress every second year as to the estimates of the future highway needs of the Nation, and Pub.L.
90-495, § 17, Aug. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 823, which had required that the report include the results of
a systematic nationwide functional highway classification study, were repealed by Pub.L. 97-424,
Title I. § 160(b), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2135. See section 307(e) of this title.
Highway Use Tax Evasion Projects
Pub.L. 102-240, Title I, § 1040, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat 1992, as amended Pub.L. 104-59, Title III,
325(f), Nov. 28, 1995, 109 Stat 592; Pub.L. 104-66, Title I, § 1122(b), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat.
725; Pub.L. 105-130, 5(c)(1). Dec. 1, 1997, 111 Stat. 2557, which required the Secretary to use
funds out of the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account) to carry out highway use
tax evasion projects, expand efforts to enhance motor fuel tax enforcement, fund additional Internal
Revenue Service staff but only to carry out such enforcement functions, supplement motor fuel tax
examinations and criminal investigations, develop automated data processing tools to monitor motor
fuel production and sales, evaluate and implement registration and reporting requirements for motor
fuel taxpayers, reimburse State expenses that supplement existing fuel tax compliance efforts, make
grants for motor fuel tax enforcement activities to States that meet set requirements, analyze and
implement programs to reduce tax evasion associated with other highway use taxes, conduct
feasibility studies on the use of dye and markers to aid in motor fuel tax enforcement activities
and other purposes, and transmit annual reports to Congress on motor fuel tax enforcement activities
and the expenditure of funds, was repealed by Pub.L. 105-178, Title I, § 1114(b)(2), June 9, 1998,
112 Stat. 154.

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
Intercity Portions of Interstate System; Construction of Projects; Report to Congress; Exemption
Section 102(b) of Pub.L. 94-280 provided that at least 30 percent of the apportionment made to each
State for each of the fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1978 and Sept 30, 1979, of the sums authorized
in section 102(a) of Pub.L. 94- 280 be expended by such State for projects for the construction of
intercity portions which would close essential gaps in the Interstate System and provide a
continuous System; that the Secretary of Transportation report to
Congress before Oct. 1, 1976, on those intercity portions of the Interstate System the construction
of which would be needed to close essential gaps in the System; and that a State which did not have
sufficient projects to meet the 30
percent requirement would, upon approval of the Secretary of Transportation, be exempt from the
requirement to the
extent of such inability.
Interstate Funding Study; Report and Recommendations to Congress
Section 150 of Pub.L. 94-280 required the Secretary of Transportation to undertake a complete study
of the financing of completion of the Interstate Highway System and report to Congress within nine
months the results of the study, and to submit to Congress within one year his recommendations
regarding the need to provide Federal financial assistance for resurfacing, restoration, and
rehabilitation of routes of the System together with results of a study of alternative means of
assuring that the high level of transportation service provided by the System is
maintained.
Interstate System; Prohibition of Obligation of Funds for Resurfacing, Restoration, or
Rehabilitation Projects
Section 102(c) of Pub.L. 94-280 provided that no part of the funds authorized by section 108(b) of
the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, as amended [set out as a note under this section], for the
Interstate System shall be obligated for any project for resurfacing, restoring, or rehabilitating
any portion of the Interstate System.
National Transportation Policy Study Commission; Establishment; Termination; Etc.
Section 154 of Pub.L. 94-280, as amended Pub.L. 95-599, Title I, § 137(a), (b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92
Stat. 2710, established the National Transportation Policy Study Commission; required the
Commission, not later than July 1, 1979, to make an investigation and study and report to the
President and Congress on the transportation needs and

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
the resources, requirements, and policies of the United States to meet such expected needs, and
provided for the Commission to terminate six months after the report
Redesignation of National System of Interstate and Defense Highways as Dwight D Eisenhower System of
Interstate and Defense Highways
Pub .L. 101-427 Oct 15, 1990 101 Stat 927 provided “That–
“(a) notwithstanding any other provision of law, The National System of Interstate and Defense
Highways shall be redesignated as ‘The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense
Highways’; and
“(b) any reference before the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 15, 1990] in any provision of law,
regulation, map, sign, or otherwise to The National System of Interstate and Defense Highways shall
be deemed to refer, on and after such date, to The Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and
Defense Highways.”
[The repeal of this note by Pub.L. 107-217. 6(b), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1323, was repealed
and “revived to
read as if section 6(b) had not been enacted” by Pub.L. 108-178, 2(b)(3), Dec. 19, 2003, 117
Stat. 2640.]
[Amendments by Pub.L. 108-178 effective Aug. 21, 2002, see Pub.L. 108- 178, 5, set out as a note
under 5
U.S.C.A. 4 5334.]
Report and Recommendations of Secretary of Commerce
Section 5 of Pub.L. 85-767 directed the Secretary of Commerce to submit to the Congress not later
than February 1, 1959, a report on the progress made in attaining the objectives set forth in this
section, together with recommendations.
Scenic Byways Program
Pub.L. 102-240, Title I. 1047, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1996, as amended Pub.L. 105-130, 5
(c)(2), Dec. 1,
1997, 111 Stat. 2557, provided that:
“(a) Scenic byways advisory committee.–

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(1) Establishment.–Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18,
1991], the Secretary shall establish in the Department of Transportation an advisory committee to
assist the Secretary with respect to establishment of a national scenic byways program under title
23, United States Code [this title].
“(2) Membership.–The advisory committee established under this section shall be composed of 17
members as follows:
“(A) The Administrator of the Federal Highway Administration or the designee of the Administrator
who shall
serve as chairman of the advisory committee.
“(B) The Chief of the Forest Service of the Department of Agriculture or the designee of the Chief.
“(C) The Director of the National Park Service of the Department of the Interior or the designee of
the Director.
“(D) The Director of the Bureau of Land Management of the Department of the Interior or the designee
of the Director.
“(E) The Under Secretary for Travel and Tourism of the Department of Commerce or the designee of the
Under Secretary.
“(F) The Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs of the Department of the Interior or the designee of
the Assistant
Secretary.
“(G) 1 individual appointed by the Secretary who is specially qualified to represent the interests
of
conservationists on the advisory committee.
“(H) 1 individual appointed by the Secretary of Transportation who is specially qualified to
represent the
interests of recreational users of scenic byways on the advisory committee.
“(I) 1 individual appointed by the Secretary who is specially qualified to represent the interests
of the tourism
industry on the advisory committee.
“(J) 1 individual appointed by the Secretary who is specially qualified to represent the interests
of historic

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
preservationists on the advisory committee.
“(K) 1 individual appointed by the Secretary who is specially qualified to represent the interests
of highway users on the advisory committee.
“(L) 1 individual appointed by the Secretary to represent State highway and transportation
officials.
“(M) 1 individual appointed by the Secretary to represent local highway and transportation
officials.
“(N) 1 individual appointed by the Secretary who is specially qualified to serve on the advisory
committee as a
planner.
“(0) 1 individual appointed by the Secretary who is specially qualified to represent the motoring
public.
“(P) 1 individual appointed by the Secretary who is specially qualified to represent groups
interested in scenic
preservation.
“(Q) 1 individual appointed by the Secretary who represents the outdoor advertising industry.
Individuals appointed as members of the advisory committee under subparagraphs (G) through (P) may
be State and local government officials. Members shall serve without compensation other than for
reasonable
expenses incident to functions of the advisory committee.
“(3) Functions.–The advisory committee established under this subsection shall develop and make to
the Secretary recommendations regarding minimum criteria for use by State and Federal agencies in
designating highways as scenic byways and as all-American roads for purposes of a national scenic
byways program to be established under title 23, United States Code [this title]. Such
recommendations shall include recommendations on the following:
“(A) Consideration of the scenic beauty and historic significance of highways proposed for
designation as
scenic byways and all-American roads and the areas surrounding such highways.
“(B) Operation and management standards for highways designated as scenic byways and all-American
roads,

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23 U.S.C.A. 101
including strategies for maintaining or improving the qualities for which a highway is designated as
a scenic byway or all-American road, for protecting and enhancing the landscape and view corridors
surrounding such a highway, and for minimizing traffic congestion on such a highway.
“(C)(i) Standards for scenic byway-related signs, including those which identify highways as scenic
byways and all-American roads.
“(ii) The advisability of uniform signs identifying highways as components of the scenic byway
system.
“(D) Standards for maintaining highway safety on the scenic byway system.
“(E) Design review procedures for location of highway facilities, landscaping, and travelers’
facilities on the scenic byway system.
“(F) Procedures for reviewing and terminating the designation of a highway designated as a scenic
byway.
“(G) Such other matters as the advisory committee may deem appropriate.
“(H) Such other matters for which the Secretary may request recommendations.
“(4) Report.Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 19911,
the advisory committee established under this section shall submit to the Secretary and Congress a
report containing the recommendations described in paragraph (3).
“(h) Technical and financial assistance.–The Secretary shall provide technical assistance to the
States (as such term is defined under section 101 of title 23, United States Code [this section])
and shall make grants to the States for the planning, design, and development of State scenic byway
programs.
“(c) Federal share.The Federal share payable for the costs of planning, design, and development of
State scenic byway programs under this section shall be 80 percent.
“(d) Funding.–There shall be available to the Secretary for carrying out this section (other than
subsection (f)), out

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
of the Highway Trust Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account), $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1992,
$3, 000,000 for fiscal year 1993, $4,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, $14,000,000 for each of the
fiscal years 1995, 1996, and 1997.
Such sums shall remain available until expended, and $7,000,000 for the period of October 1, 1997,
through March
31, 1998.
“(e) Contract authority.–Notwithstanding any other provision of law, approval by the Secretary of a
grant under this section shall be deemed a contractual obligation of the United States for payment
of the Federal share of the cost
of activities for which the grant is being made.
“(1) Interim scenic byways program.
“(1) Grant program.During fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994, the Secretary may make grants to any
State
which has a scenic highway program for carrying out eligible projects on highways which the State
has designated
as scenic byways.
“(2) Priority projects.In making grants under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall give priority to–
“(A) those eligible projects which are included in a corridor management plan for maintaining
scenic, historic,
recreational, cultural, and archeological characteristics of the corridor while providing for
accommodation of
increased tourism and development of related amenities;
“(B) those eligible projects for which a strong local commitment is demonstrated for implementing
the
management plans and protecting the characteristics for which the highway is likely to be designated
as a scenic
byway;
“(C) those eligible projects which are included in programs which can serve as models for other
States to
follow when establishing and designing scenic byways on an intrastate or interstate basis; and
“(D) those eligible projects in multi-State corridors where the States submit joint applications.
“(3) Eligible projects.The following are projects which are eligible for Federal assistance under
this subsection:

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
“(A) Planning, design, and development of State scenic byway programs.
“(B) Making safety improvements to a highway designated as a scenic byway under this subsection to
the extent such improvements are necessary to accommodate increased traffic, and changes in the
types of vehicles using the highway, due to such designation
“(C) Construction along the highway of facilities for the use of pedestrians and bicyclists, rest
areas, turnouts,
highway shoulder improvements, passing lanes, overlooks, and interpretive facilities.
“(D) Improvements to the highway which will enhance access to an area for the purpose of recreation,
including water-related recreation_
“(E) Protecting historical and cultural resources in areas adjacent to the highway.
“(F) Developing and providing tourist information to the public, including interpretive information
about the
scenic byway
“(4) Federal share.–The Federal she payable for the costs of carrying out projects and developing
programs
under this subsection with funds made available pursuant to this subsection shall be 80 percent
“(5) Funding.–There shall be availabk to the Secretary for carrying out this subsection, out of the
Highway Trust
Fund (other than the Mass Transit Account), $10,000,000 for fiscal year 1992, $10,000,000 for fiscal
year 1993,
and $10,000,000 for fiscal year 1994. Such sums shall remain available until expended.
“(g) Limitation.–The Secretary shall not make a grant under this section for any project which
would not protect the scenic, historic, recreational, cultural, natural, and archeological integrity
of the highway and adjacent area. The
Secretary may not use more than 10 percent of the funds authorized for each fiscal year under
subsection (f)(5) for removal of any outdoor advertising sign, display, or device.
“(h) Treatment of scenic highways in Oregon.–For purposes of this section, a highway designated as
a scenic highway in the State of Oregon shall be treated as a scenic byway.”

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23 U.S.C.A. § 101
Secretary Defined
Section 2 of Pub .L. 104-59 provided that “In this Act [see Short Title of 1995 Amendments note set
out under this section], the term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Transportation.”
Section 108(b) of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956
Section 108(b) of Act June 29, 1956, c. 462, Title 1,70 Stat. 378, as amended Pub.L. 85-381, § 7(a),
Apr. 16, 1958, 72 Stat. 93; Pub.L. 86- 342, Title I, § 102, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 611; Pub.L. 87
-61, Title I, § 103, June 29, 1961, 75 Stat. 122; Pub.L. 89-139, § 1, Aug. 28, 1965, 79 Stat. 578;
Pub.L. 89-574, § 2, Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat 766; Pub.L. 90- 495, § 2, Aug. 23, 1968,82 Stat. 815;
Pub.L. 91-605, Title I, § § 102, 106(b)(1), Dec. 31, 1970,
84 Stat. 1714, 1716; Publ.,. 93-87, Title I, § 102, Aug. 13, 1973, 87 Stat. 250; Pub.L. 94-280,
Title I. § 102(a), May 5, 1976, 90 Stat. 425; Pub.L. 95-599, Title I, § 102, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat.
2689; Pub.L. 97-134, § 4(a), (b). Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1700; Pub.L. 97-327, § 2, Oct 15, 1982,
96 Stat. 1611; Pub.L. 97-424, Title I, § § 102, 127(a), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2097, 2117; Pub.L.
100-17, Title I, § § 104, 138, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 142, 175; Pub.L. 102-240, Title I, § 1001(f),
Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1916; Pub.L. 103-331, Title III, § 335(c), Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2494,
provided that: “For the purpose of expediting the construction, reconstruction, or improvement
inclusive of necessary bridges and tunnels, of the Interstate System, including extensions thereof
through urban areas, designated in accordance with the provisions of subsection (e) of section 103
of title 23, United States Code [section 103(e) of this title}, there is hereby authorized to be
appropriated the additional sum of $1,000,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1957, which
sum shall be in addition to the authorization heretofore made for that year, the additional sum of
$1,700,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1958, the additional sum of $2,200,000 for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1959, the additional sum of $2,500,000,000 for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1960, the additional sum of $1,800,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1961, the
additional sum of $2,200,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1962, the additional sum of
$2,400,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1963, the additional sum of $2,600,000,000 for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1964, the additional sum of $2,700,000,000 for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1965, the additional sum of $2,800,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1966,
the additional sum of $3,000,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1967, the additional sum of
$3,400,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1968, the additional sum of

Page 87
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
$3,800,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1969, the additional sum of $4,000,000,000 for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970, the additional sum of $4,000,000,000 for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1971, the additional sum of $4,000,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972,
the additional sum of $4,000,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, the additional sum of
$2,600,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, the additional sum of $3,000,000,000 for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975 the additional sum of $3,000,000,000 for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1976, the additional sum of $3,250,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1977 the
additional sum of $3,250,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1978, the additional sum
of $3,250,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1979, the additional sum of
$3,250,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1980, the additional sum of $3,500,000,000
for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981, the additional sum of $3,500,000,000 for the fiscal
year ending September 30, 1982, the additional sum of $3,100,000,000 for the fiscal year ending
September 30, 1983, the additional sum of $4,000,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30,
1984, the additional sum of $4,000,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985, the
additional sum of $4,000,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1986, the additional sum
of $4,000,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987, the additional sum of
$3,000,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1988, the additional sum of $3,150,000,000
for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1989, the additional sum of $3,150,000,000 for the fiscal
year ending September 30, 1990, the additional sum of $3,150,000,000 for the fiscal year ending
September 30, 1991, the additional sum of $3,150,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30,
1992, the additional sum of $1,800,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993, the
additional sum of $1,800,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1994, the additional sum
of $1,800,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995, and the additional sum of
$1,800,000,000, reduced by the amount made available under section 1045(b)(1)(B) of the Intermodal
Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 [section 1045(b)(1)(B) of such Act, Pub.L. 102-240, as
amended by Pub.L. 103-331, Title III, 335(a), Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2494, was not classified to
the Code], for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1996. Nothing in this subsection shall be
construed to authorized the appropriation of any sums to carry out sections 131, 136, 319(b) of
title 23. United States Code [sections 131, 136, or 319(b) of this title], or any provision of law
relating to highway safety enacted after May 1, 1966. Beginning with funds authorized to be
appropriated for fiscal year 1980, no such funds shall be available for projects to expand or clear
zones immediately adjacent to the paved roadway of routes designed prior to February, 1967.
Effective on and after the date of enactment of this sentence

Page 88
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
[Dec. 29, 1981], the obligation of funds authorized by this subsection, except for advance
construction interstate projects approved before the date of enactment of this sentence [Dec. 29,
1981], shall be limited to the construction necessary to provide a minimum level of acceptable
service on the Interstate System which shall consist of (1) full access control; (2) a pavement
design to accommodate the types and volumes of traffic anticipated for the twenty- year period from
date of authorization of the initial basic construction contract (3) essential environmental
requirements; (4) a design of not more than six lanes (exclusive of high occupancy vehicle lanes) in
rural areas and
all urbanized areas under four hundred thousand population, and up to eight lanes (exclusive of high
occupancy vehicle lanes) in urbanized areas of four hundred thousand population or more as shown in
the 1980 Federal census;
and (5) those high occupancy vehicle lanes (including approaches and all directly related
facilities) included in the
interstate cost estimate for fiscal year 1981. The obligation of funds authorized by this subsection
shall be further
limited to the actual costs of only those design concepts, locations, geometrics, and other
construction features
included in the 1981 interstate cost estimate, except in any case where the Secretary of
Transportation determines that a provision of Federal law requires a different design, location,
geometric, or other construction feature of a type authorized by this subsection. Notwithstanding
any other provision of law, including any other provision of this
subsection, where a project is to be constructed (1) to provide parking garage ramps in conjunction
with high occupancy vehicle lanes which flow into a distributor system emptying directly into ramps
for off-street parking with preferential parking for carpools, vanpools, and buses and the ramps are
part of an environmental mitigation effort and are designed to feed into an aerial walkway system,
or (2) to provide a parking lot near the terminus of an Interstate System spur route which radiates
from an Interstate System beltway which will be used as an intermodal transfer facility for a light
rail transit project to be constructed in the median of the spur route and the parking lot is part
of an environmental mitigation effort, or (3) to provide a parking garage and associated facilities
as part of an intermodal transfer facility with a transit system near or within an Interstate System
route right-of-way which will have direct and indirect access to the facility by way of local
streets and the parking garage and associated facilities are part of an environmental mitigation
effort, or (4) to provide for the comprehensive upgrading of existing high occupancy vehicle lanes,
new ramps and parking facilities at mass transit intermodal transfer points on an existing
Interstate System route which has temporary high occupancy vehicle lanes in the median and the
parking facilities
and ramps are part of an environmental mitigation effort, the costs of such parking garage ramps,
parking lots,
parking garages, associated interchange ramps, high occupancy vehicle lanes, and other associated
work eligible

Page 89
23USCA § 101
under title 23, United States Code, shall be eligible for funds authorized by this subsection as if
the costs for these projects were included in the 1981 interstate cost estimate and shall be
included as eligible projects in any future interstate cost estimate For purposes of this
subsection, construction necessary to provide a minimum level of acceptable service on the
Interstate System shall mclude but not be limited to, any construction on the Interstate System
which is required under a court order issued before the date of enactment of this sentence [Dec 29,
1981] Notwithstanding the fifth sentence of this subsection the costs of a project which will
upgrade an interstate route and will complete a gap on the Interstate System providing access to an
international airport and which was described as the preferred alternative in a final environmental
impact statement submitted to the Secretary of Transportation on September 30, 1983, shall be
eligible for funds authorized by this subsection as if such costs were included in the 1981
interstate cost estimate and shall be included as eligible costs in any future interstate cost
estimate, except that (1) such costs may be further developed in the design and environmental
process under normal Federal-aid interstate procedures, and (2) the amount of such costs shall not
include the portion of the project between High Street and Causeway Street.”
Section 127(b) of Pub.L. 97-424 provided that: “Notwithstanding the provisions of section 108(b) of
the Federal- Aid Highway Act of 1956, as amended [set out as a note under this section], the
Secretary of Transportation may approve the expenditure of funds authorized under such section for
the construction of a previously approved project which provides for improvements to and
reconstruction of ramps and service roads which are being developed as part of a roadway system to
relieve a severely congested segment on an Interstate route. Such expenditures shall be limited (1)
to work necessary to provide more effective and safe operation of such Interstate route, and (2) to
a section of an Interstate route which proceeded to construction contract prior to the date of
enactment of such Act and which Interstate route, together with service roads, was constructed
without the expenditure of any funds authorized
Signs Identifying Funding Sources
Pub.L. 100-17, Title I, § 154, Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat 209, was repealed by Pub.L. 109-59, Title I, §
1901(c), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1464, and its text reenacted as 23 U.S.C.A. § 321 by Pub.L. 109-
59, Title I, § 1901(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1464.

Page 90
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
Studies of Need For and Survey of Highway Construction Programs for Guam, American Samoa, and the
Virgin Islands
Pub.L. 90-495, § 29, Aug. 23, 1968, 82 Stat. 830, directed the Secretary of Transportation, in
cooperation with the government of Guam, the government of American Samoa, and the government of the
Virgin Islands, to make studies of the need for, and estimates and planning surveys relative to,
highway construction programs for Guam, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands, and to submit a
report to Congress on or before April 1, 1969.
Pub.L. 89-574, § 13, Sept. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 770, as amended Pub.L. 97- 449, 2(a), Jan. 2, 1983,
96 Stat. 2439, directed the Secretary, in cooperation with the government of Guam, the government of
American Samoa, and the government of the Virgin Islands to make studies of the need for, and
estimates and planning surveys relative to, highway construction programs for Guam, American Samoa,
and the Virgin Islands, and to submit a report to Congress on or before July 1, 1967.
Study of Future Transportation Professional Manpower Needs; Report
Section 135 of Pub.L. 97-424 provided that: “The Secretary of Transportation shall undertake to
enter into
appropriate arrangements with the National Academy of Sciences’ Transportation Research Board to
conduct a
comprehensive study and investigation of future transportation professional manpower needs,
including but not
limited to prevailing methods of recruitment, training, and financial and other incentives and
disincentives which encourage or discourage retention in service of such professional manpower by
Federal, State, and local governments. In entering into any arrangement with the National Academy of
Sciences for conducting such study and investigation, the Secretary shall request the National
Academy of Sciences to report to the Secretary and the
Congress not later than two years after the enactment of this Act [Jan. 6, 1983] on the results of
such study and
investigation, together with its recommendations. The Secretary shall furnish to the Academy at its
request any information which the Academy deems necessary for the purpose of conducting the study
and investigation
authorized by this section.”
Study of Highway Needs to Solve Energy Problems; Investigation and Study; Report to Congress

Page 91
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
Section 153 of Pub.L. 94-280 provided that the Secretary of Transportation make an investigation and
study for the purpose of determining the need for special Federal assistance in the construction or
reconstruction of highways on the Federal-aid system necessary for the transportation of coal or
other uses in order to promote the solution of the Nation’s energy problems; that such study include
appmpriate consultations with the Secretary of the Interior, the Administrator of the Federal Energy
Administration, and other appropriate Federal and State officials; that the Secretary report the
results of such investigation and study together with his recommendations, to the Congress not later
than one year after May 5, 1976; and that, in order to carry out the study, the Secretary use such
funds as were available to him for such purposes under section 104(a) of this title.
Use of Articles Mined or Manufactured in United States
Pub.L. 95-599, Title IV, § 401, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Slat. 2756, as amended Pub.L. 97-327, § 6, Oct. 15,
1982, 96
Stat. 1613, which had required that articles, materials, and supplies and in projects administered
by the Department of Transportation be mined or produced in the United States, were repealed by
Pub.L. 97-424, Title I, § 165(e). Jan.
6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2137.
CROSS REFERENCES
Admission fee or permit for travel over National Federal Aid System, see 16 USCA § § 3911, 4601-6a.
Appropriations for highway bridges determined to be unreasonable obstructions to navigation, see 49
USCA § 104.
Roads within Federal lands highway program, see 23 USCA § 204.
LAW REVIEW COMMENTARIES
Clean Air Act’s conformity requirements and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of
1991.
Professor Arnold W. Reitze, Jr., 3 Environmental Lawyer 631 (1997).
LIBRARY REFERENCES
American Digest System

Page 92
23 U.S.C.A. 101
Highways k99.1.
Key Number System Topic No. 200.
Corpus Juris Secundum
CJS HIGHWAYS 177, Allocation or Grant of Funds.
CJS Railroads 1177, Rate of Speed.
RESEARCH REFERENCES
ALR Library
147 ALL Fed. 205, What Constitutes Federal Financial Assistance for Purposes of § 504 of
Rehabilitation Act (Z U.S.C.A. 794), Which Prohibits Any Program or Activity Receiving Federal
Financial Assistance from
Discriminating On…
27 ALR, Fed. 214, Executive Impoundment of Funds Appropriated by Congress.
19 ALL Fed. 904, Construction and Application of § 4(F) of Department of Transportation Act of 1966
(49 U.S.C.A. § 1653(F)), as Amended, and § 18(A) of Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1968 (23 U.S.C.A.
138) Requiring Secretary…
13 ALL Fed. 145, Construction and Application of 28 US.C.A. 1361 Conferring on Federal District
Courts Original Jurisdiction of Actions in Nature of Mandamus to Compel Federal Officer, Employee,
or Agency to Perform Duty Owed…
7 ALL Fed. 907, Propriety, Under Rules 23(A) and 23(B) of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as
Amended in 1966, of Class Action Seeking Relief Against Pollution of Environment.
181 ALL Fed. 147, Validity, Construction, and Operation of Evidentiary Privilege of 23 U.S.C.A. 409.

Page 93
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
160 ALR, Fed. 297, Who is Recipient Ot and What Constitutes Program or Activity Receiving, Federal
Financial Assistance for Purposes of § 504 of Rehabilitation Act (29 U.S.C.A. 794), Which Prohibits
Any Program or Activity Receiving…
160 ALR, Fed. 483, Construction and Application of Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C.A. App. 2
§ § 1-
15).
42 ALR 3rd 13, Abutting Owner’s Right to Damages for Limitation of Access Caused by Conversion of
Conventional Road Into Limited-Access Highway.
Encyclopedias
12 Am. Jur. Proof of Facts 2d 697, Contractor’s Failure to Exercise Ordinary Care in Preparing Bid.
17 Am. Jur_ Proof of Facts 2d 413, Highway Defects-Barrier or Guardrail.
14 Am. Jur_ Proof of Facts 3d 527, Highway Defects-Negligent Design or Maintenance of Curve.
31 Am. Jur_ _Proof of Facts 3d 351, Establishing Liability of a State or Local Highway
Administration, Where Injury Results from the Failure to Place or Maintain Adequate Highway Signs.
38 Am. Jur. Proof of Facts 3d 547, Necessity and Sufficiency of Environmental Impact Statements
Under the
National Environmental Policy Act.
29 Am. Jur_ 2c1 Evidence 195, Under Federal Rule 301 and Similar State Rules.
Am_ Jur. 2d. Public Funds ti 55, Impoundment of Funds.
Am. Jur. 2c1 Public Funds 56, Impoundment Control Act.
Forms
Federal Procedural Forms 38:1, Scope of Division.

Page 94
23 U.S.C.A. 101
Federal Procedural Forms 38:3, Federal-Aid Highway Act, Generally.
Federal Procedural Forms 38:15, Complaint-For Injunctive and Declaratory Relief-Breach of Agency
Authority; Failure to Conduct Adequate Environmental Impact Study; Failure to Conduct Public
Hearing-Highway Improvement Project on Island…
Federal Procedural Forms 38:16, Complaint-For Injunctive and Declaratory Relief-Highway Project
Encroaching Upon Habitat of Endangered Species-Violations of Federal-Aid Highways and Endangered
Species Acts…
Federal Procedural Forms 38:17, Complaint-Against State and Federal Officials-To Enjoin
Construction of Federal Highway Through Parkland…
Federal Procedural Forms 38:18, Complaint-For Declaratory and Injunctive Relief Under Environmental
Acts- Highway Construction…
;Federal Procedural Forms 38:19, Complaint-For Writ of Mandamus, Injunction, and Declaration of
Rights Under Nepa-Highway Alteration and Reconstruction…
Federal Procedural Forms 38:21, Allegations in Complaint-Failure to Prepare Adequate Environmental
Impact Study; iNAdequate Notice of Required Hearing; Adverse Impact of Project on Environment-New
Freeway Over Farmland…
Federal Procedural Forms 38:24, Allegations in Complaint-Decision to Change Planned Route of
Highway Arbitrary and Capricious (5 U.S.C.A. 706; 23 U.S.C.A. § 101(B); Fed R Civ P Rule 8(a)).
Federal Procedural Forms 10:243, Class Action Complaint-Wheelchair Users-Injunctive Relief-Failure
of State Government to Construct Curb Ramps at Newly Constructed or Altered Intersections…
Federal Procedural Forms 29:151, Complaint-For Declaratory and Injunctive Relief in Connection With
Federal Agency’s Failure to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement (28 U.S.C.A. 2201; 42 U.S.C.A.
4332; Fed R Civ P Rule 8(A), 57,).
Nichols Cyclopedia of Legal Forms Annotated 8.1101, Research Checklist.

Page 95
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
AMJUR PP Forms Highways Streets & Bridges § 206, Introductory Comments.
AMJUR PP Forms Highways Streets & Bridges § 214, Complaint in Federal Court-For Injunctive and
Declaratory Relief-Breach of Agency Authority-Failure to Conduct Adequate Environmental Impact
Study-Failure to Conduct Public Hearing-Highway Improvement Project On…
AMJUR PP Forms Highways Streets & Bridges § 215, Complaint in Federal Court-Against Federal and
State Officials-For Injunctive and Declaratory Relief-Federal Highway Project Encroaching on Habitat
of Endangered Species-Violations of Federal-Aid Highway And…
AMJUR. PP Forms Highways Streets & Bridges § 216, Complaint in Federal Court-Against Federal and
State Officials-To Enjoin Construction of Federal Highway Through Parkland.
AMJUR PP Forms Highways Streets & Bridges § 217, Complaint in Federal Court-Against Federal and
State Officials-For Declaratory and Injunctive Relief Under Environmental Acts-Federal Highway
Construction.
AMJUR PP Forms Highways Streets & Bridges § 218, Complaint in Federal Court-Against Federal and
State
Officials-For Writ of Mandamus, Injunction, and Declaration of Rights Under Nepa-Federal Highway
Alteration
and Reconstruction.
AMJUR PP Forms Highways Streets & Bridges § 220, Complaint in Federal Court-Allegation-Decision to
Change
Planned Route of Highway Arbitrary and Capricious.
AIVITUR PP Forms Highways Streets & Bridges § 222, Complaint in Federal Court-Allegation-Failure to
Prepare
Adequate Environmental Impact Study; INAdequate Notice of Required Hearing; Adverse Impact of
Project on
Environment-New Freeway Over…
20 Am. Jur. Pl. & Pr. Forms Pollution Control § 15, Complaint in Federal Court-Against State and
Federal Officials-To Enjoin Construction of Federal Highway Through Parldand.
20 Am. Jur. Pl. & Pr. Forms Pollution Control § 17, Complaint in Federal Court-For Declaratory and
Injunctive
Relief-Highway Construction.

Page 96
23 U.S.C.A. § 101
20 Am. Jur. PL & Pr. Forms Pollution Control § 19, Complaint in Federal Court-For Writ of Mandamus,
Injunction, and Declaration of Rights Under Nepa-Highway Alteration and Reconstruction.
Treatises and Practice Aids
Emp. Discrim. Coord. Analysis of State Law § 19:58, Affirmative Action Required Under Federal Law.
NOTES OF DECISIONS
Generally 5
Authority of Congress 6
Authority of Secretary 7, 8
Authority of Secretary – Generally 7
Authority of Secretary – Withholding of funds 8 Constitutionality 1
Construction with other laws 2
Defenses 9a
Disadvantaged business enterprise program 11 Injunction 10
Law governing 4
Persons entitled to maintain action 9
Purpose 3
Withholding of funds, authority of secretary 8
I. Constitutionality
This chapter, insofar as it severed all federal connection with expressway project and removed that
project from
necessity for compliance with environmental requirements of federal law, was not violative of due
process clause of
Federal Constitution by arbitrarily discriminating against members of conservation society and
depriving them of

Page 97
23 U.S.C.A. 101
rights under federal environmental statutes Named Individual Members of San Antonio Conservation
Soc. v. Texas Highway Dept., C.A.5 (Tex.) 1974, 496 F.2d 1017, certiorari denied 95 S.Ct. 1123, 420
U.S. 926, 43 L.Ed.2d 396.
Constitutional Law le=’ 291; Environmental Law 4C:= 573
2. Construction with other laws
Principal purpose of Uniform Relocation Assistance Act of 1970, section 4601 et seq. of Title 42, is
to establish a uniform governing rule of federal law for all federally directed and federally
financed projects which cause displacement of persons and businesses and it is intent of its
provisions to assure that all persons uprooted by federal
authority receive beneficial protection earlier extended by this chapter to those situated in path
of highway
construction. Artesian Water Co. v. State, Dept. of Highways and Transp.. Del.Super.1974, 330 A.2d
432, modified
on other grounds 330 A.2d 441. United States te=. 82(5)
3. Purpose
Object of this chapter is to bring about an improvement in the nation’s highway system by providing
federal
financial aid for state highway construction. State of Vt v. Goldschmidt, C.A.2 (Vt.) 1980, 638 F.2d
482. Highways
“š? 99.1
Objective of this chapter was to create a national system of interstate and defense highways to be
completed as
nearly as practicable over a period of 20 years on an expedited construction basis. State Highway
Commission of
Missouri v. Volpe, C.A.8 (Mo.) 1973, 479 F.2d 1099. Highways C:=,’ 99.1
Primary purpose of this chapter is to stimulate and accelerate construction of federal-aid highway
systems by
offering federal aid to state and local bodies which construct these approved highways. D. C.
Federation of Civic Ass’ns, Inc. v. Airis, C.A.D.C.1968, 391 F.2d 478, 129 U.S.App.D.C. 125.
Highways fe= 99.1
Interstate highway system intended by this chapter transcends state and local interests in interest
of larger national purpose of providing nationwide system of highways adequate to meet needs of
national defense and interstate commerce. U.S. v. Certain Parcels of Land in Peoria County, Ill.,
S.D.I11.1962, 209 F.Supp. 483, affirmed 314 F.2d
825. States “š=’ 18.61

Page 98
23 U.S.C.A. 101
Primary purpose of this chapter is to stimulate and accelerate construction of federal-aid highways
by offering federal aid to state and local bodies which undertake construction within their
boundaries. Artesian Water Co. v. State, Dept. of Highways and Transp., Del.Super. 1974, 330 A.2d
432, modified on other grounds 330 A.2d 441. Highways “š=’ 99.1
4. Law governing
County’s approval of shopping center development near intersection of interstate highways, before
federal agency exercised its authority under the Federal Aid Highway Act (FAHA) and NEPA with regard
to attendant traffic problems, did not violate the Supremacy Clause, on theory that county’s action
prevented agency from complying with federal law, as decision of agency not to act was by its own
volition. Taubman Realty Group Ltd. Partnership v. Mineta. E.D.Va.2002, 198 F.Supp.2d 744, affirmed
320 F.3d 475. Zoning And Planning “š 14
This Chapter is valid exercise of federal power and is supreme law of land which cannot be limited
by conflicting provisions of state law. U.S. v. Certain Parcels of Land in Peoria County, Ill.,
S.D.I11.1962, 209 F.Supp. 483. affirmed 314 F.2d 825. Eminent Domain “š’ 5; States 18.61
5. Generally
The hortatory declaration of congressional policy set forth in subsec. (b) of this section does not
constitute a mandate to approve all qualif’ing projects for which funds are available. 1967, 42
Op.Atty.Gen., February 25.
4. Authority of Congress
The Congress, as the only branch of government which has the constitutional power to build roads, is
the only one which has the authority to dictate the terms under which the construction can be
carried out; authority of Secretary is limited to carrying out the law according to its terms. State
Highway Commission of Missouri v. Volpe, C.A.8 (Mo.) 1973. 479 F.2d 1099. Highways 99.1
1. Authority of Secretary–Generally

Page 99
23 U.S_C.A. § 101
It is clear that in enacting this chapter, Congress contemplated that Secretary of Transportation
exercise a -chisaistrative expertise to see that apportioned highway funds are not expended on
projects which fail to meet reasonable standards of cost. State Highway Commission of Missouri v.
Volpe, C.A.8 (Mo.) 1973, 479 F.2d 1099.
Highways C=. 99.1
In this chapter the intent of Congress in proffering funds through the Secretary of Transportation
to construct and impsove the highway system is to allow Secretary to have latitude and discretion in
awarding such funds to fulfill
Congressional purpose; under such circumstances it is not only sensible but expected that, in the
absence of arbitrary or capricious conduct by Secretary in carrying out this function, his decision
should be approved. Delaware
Valley Citizens’ Council For Clean Air v. Corn, of Pa., E.D.Pa.1982, 551 F.Supp. 827. Highways “š;=’
99.1
Withholding of funds, authority of secretary
Secretary did not have discretion under this chapter to withhold funds duly apportioned to State.
State of Iowa ex rel. State Highway Comen v. Brinegar, C.A.8 (Iowa) 1975, 512 F.2d 722. Highways
99.1
Assail/ling that provision of subsec. (c) of this section that it is “the sense of Congress” that
under existing law no part of any sums authorized to be appropriated for expenditure upon any
Federal-aid system which has been apportioned shall be impounded or withheld from obligation is
precatory and simply expresses wishes of Congress ruder than a specific mandate of proscription,
such fact is not controlling of issue whether Secretary possesses direct or implied authority to
exercise contract controls over such funds. State Highway Commission of Missouri v. Volpe, C.A8
(Mo.) 1973, 479 F.2d 1099. Highways C=:7 99.1
The executive branch did not have authority, for purposes of fighting inflation, to withhold
appropriated funds
allocated to the state of Minnesota for fiscal year 1975 under this chapter. State of Minn. by
Spannaus v. Coleman. D.C.Minn.1975, 391 F.Supp. 330. United States 85
WhBe it might be true that Secretary of Transportation’s approval of highway projects was required
before states
gained “vested interest” in funds authorized by Congress for interstate highway program, and that
there was no
contractual obligation on part of United States before such approval, Secretary still had no lawful
discretion to

Page 100
23 U.S.C.A. 101
withhck/ his approval of projects for reasons not contemplated in this chapter. State of La. ex rel.
Guste v. Brinegar, .0 .D.C. 1975, 388 F.Supp. 1319. Highways 0=3′ 99.1
9. Pascals entitled to maintain action
UnitedStates Supreme Court would not consider merits of nonminority contractor’s equal protection
challenge to Deparinent of Transportation’s (DOT) race-based programs applicable to direct federal
contracting, where Court of Appeals had found that contractor lacked standing to mount such
challenge and thus had not considered it, and
contra-tor did not contest ruling on standing in its petition for certiorari; Court of Appeals had
considered only
constintionality of DOT’s disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) program as it pertained to
procurement of
federd funds for highway projects let by states and localities, which was governed by set of
regulations different
from those governing question contractor now sought to argue. Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Mineta,
U.S.2001¾
122 Srt. 511,534 U.S. 103, 151 L.Ed.2d 489. Federal Courts ‘e= 461
Environmental, sporting, and recreational groups did not show that they were within zone of
interests protected by
provision of Federal-Aid Highway Act barring addition by state of points of access to, or exit from,
federally funded
interside without federal approval, and thus lacked standing to assert claim that Federal Highway
Administration (FHA}violated Act in approving interchange report respecting project to construct
interchange connecting interstate highnay to airport. Stewart Park and Reserve Coalition, Inc.
(SPARC) v. Slater, C.A.2 (N.Y.) 2003, 352 F.3d 545.
Highways “š77″- 85
Federal Highway Act and Highway Safety Act did not create implied private cause of action to recover
damages for
person.’ injuries allegedly caused by negligence of city that was recipient of federal funds under
Acts. Ramos
Pinerov. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, D.Puerto Rico2005, 359 F.Supp.2d 56. Municipal Corporations (
=” 723
Unsuccessful bidder for federally-funded highway construction contracts, who failed to qualify as
disadvantaged
small business because it was too large and was owned by individual who was too wealthy, lacked
standing to chalkne constitutionality of federal Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE) program’s
race- or gender-conscious elements; challenged elements did not cause bidder’s injury, and favorable
judgment would not redress it. Klaver ConstCo., Inc. v. Kansas Dept. of Transp., D.Kan.2002. 211
F.Supp.2d 1296. Constitutional Law C=. 42.2(2)

Page 101
23 U.S.C.A. 101
Company which had used two streets to provide access for its trucks to interstate highway had
standing to challenge city’s directive prohibiting truck traffic on those streets as being violation
of provision of this chapter as it may have been deprived of right secured by laws of the United
States, namely, right to require any state which accepts federal
highway funds to comply with regulations promulgated pursuant to this chapter, before selectively
barring access to federally financed roadways. Balf Co., Inc. v. Gaitor, D.C.Conn.1982, 534 F.Supp.
600. Federal Civil Procedure “š’l03.2
9A. Defenses
Defense of laches did not apply to bar action in which environmental group challenged project to
widen federal highway under NEPA, Federal Aid Highway Act (FAHA), and Administrative Procedure Act
(APA), notwithstanding government’s contention that group unreasonably delayed filing action despite
knowing that project was continuing and that substantial funds were being expended, given that group
filed action two and one-half months after federal agency denied its second request to complete
supplemental environmental impact statement (EIS), that group was involved throughout project and
took advantage of every opportunity to provide comment and voice concerns about project, that harm
which group sought to prevent was allegedly related to project’s widening phase, which had not yet
occurred, and that NEPA compliance could still result in substantial environmental benefit.
Sierra Club v. U.S. Dept. of Transp.. D.Nev.2003, 245 F.Supp.2d 1109. Environmental Law le=:) 672;
Highways
le=z7
1(13.1
10. Injunction
Secretary of Transportation and Director of the Office of Management and Budget would be enjoined
from withholding from State of Missouri authority to obligate its apportioned funds under this
chapter for reasons allegedly related to status of economy and need to control inflationary
pressures. State Highway Commission of
Missouri v. Volpe, C.A.8 (Mo.) 1973, 479 F.2d 1099. Injunction “š’ 79
11. Disadvantaged business enterprise program

Page 102
23 U.S.C.A. 101
Corporation with annual gross receipts of more than $16.6 million was not eligible to participate as
disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) on federally-assisted Department of Transportation (DOT)
projects Helmark Steel Inc
v U S Dept of Transp D Del 1999 70 F Supp 2d 462 United States “š’ 64.15
Contractor having annual average gross receipts in excess of $15,370,000 was not eligible to
participate as a disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE) on federal financially-assisted
transportation projects even though it had fewer than 500 employees. Betteroads Asphalt Corp. v.
U.S. Dept. of Transp., D.D.C.1996, 923 F.Supp. 246. Highways “š 113(1)
23 U.S.C.A. § 101,23 USCA § 101
Current thrnugh P.L. 109-279 (excluding P.L. 109-248, 109-270, 109-271) approved 08-17-06

END OF DOCUMENT

 

Tagged ,

4 USC CHAPTER 4 – THE STATES

http://uscode.house.gov/download/pls/04C4.txt
-CITE-
    4 USC CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES                                01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
                          CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-MISC1-
    Sec.
    101.        Oath by members of legislatures and officers.
    102.        Same; by whom administered.
    103.        Assent to purchase of lands for forts.
    104.        Tax on motor fuel sold on military or other
                 reservation; reports to State taxing authority.
    105.        State, etc., taxation affecting Federal areas; sales
                 or use tax.(!1)
    106.        Same; income tax.
    107.        Same; exception of United States, its
                 instrumentalities, and authorized purchasers
                 therefrom.
    108.        Same; jurisdiction of United States over Federal areas
                 unaffected.
    109.        Same; exception of Indians.
    110.        Same; definitions.
    111.        Same; taxation affecting Federal employees; income
                 tax.
    112.        Compacts between States for cooperation in prevention
                 of crime; consent of Congress.
    113.        Residence of Members of Congress for State income tax
                 laws.
    114.        Limitation on State income taxation of certain pension
                 income (!2)
    115.        Limitation on State authority to tax compensation paid
                 to individuals performing services at Fort Campbell,
                 Kentucky.
    116.        Rules for determining State and local government
                 treatment of charges related to mobile
                 telecommunications services.
    117.        Sourcing rules.
    118.        Limitations.
    119.        Electronic databases for nationwide standard numeric
                 jurisdictional codes.
    120.        Procedure if no electronic database provided.
    121.        Correction of erroneous data for place of primary use.
    122.        Determination of place of primary use.
    123.        Scope; special rules.
    124.        Definitions.
    125.        Nonseverability.
    126.        No inference.

                                AMENDMENTS
      2000 - Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(b), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 633,
    added items 116 to 126.
      1998 - Pub. L. 105-261, div. A, title X, Sec. 1075(a)(2), Oct.
    17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2138, added item 115.
      1996 - Pub. L. 104-95, Sec. 1(b), Jan. 10, 1996, 109 Stat. 980,
    added item 114.
      1977 - Pub. L. 95-67, Sec. 1(b), July 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 271,
    added item 113.
      1966 - Pub. L. 89-554, Sec. 2(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 608,
    added item 111 and redesignated former item 111 as 112.
      1949 - Act May 24, 1949, ch. 139, Sec. 129(a), 63 Stat. 107,
    added item 111.

               CIVIL AND CRIMINAL JURISDICTION OVER INDIANS
      Amendment of State Constitutions to remove legal impediment to
    the assumption of civil and criminal jurisdiction in accordance
    with the provisions of section 1162 of Title 18 and section 1360 of
    Title 28, see act Aug. 15, 1953, ch. 505, Sec. 6, 67 Stat. 590, set
    out as a note under section 1360 of Title 28, Judiciary and
    Judicial Procedure.
      Consent of United States to other States to assume jurisdiction
    with respect to criminal offenses or civil causes of action, or
    with respect to both, as provided for in section 1162 of Title 18
    and section 1360 of Title 28, see act Aug. 15, 1953, ch. 505, Sec.
    7, 67 Stat. 590, set out as a note under section 1360 of Title 28.

-FOOTNOTE-
    (!1) So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

    (!2) So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 101                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 101. Oath by members of legislatures and officers

-STATUTE-
      Every member of a State legislature, and every executive and
    judicial officer of a State, shall, before he proceeds to execute
    the duties of his office, take an oath in the following form, to
    wit: "I, A B, do solemnly swear that I will support the
    Constitution of the United States."

-SOURCE-
    (July 30, 1947, ch. 389, 61 Stat. 643.)

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 102                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 102. Same; by whom administered

-STATUTE-
      Such oath may be administered by any person who, by the law of
    the State, is authorized to administer the oath of office; and the
    person so administering such oath shall cause a record or
    certificate thereof to be made in the same manner, as by the law of
    the State, he is directed to record or certify the oath of office.

-SOURCE-
    (July 30, 1947, ch. 389, 61 Stat. 644.)

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 103                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 103. Assent to purchase of lands for forts

-STATUTE-
      The President of the United States is authorized to procure the
    assent of the legislature of any State, within which any purchase
    of land has been made for the erection of forts, magazines,
    arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings, without such
    consent having been obtained.

-SOURCE-
    (July 30, 1947, ch. 389, 61 Stat. 644.)

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 104                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 104. Tax on motor fuel sold on military or other reservation
      (!1) reports to State taxing authority

-STATUTE-

-STATUTE-
      (a) All taxes levied by any State, Territory, or the District of
    Columbia upon, with respect to, or measured by, sales, purchases,
    storage, or use of gasoline or other motor vehicle fuels may be
    levied, in the same manner and to the same extent, with respect to
    such fuels when sold by or through post exchanges, ship stores,
    ship service stores, commissaries, filling stations, licensed
    traders, and other similar agencies, located on United States
    military or other reservations, when such fuels are not for the
    exclusive use of the United States. Such taxes, so levied, shall be
    paid to the proper taxing authorities of the State, Territory, or
    the District of Columbia, within whose borders the reservation
    affected may be located.
      (b) The officer in charge of such reservation shall, on or before
    the fifteenth day of each month, submit a written statement to the
    proper taxing authorities of the State, Territory, or the District
    of Columbia within whose borders the reservation is located,
    showing the amount of such motor fuel with respect to which taxes
    are payable under subsection (a) for the preceding month.
      (c) As used in this section, the term "Territory" shall include
    Guam.

-SOURCE-
    (July 30, 1947, ch. 389, 61 Stat. 644; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 827, 70
    Stat. 799.)

-MISC1-
                                AMENDMENTS
      1956 - Subsec. (c) added by act Aug. 1, 1956.

     CIVIL AIRPORTS OWNED BY UNITED STATES SUBJECT TO SECTIONS 104 TO
     110; SALES OR USE TAXES: FUELS FOR AIRCRAFT OR OTHER SERVICING OF
              AIRCRAFT; LANDING OR TAKING OFF CHARGES; LEASES
      Section 210 of Pub. L. 91-258, title II, May 21, 1970, 84 Stat.
    253, provided that:
      "(a) Nothing in this title or in any other law of the United
    States shall prevent the application of sections 104 through 110 of
    title 4 of the United States Code to civil airports owned by the
    United States.
      "(b) Subsection (a) shall not apply to -
        "(1) sales or use taxes in respect of fuels for aircraft or in
      respect of other servicing of aircraft, or
        "(2) taxes, fees, head charges, or other charges in respect of
      the landing or taking off of aircraft or aircraft passengers or
      freight.
      "(c) In the case of any lease in effect on September 28, 1969,
    subsection (a) shall not authorize the levy or collection of any
    tax in respect of any transaction occurring, or any service
    performed, pursuant to such lease before the expiration of such
    lease (determined without regard to any renewal or extension of
    such lease made after September 28, 1969). For purposes of the
    preceding sentence, the term 'lease' includes a contract."

-FOOTNOTE-
    (!1) So in original. Probably should be followed by a semicolon.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 105                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 105. State, and so forth, taxation affecting Federal areas;
      sales or use tax

-STATUTE-
      (a) No person shall be relieved from liability for payment of,
    collection of, or accounting for any sales or use tax levied by any
    State, or by any duly constituted taxing authority therein, having
    jurisdiction to levy such a tax, on the ground that the sale or
    use, with respect to which such tax is levied, occurred in whole or
    in part within a Federal area; and such State or taxing authority
    shall have full jurisdiction and power to levy and collect any such
    tax in any Federal area within such State to the same extent and
    with the same effect as though such area was not a Federal area.
      (b) The provisions of subsection (a) shall be applicable only
    with respect to sales or purchases made, receipts from sales
    received, or storage or use occurring, after December 31, 1940.

-SOURCE-
    (July 30, 1947, ch. 389, 61 Stat. 644.)

-MISC1-
    TAXATION WITH RESPECT TO ESSENTIAL SUPPORT ACTIVITIES OR FUNCTIONS
    OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL PERSONS IN CONGRESSIONALLY-CONTROLLED LOCATIONS
                          IN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
      Pub. L. 100-202, Sec. 101(i) [title III, Sec. 307], Dec. 22,
    1987, 101 Stat. 1329-290, 1329-309, as amended by Pub. L. 104-186,
    title II, Sec. 214, Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1745, provided that:
      "(a) Notwithstanding section 105 of title 4, United States Code,
    or any other provision of law, no person shall be required to pay,
    collect, or account for any sales, use, or similar excise tax, or
    any personal property tax, with respect to an essential support
    activity or function conducted by a nongovernmental person in the
    Capitol, the House Office Buildings, the Senate Office Buildings,
    the Capitol Grounds, or any other location under the control of the
    Congress in the District of Columbia.
      "(b) As used in this section -
        "(1) the term 'essential support activity or function' means a
      support activity or function so designated by the Committee on
      House Oversight [now Committee on House Administration] of the
      House of Representatives or the Committee on Rules and
      Administration of the Senate, acting jointly or separately, as
      appropriate;
        "(2) the term 'personal property tax' means a tax of a State, a
      subdivision of a State, or any other authority of a State, that
      is levied on, levied with respect to, or measured by, the value
      of personal property;
        "(3) the term 'sales, use, or similar excise tax' means a tax
      of a State, a subdivision of a State, or any other authority of a
      State, that is levied on, levied with respect to, or measured by,
      sales, receipts from sales, or purchases, or by storage,
      possession, or use of personal property; and
        "(4) the term 'State' means a State of the United States, the
      District of Columbia, or a territory or possession of the United
      States.
      "(c) This section shall apply to any sale, receipt, purchase,
    storage, possession, use, or valuation taking place after December
    31, 1986."

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 106                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 106. Same; income tax

-STATUTE-
      (a) No person shall be relieved from liability for any income tax
    levied by any State, or by any duly constituted taxing authority
    therein, having jurisdiction to levy such a tax, by reason of his
    residing within a Federal area or receiving income from
    transactions occurring or services performed in such area; and such
    State or taxing authority shall have full jurisdiction and power to
    levy and collect such tax in any Federal area within such State to
    the same extent and with the same effect as though such area was
    not a Federal area.
      (b) The provisions of subsection (a) shall be applicable only
    with respect to income or receipts received after December 31,
    1940.

-SOURCE-
    (July 30, 1947, ch. 389, 61 Stat. 644.)

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 107                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 107. Same; exception of United States, its instrumentalities,
      and authorized purchases (!1) therefrom

-STATUTE-

-STATUTE-
      (a) The provisions of sections 105 and 106 of this title shall
    not be deemed to authorize the levy or collection of any tax on or
    from the United States or any instrumentality thereof, or the levy
    or collection of any tax with respect to sale, purchase, storage,
    or use of tangible personal property sold by the United States or
    any instrumentality thereof to any authorized purchaser.
      (b) A person shall be deemed to be an authorized purchaser under
    this section only with respect to purchases which he is permitted
    to make from commissaries, ship's stores, or voluntary
    unincorporated organizations of personnel of any branch of the
    Armed Forces of the United States, under regulations promulgated by
    the departmental Secretary having jurisdiction over such branch.

-SOURCE-
    (July 30, 1947, ch. 389, 61 Stat. 645; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263,
    Sec. 4, 68 Stat. 1227.)

-MISC1-
                                AMENDMENTS
      1954 - Subsec. (b). Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted "personnel of
    any branch of the Armed Forces of the United States" for "Army or
    Navy personnel".

-FOOTNOTE-
    (!1) So in original. Probably should be "purchasers".

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 108                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 108. Same; jurisdiction of United States over Federal areas
      unaffected

-STATUTE-
      The provisions of sections 105-110 of this title shall not for
    the purposes of any other provision of law be deemed to deprive the
    United States of exclusive jurisdiction over any Federal area over
    which it would otherwise have exclusive jurisdiction or to limit
    the jurisdiction of the United States over any Federal area.

-SOURCE-
    (July 30, 1947, ch. 389, 61 Stat. 645.)

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 109                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 109. Same; exception of Indians

-STATUTE-
      Nothing in sections 105 and 106 of this title shall be deemed to
    authorize the levy or collection of any tax on or from any Indian
    not otherwise taxed.

-SOURCE-
    (July 30, 1947, ch. 389, 61 Stat. 645.)

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 110                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 110. Same; definitions

-STATUTE-
      As used in sections 105-109 of this title -
      (a) The term "person" shall have the meaning assigned to it in
    section 3797 of title 26.
      (b) The term "sales or use tax" means any tax levied on, with
    respect to, or measured by, sales, receipts from sales, purchases,
    storage, or use of tangible personal property, except a tax with
    respect to which the provisions of section 104 of this title are
    applicable.
      (c) The term "income tax" means any tax levied on, with respect
    to, or measured by, net income, gross income, or gross receipts.
      (d) The term "State" includes any Territory or possession of the
    United States.
      (e) The term "Federal area" means any lands or premises held or
    acquired by or for the use of the United States or any department,
    establishment, or agency, of the United States; and any Federal
    area, or any part thereof, which is located within the exterior
    boundaries of any State, shall be deemed to be a Federal area
    located within such State.

-SOURCE-
    (July 30, 1947, ch. 389, 61 Stat. 645.)

-REFTEXT-
                            REFERENCES IN TEXT
      Section 3797 of title 26, referred to in subsec. (a), is a
    reference to section 3797 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939,
    which was repealed by section 7851 of the Internal Revenue Code of
    1954, Title 26, and is covered by section 7701(a)(1) of Title 26.
    The Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was redesignated the Internal
    Revenue Code of 1986 by Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100
    Stat. 2095. For table of comparisons of the 1939 Code to the 1986
    Code, see Table I preceding section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue
    Code. See also section 7852(b) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code,
    for provision that references in any other law to a provision of
    the 1939 Code, unless expressly incompatible with the intent
    thereof, shall be deemed a reference to the corresponding provision
    of the 1986 Code.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 111                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 111. Same; taxation affecting Federal employees; income tax

-STATUTE-
      (a) General Rule. - The United States consents to the taxation of
    pay or compensation for personal service as an officer or employee
    of the United States, a territory or possession or political
    subdivision thereof, the government of the District of Columbia, or
    an agency or instrumentality of one or more of the foregoing, by a
    duly constituted taxing authority having jurisdiction, if the
    taxation does not discriminate against the officer or employee
    because of the source of the pay or compensation.
      (b) Treatment of Certain Federal Employees Employed at Federal
    Hydroelectric Facilities Located on the Columbia River. - Pay or
    compensation paid by the United States for personal services as an
    employee of the United States at a hydroelectric facility -
        (1) which is owned by the United States;
        (2) which is located on the Columbia River; and
        (3) portions of which are within the States of Oregon and
      Washington,

    shall be subject to taxation by the State or any political
    subdivision thereof of which such employee is a resident.
      (c) Treatment of Certain Federal Employees Employed at Federal
    Hydroelectric Facilities Located on the Missouri River. - Pay or
    compensation paid by the United States for personal services as an
    employee of the United States at a hydroelectric facility -
        (1) which is owned by the United States;
        (2) which is located on the Missouri River; and
        (3) portions of which are within the States of South Dakota and
      Nebraska,

    shall be subject to taxation by the State or any political
    subdivision thereof of which such employee is a resident.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 89-554, Sec. 2(c), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 608;
    amended Pub. L. 105-261, div. A, title X, Sec. 1075(b)(1), Oct. 17,
    1998, 112 Stat. 2138.)

-MISC1-

                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
     Derivation             U.S. Code             Revised Statutes and
                                                    Statutes at Large
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
                    5 U.S.C. 84a                Apr. 12, 1939, ch. 59,
                                                 Sec. 4, 53 Stat. 575.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------

      The words "received after December 31, 1938," are omitted as
    obsolete. The words "pay or" are added before "compensation" for
    clarity as the word "pay" is used throughout title 5, United States
    Code, to refer to the remuneration, salary, wages, or compensation
    for the personal services of a Federal employee. The word
    "territory" is not capitalized as there are no longer any
    "Territories." The words "to tax such compensation" are omitted as
    unnecessary.

                                AMENDMENTS
      1998 - Pub. L. 105-261 designated existing provisions as subsec.
    (a), inserted heading, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT
      Pub. L. 105-261, div. A, title X, Sec. 1075(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1998,
    112 Stat. 2139, provided that: "The amendment made by this
    subsection [amending this section] shall apply to pay and
    compensation paid after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct.
    17, 1998]."

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 112                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 112. Compacts between States for cooperation in prevention of
      crime; consent of Congress

-STATUTE-
      (a) The consent of Congress is hereby given to any two or more
    States to enter into agreements or compacts for cooperative effort
    and mutual assistance in the prevention of crime and in the
    enforcement of their respective criminal laws and policies, and to
    establish such agencies, joint or otherwise, as they may deem
    desirable for making effective such agreements and compacts.
      (b) For the purpose of this section, the term "States" means the
    several States and Alaska, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico,
    the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the District of Columbia.

-SOURCE-
    (Added May 24, 1949, ch. 139, Sec. 129(b), 63 Stat. 107, Sec. 112,
    formerly Sec. 111; amended Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 941, 70 Stat. 1020;
    Pub. L. 87-406, Feb. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 9; renumbered Sec. 112,
    Pub. L. 89-554, Sec. 2(c), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 608.)

-MISC1-
                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTE
      This section [section 129(b) of Act May 24, 1949] incorporates in
    title 4, U.S.C. (enacted into positive law by act of July 30, 1947
    (ch. 389, Sec. 1, 61 Stat. 641), the provisions of former section
    420 of title 18, U.S.C. (act of June 6, 1934, ch. 406, 48 Stat.
    909), which, in the course of the revision of such title 18, was
    omitted therefrom and recommended for transfer to such title 4.
    (See table 7 - Transferred sections, p. A219, H. Rept. No. 304,
    April 24, 1947, to accompany H.R. 3190, 80th Cong.).

                                AMENDMENTS
      1962 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87-406 inserted "Guam" after "the
    Virgin Islands,".
      1956 - Act Aug. 3, 1956, designated existing provisions as
    subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

                ADMISSION OF ALASKA AND HAWAII TO STATEHOOD
      Alaska was admitted into the Union on Jan. 3, 1959, on issuance
    of Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c16, and
    Hawaii was admitted into the Union on Aug. 21, 1959, on issuance of
    Proc. No. 3309, Aug. 21, 1959, 24 F.R. 6868, 73 Stat. c74. For
    Alaska Statehood Law, see Pub. L. 85-508, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat.
    339, set out as a note preceding former section 21 of Title 48,
    Territories and Insular Possessions. For Hawaii Statehood Law, see
    Pub. L. 86-3, Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 4, set out as a note
    preceding former section 491 of Title 48.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 113                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 113. Residence of Members of Congress for State income tax
      laws

-STATUTE-
      (a) No State, or political subdivision thereof, in which a Member
    of Congress maintains a place of abode for purposes of attending
    sessions of Congress may, for purposes of any income tax (as
    defined in section 110(c) of this title) levied by such State or
    political subdivision thereof -
        (1) treat such Member as a resident or domiciliary of such
      State or political subdivision thereof; or
        (2) treat any compensation paid by the United States to such
      Member as income for services performed within, or from sources
      within, such State or political subdivision thereof,

    unless such Member represents such State or a district in such
    State.
      (b) For purposes of subsection (a) -
        (1) the term "Member of Congress" includes the delegates from
      the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands, and the
      Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico; and
        (2) the term "State" includes the District of Columbia.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 95-67, Sec. 1(a), July 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 271.)

-MISC1-
                              EFFECTIVE DATE
      Section 1(c) of Pub. L. 95-67 provided that: "The amendments made
    by subsections (a) and (b) [enacting this section and amending
    analysis preceding section 101 of this title] shall be effective
    with respect to all taxable years, whether beginning before, on, or
    after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 19, 1977]."

    RESIDENCE OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS FOR STATE PERSONAL PROPERTY TAX ON
                              MOTOR VEHICLES
      Pub. L. 99-190, Sec. 101(c) [H.R. 3067, Sec. 131], Dec. 19, 1985,
    99 Stat. 1224; Pub. L. 100-202, Sec. 106, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat.
    1329-433, provided that:
      "(a) No State, or political subdivision thereof, in which a
    Member of Congress maintains a place of abode for purposes of
    attending sessions of Congress may impose a personal property tax
    with respect to any motor vehicle owned by such Member (or by the
    spouse of such Member) unless such Member represents such State or
    a district in such State.
      "(b) For purposes of this section -
        "(1) the term 'Member of Congress' includes the delegates from
      the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands, and the
      Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico;
        "(2) the term 'State' includes the District of Columbia; and
        "(3) the term 'personal property tax' means any tax imposed on
      an annual basis and levied on, with respect to, or measured by,
      the market value or assessed value of an item of personal
      property.
      "(c) This section shall apply to all taxable periods beginning on
    or after January 1, 1985."

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 114                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 114. Limitation on State income taxation of certain pension
      income

-STATUTE-
      (a) No State may impose an income tax on any retirement income of
    an individual who is not a resident or domiciliary of such State
    (as determined under the laws of such State).
      (b) For purposes of this section -
        (1) The term "retirement income" means any income from -
          (A) a qualified trust under section 401(a) of the Internal
        Revenue Code of 1986 that is exempt under section 501(a) from
        taxation;
          (B) a simplified employee pension as defined in section
        408(k) of such Code;
          (C) an annuity plan described in section 403(a) of such Code;
          (D) an annuity contract described in section 403(b) of such
        Code;
          (E) an individual retirement plan described in section
        7701(a)(37) of such Code;
          (F) an eligible deferred compensation plan (as defined in
        section 457 of such Code);
          (G) a governmental plan (as defined in section 414(d) of such
        Code);
          (H) a trust described in section 501(c)(18) of such Code; or
          (I) any plan, program, or arrangement described in section
        3121(v)(2)(C) of such Code (or any plan, program, or
        arrangement that is in writing, that provides for retirement
        payments in recognition of prior service to be made to a
        retired partner, and that is in effect immediately before
        retirement begins), if such income -
            (i) is part of a series of substantially equal periodic
          payments (not less frequently than annually which may include
          income described in subparagraphs (A) through (H)) made for -

              (I) the life or life expectancy of the recipient (or the
            joint lives or joint life expectancies of the recipient and
            the designated beneficiary of the recipient), or
              (II) a period of not less than 10 years, or

            (ii) is a payment received after termination of employment
          and under a plan, program, or arrangement (to which such
          employment relates) maintained solely for the purpose of
          providing retirement benefits for employees in excess of the
          limitations imposed by 1 or more of sections 401(a)(17),
          401(k), 401(m), 402(g), 403(b), 408(k), or 415 of such Code
          or any other limitation on contributions or benefits in such
          Code on plans to which any of such sections apply.

        The fact that payments may be adjusted from time to time
        pursuant to such plan, program, or arrangement to limit total
        disbursements under a predetermined formula, or to provide cost
        of living or similar adjustments, will not cause the periodic
        payments provided under such plan, program, or arrangement to
        fail the "substantially equal periodic payments" test.

      Such term includes any retired or retainer pay of a member or
      former member of a uniform service computed under chapter 71 of
      title 10, United States Code.
        (2) The term "income tax" has the meaning given such term by
      section 110(c).
        (3) The term "State" includes any political subdivision of a
      State, the District of Columbia, and the possessions of the
      United States.
        (4) For purposes of this section, the term "retired partner" is
      an individual who is described as a partner in section 7701(a)(2)
      of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and who is retired under
      such individual's partnership agreement.

      (e) (!1) Nothing in this section shall be construed as having any
    effect on the application of section 514 of the Employee Retirement
    Income Security Act of 1974.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 104-95, Sec. 1(a), Jan. 10, 1996, 109 Stat. 979;
    amended Pub. L. 109-264, Sec. 1(a), Aug. 3, 2006, 120 Stat. 667.)

-REFTEXT-
                            REFERENCES IN TEXT
      The Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (b)(1),
    (4), is classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.
      Section 514 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of
    1974, referred to in subsec. (e), is classified to section 1144 of
    Title 29, Labor.

-MISC1-
                                AMENDMENTS
      2006 - Subsec. (b)(1)(I). Pub. L. 109-264, Sec. 1(a)(1)-(3),
    inserted "(or any plan, program, or arrangement that is in writing,
    that provides for retirement payments in recognition of prior
    service to be made to a retired partner, and that is in effect
    immediately before retirement begins)" after "section 3121(v)(2)(C)
    of such Code" in introductory provisions, "which may include income
    described in subparagraphs (A) through (H)" after "(not less
    frequently than annually" in cl. (i), and concluding provisions at
    end.
      Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 109-264, Sec. 1(a)(4), which directed the
    addition of par. (4) at end of subsec. (b)(1)(I), was executed by
    adding par. (4) at end of subsec. (b) to reflect the probable
    intent of Congress.

                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2006 AMENDMENT
      Pub. L. 109-264, Sec. 1(b), Aug. 3, 2006, 120 Stat. 667, provided
    that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section]
    apply to amounts received after December 31, 1995."

                              EFFECTIVE DATE
      Section 1(c) of Pub. L. 104-95 provided that: "The amendments
    made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to amounts
    received after December 31, 1995."

-FOOTNOTE-
    (!1) So in original. No subsecs. (c) and (d) have been enacted.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 115                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 115. Limitation on State authority to tax compensation paid to
      individuals performing services at Fort Campbell, Kentucky

-STATUTE-
      Pay and compensation paid to an individual for personal services
    at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, shall be subject to taxation by the
    State or any political subdivision thereof of which such employee
    is a resident.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 105-261, div. A, title X, Sec. 1075(a)(1), Oct. 17,
    1998, 112 Stat. 2138.)

-MISC1-
                              EFFECTIVE DATE
      Pub. L. 105-261, div. A, title X, Sec. 1075(a)(3), Oct. 17, 1998,
    112 Stat. 2138, provided that: "The amendments made by this
    subsection [enacting this section] shall apply to pay and
    compensation paid after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct.
    17, 1998]."

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 116                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 116. Rules for determining State and local government
      treatment of charges related to mobile telecommunications
      services

-STATUTE-
      (a) Application of This Section Through Section 126. - This
    section through (!1) 126 of this title apply to any tax, charge, or
    fee levied by a taxing jurisdiction as a fixed charge for each
    customer or measured by gross amounts charged to customers for
    mobile telecommunications services, regardless of whether such tax,
    charge, or fee is imposed on the vendor or customer of the service
    and regardless of the terminology used to describe the tax, charge,
    or fee.

      (b) General Exceptions. - This section through (!1) 126 of this
    title do not apply to -
        (1) any tax, charge, or fee levied upon or measured by the net
      income, capital stock, net worth, or property value of the
      provider of mobile telecommunications service;
        (2) any tax, charge, or fee that is applied to an equitably
      apportioned amount that is not determined on a transactional
      basis;
        (3) any tax, charge, or fee that represents compensation for a
      mobile telecommunications service provider's use of public rights
      of way or other public property, provided that such tax, charge,
      or fee is not levied by the taxing jurisdiction as a fixed charge
      for each customer or measured by gross amounts charged to
      customers for mobile telecommunication services;
        (4) any generally applicable business and occupation tax that
      is imposed by a State, is applied to gross receipts or gross
      proceeds, is the legal liability of the home service provider,
      and that statutorily allows the home service provider to elect to
      use the sourcing method required in this section through (!1) 126
      of this title;
        (5) any fee related to obligations under section 254 of the
      Communications Act of 1934; or
        (6) any tax, charge, or fee imposed by the Federal
      Communications Commission.

      (c) Specific Exceptions. - This section through (!1) 126 of this
    title -
        (1) do not apply to the determination of the taxing situs of
      prepaid telephone calling services;
        (2) do not affect the taxability of either the initial sale of
      mobile telecommunications services or subsequent resale of such
      services, whether as sales of such services alone or as a part of
      a bundled product, if the Internet Tax Freedom Act would preclude
      a taxing jurisdiction from subjecting the charges of the sale of
      such services to a tax, charge, or fee, but this section provides
      no evidence of the intent of Congress with respect to the
      applicability of the Internet Tax Freedom Act to such charges;
      and
        (3) do not apply to the determination of the taxing situs of
      air-ground radiotelephone service as defined in section 22.99 of
      title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations as in effect on June
      1, 1999.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 626.)

-REFTEXT-
                            REFERENCES IN TEXT
      Section 254 of the Communications Act of 1934, referred to in
    subsec. (b)(5), is classified to section 254 of Title 47,
    Telegraphs, Telephones, and Radiotelegraphs.
      The Internet Tax Freedom Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is
    title XI of Pub. L. 105-277, div. C, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-
    719, which is set out as a note under section 151 of Title 47,
    Telegraphs, Telephones, and Radiotelegraphs.

-MISC1-
                 EFFECTIVE DATE; APPLICATION OF AMENDMENT
      Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 3, July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 633, provided
    that:
      "(a) Effective Date. - Except as provided in subsection (b), this
    Act [enacting this section and sections 117 to 126 of this title
    and provisions set out as a note under section 1 of this title] and
    the amendment made by this Act shall take effect on the date of the
    enactment of this Act [July 28, 2000].
      "(b) Application of Act. - The amendment made by this Act
    [enacting this section and sections 117 to 126 of this title] shall
    apply only to customer bills issued after the first day of the
    first month beginning more than 2 years after the date of the
    enactment of this Act [July 28, 2000]."

-FOOTNOTE-
    (!1) So in original. Probably should be followed by "section".

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 117                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 117. Sourcing rules

-STATUTE-
      (a) Treatment of Charges for Mobile Telecommunications Services. -
     Notwithstanding the law of any State or political subdivision of
    any State, mobile telecommunications services provided in a taxing
    jurisdiction to a customer, the charges for which are billed by or
    for the customer's home service provider, shall be deemed to be
    provided by the customer's home service provider.
      (b) Jurisdiction. - All charges for mobile telecommunications
    services that are deemed to be provided by the customer's home
    service provider under sections 116 through 126 of this title are
    authorized to be subjected to tax, charge, or fee by the taxing
    jurisdictions whose territorial limits encompass the customer's
    place of primary use, regardless of where the mobile
    telecommunication services originate, terminate, or pass through,
    and no other taxing jurisdiction may impose taxes, charges, or fees
    on charges for such mobile telecommunications services.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 627.)

-MISC1-
                 EFFECTIVE DATE; APPLICATION OF AMENDMENT
      Section effective July 28, 2000, and applicable only to customer
    bills issued after the first day of the first month beginning more
    than 2 years after July 28, 2000, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-252,
    set out as a note under section 116 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 118                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 118. Limitations

-STATUTE-
      Sections 116 through 126 of this title do not -
        (1) provide authority to a taxing jurisdiction to impose a tax,
      charge, or fee that the laws of such jurisdiction do not
      authorize such jurisdiction to impose; or
        (2) modify, impair, supersede, or authorize the modification,
      impairment, or supersession of the law of any taxing jurisdiction
      pertaining to taxation except as expressly provided in sections
      116 through 126 of this title.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 627.)

-MISC1-
                 EFFECTIVE DATE; APPLICATION OF AMENDMENT
      Section effective July 28, 2000, and applicable only to customer
    bills issued after the first day of the first month beginning more
    than 2 years after July 28, 2000, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-252,
    set out as a note under section 116 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 119                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 119. Electronic databases for nationwide standard numeric
      jurisdictional codes

-STATUTE-
      (a) Electronic Database. -
        (1) Provision of database. - A State may provide an electronic
      database to a home service provider or, if a State does not
      provide such an electronic database to home service providers,
      then the designated database provider may provide an electronic
      database to a home service provider.
        (2) Format. - (A) Such electronic database, whether provided by
      the State or the designated database provider, shall be provided
      in a format approved by the American National Standards
      Institute's Accredited Standards Committee X12, that, allowing
      for de minimis deviations, designates for each street address in
      the State, including to the extent practicable, any multiple
      postal street addresses applicable to one street location, the
      appropriate taxing jurisdictions, and the appropriate code for
      each taxing jurisdiction, for each level of taxing jurisdiction,
      identified by one nationwide standard numeric code.
        (B) Such electronic database shall also provide the appropriate
      code for each street address with respect to political
      subdivisions which are not taxing jurisdictions when reasonably
      needed to determine the proper taxing jurisdiction.
        (C) The nationwide standard numeric codes shall contain the
      same number of numeric digits with each digit or combination of
      digits referring to the same level of taxing jurisdiction
      throughout the United States using a format similar to FIPS 55-3
      or other appropriate standard approved by the Federation of Tax
      Administrators and the Multistate Tax Commission, or their
      successors. Each address shall be provided in standard postal
      format.

      (b) Notice; Updates. - A State or designated database provider
    that provides or maintains an electronic database described in
    subsection (a) shall provide notice of the availability of the then
    current electronic database, and any subsequent revisions thereof,
    by publication in the manner normally employed for the publication
    of informational tax, charge, or fee notices to taxpayers in such
    State.
      (c) User Held Harmless. - A home service provider using the data
    contained in an electronic database described in subsection (a)
    shall be held harmless from any tax, charge, or fee liability that
    otherwise would be due solely as a result of any error or omission
    in such database provided by a State or designated database
    provider. The home service provider shall reflect changes made to
    such database during a calendar quarter not later than 30 days
    after the end of such calendar quarter for each State that issues
    notice of the availability of an electronic database reflecting
    such changes under subsection (b).

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 627.)

-MISC1-
                 EFFECTIVE DATE; APPLICATION OF AMENDMENT
      Section effective July 28, 2000, and applicable only to customer
    bills issued after the first day of the first month beginning more
    than 2 years after July 28, 2000, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-252,
    set out as a note under section 116 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 120                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 120. Procedure if no electronic database provided

-STATUTE-
      (a) Safe Harbor. - If neither a State nor designated database
    provider provides an electronic database under section 119, a home
    service provider shall be held harmless from any tax, charge, or
    fee liability in such State that otherwise would be due solely as a
    result of an assignment of a street address to an incorrect taxing
    jurisdiction if, subject to section 121, the home service provider
    employs an enhanced zip code to assign each street address to a
    specific taxing jurisdiction for each level of taxing jurisdiction
    and exercises due diligence at each level of taxing jurisdiction to
    ensure that each such street address is assigned to the correct
    taxing jurisdiction. If an enhanced zip code overlaps boundaries of
    taxing jurisdictions of the same level, the home service provider
    must designate one specific jurisdiction within such enhanced zip
    code for use in taxing the activity for such enhanced zip code for
    each level of taxing jurisdiction. Any enhanced zip code assignment
    changed in accordance with section 121 is deemed to be in
    compliance with this section. For purposes of this section, there
    is a rebuttable presumption that a home service provider has
    exercised due diligence if such home service provider demonstrates
    that it has -
        (1) expended reasonable resources to implement and maintain an
      appropriately detailed electronic database of street address
      assignments to taxing jurisdictions;
        (2) implemented and maintained reasonable internal controls to
      promptly correct misassignments of street addresses to taxing
      jurisdictions; and
        (3) used all reasonably obtainable and usable data pertaining
      to municipal annexations, incorporations, reorganizations and any
      other changes in jurisdictional boundaries that materially affect
      the accuracy of such database.

      (b) Termination of Safe Harbor. - Subsection (a) applies to a
    home service provider that is in compliance with the requirements
    of subsection (a), with respect to a State for which an electronic
    database is not provided under section 119 until the later of -
        (1) 18 months after the nationwide standard numeric code
      described in section 119(a) has been approved by the Federation
      of Tax Administrators and the Multistate Tax Commission; or
        (2) 6 months after such State or a designated database provider
      in such State provides such database as prescribed in section
      119(a).

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 628.)

-MISC1-
                 EFFECTIVE DATE; APPLICATION OF AMENDMENT
      Section effective July 28, 2000, and applicable only to customer
    bills issued after the first day of the first month beginning more
    than 2 years after July 28, 2000, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-252,
    set out as a note under section 116 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 121                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 121. Correction of erroneous data for place of primary use

-STATUTE-
      (a) (!1) In General. - A taxing jurisdiction, or a State on
    behalf of any taxing jurisdiction or taxing jurisdictions within
    such State, may -

        (1) determine that the address used for purposes of determining
      the taxing jurisdictions to which taxes, charges, or fees for
      mobile telecommunications services are remitted does not meet the
      definition of place of primary use in section 124(8) and give
      binding notice to the home service provider to change the place
      of primary use on a prospective basis from the date of notice of
      determination if -
          (A) if the taxing jurisdiction making such determination is
        not a State, such taxing jurisdiction obtains the consent of
        all affected taxing jurisdictions within the State before
        giving such notice of determination; and
          (B) before the taxing jurisdiction gives such notice of
        determination, the customer is given an opportunity to
        demonstrate in accordance with applicable State or local tax,
        charge, or fee administrative procedures that the address is
        the customer's place of primary use;

        (2) determine that the assignment of a taxing jurisdiction by a
      home service provider under section 120 does not reflect the
      correct taxing jurisdiction and give binding notice to the home
      service provider to change the assignment on a prospective basis
      from the date of notice of determination if -
          (A) if the taxing jurisdiction making such determination is
        not a State, such taxing jurisdiction obtains the consent of
        all affected taxing jurisdictions within the State before
        giving such notice of determination; and
          (B) the home service provider is given an opportunity to
        demonstrate in accordance with applicable State or local tax,
        charge, or fee administrative procedures that the assignment
        reflects the correct taxing jurisdiction.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 629.)

-MISC1-
                 EFFECTIVE DATE; APPLICATION OF AMENDMENT
      Section effective July 28, 2000, and applicable only to customer
    bills issued after the first day of the first month beginning more
    than 2 years after July 28, 2000, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-252,
    set out as a note under section 116 of this title.

-FOOTNOTE-
    (!1) So in original. No subsec. (b) was enacted.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 122                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 122. Determination of place of primary use

-STATUTE-
      (a) Place of Primary Use. - A home service provider shall be
    responsible for obtaining and maintaining the customer's place of
    primary use (as defined in section 124). Subject to section 121,
    and if the home service provider's reliance on information provided
    by its customer is in good faith, a taxing jurisdiction shall -
        (1) allow a home service provider to rely on the applicable
      residential or business street address supplied by the home
      service provider's customer; and
        (2) not hold a home service provider liable for any additional
      taxes, charges, or fees based on a different determination of the
      place of primary use for taxes, charges, or fees that are
      customarily passed on to the customer as a separate itemized
      charge.

      (b) Address Under Existing Agreements. - Except as provided in
    section 121, a taxing jurisdiction shall allow a home service
    provider to treat the address used by the home service provider for
    tax purposes for any customer under a service contract or agreement
    in effect 2 years after the date of the enactment of the Mobile
    Telecommunications Sourcing Act as that customer's place of primary
    use for the remaining term of such service contract or agreement,
    excluding any extension or renewal of such service contract or
    agreement, for purposes of determining the taxing jurisdictions to
    which taxes, charges, or fees on charges for mobile
    telecommunications services are remitted.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 630.)

-REFTEXT-
                            REFERENCES IN TEXT
      The date of the enactment of the Mobile Telecommunications
    Sourcing Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is the date of enactment
    of Pub. L. 106-252, which was approved July 28, 2000.

-MISC1-
                 EFFECTIVE DATE; APPLICATION OF AMENDMENT
      Section effective July 28, 2000, and applicable only to customer
    bills issued after the first day of the first month beginning more
    than 2 years after July 28, 2000, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-252,
    set out as a note under section 116 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 123                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 123. Scope; special rules

-STATUTE-
      (a) Act Does Not Supersede Customer's Liability to Taxing
    Jurisdiction. - Nothing in sections 116 through 126 modifies,
    impairs, supersedes, or authorizes the modification, impairment, or
    supersession of, any law allowing a taxing jurisdiction to collect
    a tax, charge, or fee from a customer that has failed to provide
    its place of primary use.
      (b) Additional Taxable Charges. - If a taxing jurisdiction does
    not otherwise subject charges for mobile telecommunications
    services to taxation and if these charges are aggregated with and
    not separately stated from charges that are subject to taxation,
    then the charges for nontaxable mobile telecommunications services
    may be subject to taxation unless the home service provider can
    reasonably identify charges not subject to such tax, charge, or fee
    from its books and records that are kept in the regular course of
    business.
      (c) Nontaxable Charges. - If a taxing jurisdiction does not
    subject charges for mobile telecommunications services to taxation,
    a customer may not rely upon the nontaxability of charges for
    mobile telecommunications services unless the customer's home
    service provider separately states the charges for nontaxable
    mobile telecommunications services from taxable charges or the home
    service provider elects, after receiving a written request from the
    customer in the form required by the provider, to provide
    verifiable data based upon the home service provider's books and
    records that are kept in the regular course of business that
    reasonably identifies the nontaxable charges.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 630.)

-REFTEXT-
                            REFERENCES IN TEXT
      Act, referred to in subsec. (a), probably means the Mobile
    Telecommunications Sourcing Act, Pub. L. 106-252, July 28, 2000,
    114 Stat. 626, which enacted sections 116 to 126 of this title and
    provisions set out as notes under sections 1 and 116 of this title.
    For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short
    Title of 2000 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title
    and Tables.

-MISC1-
                 EFFECTIVE DATE; APPLICATION OF AMENDMENT
      Section effective July 28, 2000, and applicable only to customer
    bills issued after the first day of the first month beginning more
    than 2 years after July 28, 2000, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-252,
    set out as a note under section 116 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 124                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 124. Definitions

-STATUTE-
      In sections 116 through 126 of this title:
        (1) Charges for mobile telecommunications services. - The term
      "charges for mobile telecommunications services" means any charge
      for, or associated with, the provision of commercial mobile radio
      service, as defined in section 20.3 of title 47 of the Code of
      Federal Regulations as in effect on June 1, 1999, or any charge
      for, or associated with, a service provided as an adjunct to a
      commercial mobile radio service, that is billed to the customer
      by or for the customer's home service provider regardless of
      whether individual transmissions originate or terminate within
      the licensed service area of the home service provider.
        (2) Customer. -
          (A) In general. - The term "customer" means -
            (i) the person or entity that contracts with the home
          service provider for mobile telecommunications services; or
            (ii) if the end user of mobile telecommunications services
          is not the contracting party, the end user of the mobile
          telecommunications service, but this clause applies only for
          the purpose of determining the place of primary use.

          (B) The term "customer" does not include -
            (i) a reseller of mobile telecommunications service; or
            (ii) a serving carrier under an arrangement to serve the
          customer outside the home service provider's licensed service
          area.

        (3) Designated database provider. - The term "designated
      database provider" means a corporation, association, or other
      entity representing all the political subdivisions of a State
      that is -
          (A) responsible for providing an electronic database
        prescribed in section 119(a) if the State has not provided such
        electronic database; and
          (B) approved by municipal and county associations or leagues
        of the State whose responsibility it would otherwise be to
        provide such database prescribed by sections 116 through 126 of
        this title.

        (4) Enhanced zip code. - The term "enhanced zip code" means a
      United States postal zip code of 9 or more digits.
        (5) Home service provider. - The term "home service provider"
      means the facilities-based carrier or reseller with which the
      customer contracts for the provision of mobile telecommunications
      services.
        (6) Licensed service area. - The term "licensed service area"
      means the geographic area in which the home service provider is
      authorized by law or contract to provide commercial mobile radio
      service to the customer.
        (7) Mobile telecommunications service. - The term "mobile
      telecommunications service" means commercial mobile radio
      service, as defined in section 20.3 of title 47 of the Code of
      Federal Regulations as in effect on June 1, 1999.
        (8) Place of primary use. - The term "place of primary use"
      means the street address representative of where the customer's
      use of the mobile telecommunications service primarily occurs,
      which must be -
          (A) the residential street address or the primary business
        street address of the customer; and
          (B) within the licensed service area of the home service
        provider.

        (9) Prepaid telephone calling services. - The term "prepaid
      telephone calling service" means the right to purchase
      exclusively telecommunications services that must be paid for in
      advance, that enables the origination of calls using an access
      number, authorization code, or both, whether manually or
      electronically dialed, if the remaining amount of units of
      service that have been prepaid is known by the provider of the
      prepaid service on a continuous basis.
        (10) Reseller. - The term "reseller" -
          (A) means a provider who purchases telecommunications
        services from another telecommunications service provider and
        then resells, uses as a component part of, or integrates the
        purchased services into a mobile telecommunications service;
        and
          (B) does not include a serving carrier with which a home
        service provider arranges for the services to its customers
        outside the home service provider's licensed service area.

        (11) Serving carrier. - The term "serving carrier" means a
      facilities-based carrier providing mobile telecommunications
      service to a customer outside a home service provider's or
      reseller's licensed service area.
        (12) Taxing jurisdiction. - The term "taxing jurisdiction"
      means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, or any
      territory or possession of the United States, any municipality,
      city, county, township, parish, transportation district, or
      assessment jurisdiction, or any other political subdivision
      within the territorial limits of the United States with the
      authority to impose a tax, charge, or fee.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 631.)

-MISC1-
                 EFFECTIVE DATE; APPLICATION OF AMENDMENT
      Section effective July 28, 2000, and applicable only to customer
    bills issued after the first day of the first month beginning more
    than 2 years after July 28, 2000, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-252,
    set out as a note under section 116 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 125                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 125. Nonseverability

-STATUTE-
      If a court of competent jurisdiction enters a final judgment on
    the merits that -
        (1) is based on Federal law;
        (2) is no longer subject to appeal; and
        (3) substantially limits or impairs the essential elements of
      sections 116 through 126 of this title,

    then sections 116 through 126 of this title are invalid and have no
    legal effect as of the date of entry of such judgment.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 632.)

-MISC1-
                 EFFECTIVE DATE; APPLICATION OF AMENDMENT
      Section effective July 28, 2000, and applicable only to customer
    bills issued after the first day of the first month beginning more
    than 2 years after July 28, 2000, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-252,
    set out as a note under section 116 of this title.

-End-

-CITE-
    4 USC Sec. 126                                              01/07/2011

-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 4 - FLAG AND SEAL, SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE STATES
    CHAPTER 4 - THE STATES

-HEAD-
    Sec. 126. No inference

-STATUTE-
      (a) Internet Tax Freedom Act. - Nothing in sections 116 through
    this section of this title shall be construed as bearing on
    Congressional intent in enacting the Internet Tax Freedom Act or to
    modify or supersede the operation of such Act.
      (b) Telecommunications Act of 1996. - Nothing in sections 116
    through this section of this title shall limit or otherwise affect
    the implementation of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 or the
    amendments made by such Act.

-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 106-252, Sec. 2(a), July 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 632.)

-REFTEXT-
                            REFERENCES IN TEXT
      The Internet Tax Freedom Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is
    title XI of Pub. L. 105-277, div. C, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-
    719, which is set out as a note under section 151 of Title 47,
    Telegraphs, Telephones, and Radiotelegraphs.
      The Telecommunications Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (b),
    is Pub. L. 104-104, Feb. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 56. For complete
    classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1996
    Amendment note set out under section 609 of Title 47, Telegraphs,
    Telephones, and Radiotelegraphs, and Tables.

-MISC1-
                 EFFECTIVE DATE; APPLICATION OF AMENDMENT
      Section effective July 28, 2000, and applicable only to customer
    bills issued after the first day of the first month beginning more
    than 2 years after July 28, 2000, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106-252,
    set out as a note under section 116 of this title.

-End-

49 USC SUBCHAPTER I – TRANSPORTATION – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC SUBCHAPTER I – GENERAL‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER I – GENERAL

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER I – GENERAL‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30101‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER I – GENERAL

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30101. Purpose and policy

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The purpose of this chapter is to reduce traffic accidents and
‚ ‚ ‚  deaths and injuries resulting from traffic accidents. Therefore it
‚ ‚ ‚  is necessary –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) to prescribe motor vehicle safety standards for motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicles and motor vehicle equipment in interstate commerce; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) to carry out needed safety research and development.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 941.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30101‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1381.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 1, 80 Stat. 718.
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The words “Congress hereby declares that”, “to persons”, and
‚ ‚ ‚  “Congress determines that” are omitted as surplus. The words “motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle” before “equipment” are added for consistency. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “and to expand the national driver register” are omitted because
‚ ‚ ‚  section 401 of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of
‚ ‚ ‚  1966 (Public Law 89-563, 80 Stat. 730), the only section in this
‚ ‚ ‚  law related to the national driver register, was superseded by the
‚ ‚ ‚  National Driver Register Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-364, 96 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚  1740).

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  SHORT TITLE OF 2007 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 110-140, title I, Sec. 101, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚  1498, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (Secs. 101-113) of
‚ ‚ ‚  title I of Pub. L. 110-140, enacting section 32304A of this title,
‚ ‚ ‚  amending sections 32308, 32901 to 32904, 32905, 32906, 32908, and
‚ ‚ ‚  32912 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under
‚ ‚ ‚  sections 32902, 32904, and 32908 of this title] may be cited as the
‚ ‚ ‚  ‘Ten-in-Ten Fuel Economy Act’.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  SHORT TITLE OF 2005 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 109-59, title IV, Sec. 4001, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚  1714, provided that: “This title [see Tables for classification]
‚ ‚ ‚  may be cited as the ‘Motor Carrier Safety Reauthorization Act of
‚ ‚ ‚  2005’.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  SHORT TITLE OF 2000 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 1, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1800, provided
‚ ‚ ‚  that: “This Act [enacting section 30170 of this title, amending
‚ ‚ ‚  sections 30115, 30117, 30118, 30120, 30165, and 30166 of this
‚ ‚ ‚  title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections
‚ ‚ ‚  30111, 30115, 30118, 30123, and 30127 of this title] may be cited
‚ ‚ ‚  as the ‘Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and
‚ ‚ ‚  Documentation (TREAD) Act’.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  SHORT TITLE OF 1998 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 105-178, title VII, Sec. 7101, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚  465, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle A (Secs. 7101-7107) of
‚ ‚ ‚  title VII of Pub. L. 105-178, enacting section 30105 of this title,
‚ ‚ ‚  amending sections 30104, 30114, 30120, 30123, 30127, 32102, 32304,
‚ ‚ ‚  and 32705 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes
‚ ‚ ‚  under this section and sections 30114 and 30127 of this title] may
‚ ‚ ‚  be cited as the ‘National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
‚ ‚ ‚  Reauthorization Act of 1998’.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  SHORT TITLE OF 1996 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 104-152, Sec. 1, July 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1384, provided
‚ ‚ ‚  that: “This Act [amending sections 30501 to 30505 and 33109 of this
‚ ‚ ‚  title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 30502
‚ ‚ ‚  of this title] may be cited as the ‘Anti-Car Theft Improvements Act
‚ ‚ ‚  of 1996’.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  SIDE-IMPACT CRASH PROTECTION RULEMAKING‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 109-59, title X, Sec. 10302, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚  1940, provided that:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) Rulemaking. – The Secretary [of Transportation] shall
‚ ‚ ‚  complete a rulemaking proceeding under chapter 301 of title 49,
‚ ‚ ‚  United States Code, to establish a standard designed to enhance
‚ ‚ ‚  passenger motor vehicle occupant protection, in all seating
‚ ‚ ‚  positions, in side impact crashes. The Secretary shall issue a
‚ ‚ ‚  final rule by July 1, 2008.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Deadlines. – If the Secretary determines that the deadline
‚ ‚ ‚  for a final rule under this section cannot be met, the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) notify the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Energy and Commerce and explain why that deadline cannot be met;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) establish a new deadline.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  VEHICLE BACKOVER AVOIDANCE TECHNOLOGY STUDY; NONTRAFFIC INCIDENT
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  DATA COLLECTION
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 109-59, title X, Secs. 10304, 10305, Aug. 10, 2005, 119
‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 1940, 1941, provided that:

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 10304. VEHICLE BACKOVER AVOIDANCE TECHNOLOGY STUDY.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) In General. – The Administrator of the National Highway
‚ ‚ ‚  Traffic Safety Administration shall conduct a study of effective
‚ ‚ ‚  methods for reducing the incidence of injury and death outside of
‚ ‚ ‚  parked passenger motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating
‚ ‚ ‚  of not more than 10,000 pounds attributable to movement of such
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicles. The Administrator shall complete the study within 1 year
‚ ‚ ‚  after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 10, 2005] and report
‚ ‚ ‚  its findings to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Energy
‚ ‚ ‚  and Commerce not later than 15 months after the date of enactment
‚ ‚ ‚  of this Act.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Specific Issues To Be Covered. – The study required by
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (a) shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) include an analysis of backover prevention technology;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) identify, evaluate, and compare the available technologies
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for detecting people or objects behind a motor vehicle with a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  gross vehicle weight rating of not more than 10,000 pounds for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  their accuracy, effectiveness, cost, and feasibility for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  installation; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) provide an estimate of cost savings that would result from
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  widespread use of backover prevention devices and technologies in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of not more
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  than 10,000 pounds, including savings attributable to the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  prevention of –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(A) injuries and fatalities; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(B) damage to bumpers and other motor vehicle parts and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  damage to other objects.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 10305. NONTRAFFIC INCIDENT DATA COLLECTION.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) In General. – In conjunction with the study required in
‚ ‚ ‚  section 10304, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
‚ ‚ ‚  shall establish a method to collect and maintain data on the number
‚ ‚ ‚  and types of injuries and deaths involving motor vehicles with a
‚ ‚ ‚  gross vehicle weight rating of not more than 10,000 pounds in non-
‚ ‚ ‚  traffic incidents.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Data Collection and Publication. – The Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation shall publish the data collected under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (a) no less frequently than biennially.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  STUDY ON INTERIOR DEVICE TO RELEASE TRUNK LID‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 105-178, title VII, Sec. 7106(e), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚  469, required the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to
‚ ‚ ‚  conduct a study of the benefits to motor vehicle drivers of a
‚ ‚ ‚  regulation to require the installation in a motor vehicle of an
‚ ‚ ‚  interior device to release the trunk lid and to submit a report on
‚ ‚ ‚  the results of the study to the Committee on Commerce of the House
‚ ‚ ‚  of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation of the Senate not later than 18 months after June 9,
‚ ‚ ‚  1998.

‚ ‚ ‚  NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AUTHORIZATION ACT OF
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1991
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 102-240, title II, part B, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2081,
‚ ‚ ‚  as amended by Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚  1379, provided that:

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 2500. SHORT TITLE.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “This part may be cited as the ‘National Highway Traffic Safety
‚ ‚ ‚  Administration Authorization Act of 1991’.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “[SEC. 2501. Repealed. Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 7(b), July 5, 1994,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108 Stat. 1379.]

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 2502. GENERAL PROVISIONS.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) Definitions. – As used in this part –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) the term ‘bus’ means a motor vehicle with motive power,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  except a trailer, designed for carrying more than 10 persons;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) the term ‘multipurpose passenger vehicle’ means a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle with motive power (except a trailer), designed to carry
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  10 persons or fewer, which is constructed either on a truck
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  chassis or with special features for occasional off-road
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  operation;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) the term ‘passenger car’ means a motor vehicle with motive
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  power (except a multipurpose passenger vehicle, motorcycle, or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  trailer), designed for carrying 10 persons or fewer;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(4) the term ‘truck’ means a motor vehicle with motive power,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  except a trailer, designed primarily for the transportation of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  property or special purpose equipment; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(5) the term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Procedure. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) In general. – Except as provided in paragraph (2), any
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  action taken under section 2503 shall be taken in accordance with
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the applicable provisions of the National Traffic and Motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 ([formerly] 15 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) Specific procedure. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(A) Initiation. – To initiate an action under section 2503,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary shall, not later than May 31, 1992, publish in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the Federal Register an advance notice of proposed rulemaking
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  or a notice of proposed rulemaking, except that if the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary is unable to publish such a notice by such date, the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary shall by such date publish in the Federal Register a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  notice that the Secretary will begin such action by a certain
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  date which may not be later than January 31, 1993 and include
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in such notice the reasons for the delay. A notice of delayed
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  action shall not be considered agency action subject to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  judicial review. If the Secretary publishes an advance notice
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of proposed rulemaking, the Secretary is not required to follow
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  such notice with a notice of proposed rulemaking if the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary determines on the basis of such advanced notice and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the comments received thereon that the contemplated action
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  should not be taken under the provisions of the National
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 ([formerly] 15
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  U.S.C. 1381 et seq.), including the provisions of section 103
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of such Act ([formerly] 15 U.S.C. 1392), and if the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  publishes the reasons for such determination consistent with
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(B) Completion. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(i) Period. – Action under paragraphs (1) through (4) of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 2503 which was begun under subparagraph (A) shall be
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  completed within 26 months of the date of publication of an
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  advance notice of proposed rulemaking or 18 months of the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  date of publication of a notice of proposed rulemaking. The
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary may extend for any reason the period for completion
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of a rulemaking initiated by the issuance of a notice of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  proposed rulemaking for not more than 6 months if the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary publishes the reasons for such extension. The
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  extension of such period shall not be considered agency
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  action subject to judicial review.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(ii) Action. – A rulemaking under paragraphs (1) through
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) of section 2503 shall be considered completed when the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary promulgates a final rule or when the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  decides not to promulgate a rule (which decision may include
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  deferral of the action or reinitiation of the action). The
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary may not decide against promulgation of a final rule
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  because of lack of time to complete rulemaking. Any such
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  rulemaking actions shall be published in the Federal
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Register, together with the reasons for such decisions,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  consistent with chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  [formerly 15 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.].
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(iii) Special rule. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(I) Period. – Action under paragraph (5) of section 2503
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  which was begun under subparagraph (A) shall be completed
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  within 24 months of the date of publication of an advance
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  notice of proposed rulemaking or a notice of proposed
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  rulemaking. If the Secretary determines that there is a need
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for delay and if the public comment period is closed, the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary may extend the date for completion for not more
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  than 6 months and shall publish in the Federal Register a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  notice stating the reasons for the extension and setting a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  date certain for completion of the action. The extension of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the completion date shall not be considered agency action
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  subject to judicial review.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(II) Action. – A rulemaking under paragraph (5) of section
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2503 shall be considered completed when the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  promulgates a final rule with standards on improved head
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  injury protection.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(C) Standard. – The Secretary may, as part of any action
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  taken under section 2503, amend any motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  standard or establish a new standard under the National Traffic
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 ([formerly] 15 U.S.C. 1381
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  et seq.).

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 2503. MATTERS BEFORE THE SECRETARY.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “The Secretary shall address the following matters in accordance
‚ ‚ ‚  with section 2502:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) Protection against unreasonable risk of rollovers of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks with
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  a gross vehicle weight rating of 8,500 pounds or less and an
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  unloaded vehicle weight of 5,500 pounds or less.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) Extension of passenger car side impact protection to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  multipurpose passenger vehicles and trucks with a gross vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  weight rating of 8,500 pounds or less and an unloaded vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  weight of 5,500 pounds or less.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) Safety of child booster seats used in passenger cars and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  other appropriate motor vehicles.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(4) Improved design for safety belts.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(5) Improved head impact protection from interior components
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of passenger cars (i.e. roof rails, pillars, and front headers).

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “[SECS. 2504, 2505. Repealed. Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 7(b), July 5,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1994, 108 Stat. 1379.]

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 2506. REAR SEATBELTS.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “The Secretary shall expend such portion of the funds authorized
‚ ‚ ‚  to be appropriated under the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost
‚ ‚ ‚  Savings Act ([formerly] 15 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.), for fiscal year
‚ ‚ ‚  1993, as the Secretary deems necessary for the purpose of
‚ ‚ ‚  disseminating information to consumers regarding the manner in
‚ ‚ ‚  which passenger cars may be retrofitted with lap and shoulder rear
‚ ‚ ‚  seatbelts.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 2507. BRAKE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR PASSENGER CARS.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “Not later than December 31, 1993, the Secretary, in accordance
‚ ‚ ‚  with the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966
‚ ‚ ‚  [formerly 15 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.], shall publish an advance notice
‚ ‚ ‚  of proposed rulemaking to consider the need for any additional
‚ ‚ ‚  brake performance standards for passenger cars, including antilock
‚ ‚ ‚  brake standards. The Secretary shall complete such rulemaking (in
‚ ‚ ‚  accordance with section 2502(b)(2)(B)(ii)) not later than 36 months
‚ ‚ ‚  from the date of initiation of such advance notice of proposed
‚ ‚ ‚  rulemaking. In order to facilitate and encourage innovation and
‚ ‚ ‚  early application of economical and effective antilock brake
‚ ‚ ‚  systems for all such vehicles, the Secretary shall, as part of the
‚ ‚ ‚  rulemaking, consider any such brake system adopted by a
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “[SEC. 2508. Repealed. Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 7(b), July 5, 1994,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108 Stat. 1379.]

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 2509. HEAD INJURY IMPACT STUDY.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “The Secretary, in the case of any head injury protection matters
‚ ‚ ‚  not subject to section 2503(5) for which the Secretary is on the
‚ ‚ ‚  date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 1991] examining the need
‚ ‚ ‚  for rulemaking and is conducting research, shall provide a report
‚ ‚ ‚  to Congress by the end of fiscal year 1993 identifying those
‚ ‚ ‚  matters and their status. The report shall include a statement of
‚ ‚ ‚  any actions planned toward initiating such rulemaking no later than
‚ ‚ ‚  fiscal year 1994 or 1995 through use of either an advance notice of
‚ ‚ ‚  proposed rulemaking or a notice of proposed rulemaking and
‚ ‚ ‚  completing such rulemaking as soon as possible thereafter.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  FUEL SYSTEM INTEGRITY STANDARD‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, title I, Sec. 108, Oct. 27, 1974, 88 Stat. 1482,
‚ ‚ ‚  provided that:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) Ratification of Standard. – Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
‚ ‚ ‚  Standard Number 301 (49 CFR 571.301-75; Docket No. 73-20, Notice 2)
‚ ‚ ‚  as published on March 21, 1974 (39 F.R. 10588-10590) shall take
‚ ‚ ‚  effect on the dates prescribed in such standard (as so published).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Amendment or Repeal of Standard. – The Secretary may amend
‚ ‚ ‚  the standard described in subsection (a) in order to correct
‚ ‚ ‚  technical errors in the standard, and may amend or repeal such
‚ ‚ ‚  standard if he determines such amendment or repeal will not
‚ ‚ ‚  diminish the level of motor vehicle safety.”
-EXEC-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  EX. ORD. NO. 11357. ADMINISTRATION OF TRAFFIC AND MOTOR VEHICLE
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  SAFETY THROUGH NATIONAL HIGHWAY SAFETY BUREAU AND ITS DIRECTOR
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Ex. Ord. No. 11357, June 6, 1967, 32 F.R. 8225, provided:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the
‚ ‚ ‚  United States by Section 201 of the Highway Safety Act of 1966, as
‚ ‚ ‚  amended (80 Stat. 735, 943) [set out as a note under section 401 of
‚ ‚ ‚  Title 23, Highways], and by Section 3(f)(3) of the Department of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation Act (80 Stat. 932) [former 49 U.S.C. 1652(f)(3)], it
‚ ‚ ‚  is hereby ordered that the provisions of the National Traffic and
‚ ‚ ‚  Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, as amended (80 Stat. 718, 943)
‚ ‚ ‚  [formerly 15 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.], shall be carried out through the
‚ ‚ ‚  National Highway Safety Bureau and the Director thereof.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Lyndon B. Johnson.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30102‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER I – GENERAL

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30102. Definitions

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) General Definitions. – In this chapter –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) “dealer” means a person selling and distributing new motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicles or motor vehicle equipment primarily to purchasers that
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in good faith purchase the vehicles or equipment other than for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  resale.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) “defect” includes any defect in performance, construction,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  a component, or material of a motor vehicle or motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) “distributor” means a person primarily selling and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  distributing motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  resale.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) “interstate commerce” means commerce between a place in a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  State and a place in another State or between places in the same
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  State through another State.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (5) “manufacturer” means a person –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) manufacturing or assembling motor vehicles or motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle equipment; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) importing motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  resale.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (6) “motor vehicle” means a vehicle driven or drawn by
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  mechanical power and manufactured primarily for use on public
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  streets, roads, and highways, but does not include a vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  operated only on a rail line.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (7) “motor vehicle equipment” means –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) any system, part, or component of a motor vehicle as
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  originally manufactured;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) any similar part or component manufactured or sold for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  replacement or improvement of a system, part, or component, or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  as an accessory or addition to a motor vehicle; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) any device or an article or apparel (except medicine or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  eyeglasses prescribed by a licensed practitioner) that is not a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  system, part, or component of a motor vehicle and is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufactured, sold, delivered, offered, or intended to be used
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  only to safeguard motor vehicles and highway users against risk
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of accident, injury, or death.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (8) “motor vehicle safety” means the performance of a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or motor vehicle equipment in a way that protects the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  public against unreasonable risk of accidents occurring because
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of the design, construction, or performance of a motor vehicle,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  and against unreasonable risk of death or injury in an accident,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  and includes nonoperational safety of a motor vehicle.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (9) “motor vehicle safety standard” means a minimum standard
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment performance.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (10) “State” means a State of the United States, the District
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (11) “United States district court” means a district court of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the United States, a United States court for Guam, the Virgin
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Islands, and American Samoa, and the district court for the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Northern Mariana Islands.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Limited Definitions. – (1) In sections 30117(b), 30118-30121,
‚ ‚ ‚  and 30166(f) of this title –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) “adequate repair” does not include repair resulting in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  substantially impaired operation of a motor vehicle or motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle equipment;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) “first purchaser” means the first purchaser of a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or motor vehicle equipment other than for resale;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) “original equipment” means motor vehicle equipment
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (including a tire) installed in or on a motor vehicle at the time
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of delivery to the first purchaser;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (D) “replacement equipment” means motor vehicle equipment
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (including a tire) that is not original equipment;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) a brand name owner of a tire marketed under a brand name
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  not owned by the manufacturer of the tire is deemed to be the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer of the tire;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (F) a defect in original equipment, or noncompliance of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  original equipment with a motor vehicle safety standard
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter, is deemed to be a defect or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  noncompliance of the motor vehicle in or on which the equipment
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  was installed at the time of delivery to the first purchaser;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (G) a manufacturer of a motor vehicle in or on which original
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment was installed when delivered to the first purchaser is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  deemed to be the manufacturer of the equipment; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (H) a retreader of a tire is deemed to be the manufacturer of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the tire.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe regulations
‚ ‚ ‚  changing paragraph (1)(C), (D), (F), or (G) of this subsection.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 941.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(a)(1)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(7).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 102(1)-(3),‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (5)-(9), (11), (12), 80‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 718, 719.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(10).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 102(10), 80‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 718; restated Oct.‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  27, 1974, Pub. L. 93-492,‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 110(a), 88 Stat. 1484.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  49‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  App.:1655(a)(6)(A).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-670, Sec. 6(a)(6)(A), 80
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 938.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(a)(2)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(11).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(a)(3)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(6).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(a)(4)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(9).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(a)(5)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(5).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(a)(6)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(3).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(a)(7)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(4).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 102(4), 80‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 718; restated May 22,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1970, Pub. L. 91-265, Sec.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2, 84 Stat. 262.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(a)(8)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(1).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(a)(9)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(2).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(a)(10)‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(8).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(a)(11)‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(12).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30102(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1419.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  159; added Oct. 27, 1974,‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102(a), 88 Stat. 1476.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the definitions apply to the entire chapter
‚ ‚ ‚  because of references in 15:1421-1431 applying 15:1391-1420 to
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1421-1431. Before clause (1), the words “As used” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus. In clause (1), the text of 15:1391(10) and 49
‚ ‚ ‚  App.:1655(a)(6)(A) is omitted as surplus because the complete name
‚ ‚ ‚  of the Secretary of Transportation is used the first time the term
‚ ‚ ‚  appears in a section. The words “selling and distributing” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “who is engaged in the sale and distribution of” to
‚ ‚ ‚  eliminate unnecessary words. The word “purposes” is omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus. In clause (3), the words “selling and distributing” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “engaged in the sale and distribution of” to
‚ ‚ ‚  eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (5)(A), the words
‚ ‚ ‚  “manufacturing or assembling” are substituted for “engaged in the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturing or assembling of” to eliminate unnecessary words. In
‚ ‚ ‚  clause (7), the words “physician or other duly” and “drivers,
‚ ‚ ‚  passengers, and other” are omitted as surplus. In clause (8), the
‚ ‚ ‚  words “is also protected” and “to persons” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary. In clause (9), the words “which is practicable, which
‚ ‚ ‚  meets the need for motor vehicle safety and which provides
‚ ‚ ‚  objective criteria” are omitted as unnecessary because of
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(a) which is restated in section 30111 of the revised title.
‚ ‚ ‚  In clauses (10) and (11), the words “the Northern Mariana Islands”
‚ ‚ ‚  are added because of section 502(a)(2) of the Covenant to Establish
‚ ‚ ‚  a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union
‚ ‚ ‚  with the United States of America, as enacted by the Act of March
‚ ‚ ‚  24, 1976 (Public Law 94-241, 90 Stat. 268), and as proclaimed to be
‚ ‚ ‚  in effect by the President on January 9, 1978 (Proc. No. 4534, Oct.
‚ ‚ ‚  24, 1977, 42 F.R. 56593). The words “the Canal Zone” are omitted
‚ ‚ ‚  because of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977. In clause (10), the
‚ ‚ ‚  word “means” is substituted for “includes” as being more
‚ ‚ ‚  appropriate. The words “a State of the United States” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “each of the several States” for consistency. The
‚ ‚ ‚  words “the Commonwealth of” are omitted as surplus. In clause (11),
‚ ‚ ‚  the word “Federal” is omitted as surplus. The words “of the
‚ ‚ ‚  Commonwealth of Puerto Rico” are omitted as unnecessary because the
‚ ‚ ‚  district court of Puerto Rico is a district court of the United
‚ ‚ ‚  States under 28:119.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words “The term” and
‚ ‚ ‚  “the term” are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the words “of a
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment” are added for clarity. In
‚ ‚ ‚  clause (E), the words “to be” are added for consistency. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “marketed under such brand name” are omitted as surplus. In clause
‚ ‚ ‚  (F), the words “a motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under
‚ ‚ ‚  this chapter” are added for clarity and consistency. The word
‚ ‚ ‚  “noncompliance” is substituted for “failure to comply” for
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency in the chapter. In clause (G), the words “(rather than
‚ ‚ ‚  the manufacturer of such equipment)” are omitted as surplus. The
‚ ‚ ‚  words “deemed to be” are substituted for “considered” for
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency. In clause (H), the words “which have been” are omitted
‚ ‚ ‚  as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsection (b)(2) is substituted for “Except as otherwise
‚ ‚ ‚  provided in regulations of the Secretary” for clarity and because
‚ ‚ ‚  of the restatement.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  LOW-SPEED ELECTRIC BICYCLES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 107-319, Sec. 2, Dec. 4, 2002, 116 Stat. 2776, provided
‚ ‚ ‚  that: “For purposes of motor vehicle safety standards issued and
‚ ‚ ‚  enforced pursuant to chapter 301 of title 49, United States Code, a
‚ ‚ ‚  low-speed electric bicycle (as defined in section 38(b) of the
‚ ‚ ‚  Consumer Product Safety Act [15 U.S.C. 2085(b)]) shall not be
‚ ‚ ‚  considered a motor vehicle as defined by section 30102(6) of title
‚ ‚ ‚  49, United States Code.”

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30103‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER I – GENERAL

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30103. Relationship to other laws

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Uniformity of Regulations. – The Secretary of Transportation
‚ ‚ ‚  may not prescribe a safety regulation related to a motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  subject to subchapter I of chapter 135 of this title that differs
‚ ‚ ‚  from a motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚  However, the Secretary may prescribe, for a motor vehicle operated
‚ ‚ ‚  by a carrier subject to subchapter I of chapter 135, a safety
‚ ‚ ‚  regulation that imposes a higher standard of performance after
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacture than that required by an applicable standard in effect
‚ ‚ ‚  at the time of manufacture.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Preemption. – (1) When a motor vehicle safety standard is in
‚ ‚ ‚  effect under this chapter, a State or a political subdivision of a
‚ ‚ ‚  State may prescribe or continue in effect a standard applicable to
‚ ‚ ‚  the same aspect of performance of a motor vehicle or motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  equipment only if the standard is identical to the standard
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter. However, the United States
‚ ‚ ‚  Government, a State, or a political subdivision of a State may
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribe a standard for a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment
‚ ‚ ‚  obtained for its own use that imposes a higher performance
‚ ‚ ‚  requirement than that required by the otherwise applicable standard
‚ ‚ ‚  under this chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) A State may enforce a standard that is identical to a
‚ ‚ ‚  standard prescribed under this chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Antitrust Laws. – This chapter does not –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) exempt from the antitrust laws conduct that is unlawful
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  under those laws; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) prohibit under the antitrust laws conduct that is lawful
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  under those laws.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Warranty Obligations and Additional Legal Rights and
‚ ‚ ‚  Remedies. – Sections 30117(b), 30118-30121, 30166(f), and 30167(a)
‚ ‚ ‚  and (b) of this title do not establish or affect a warranty
‚ ‚ ‚  obligation under a law of the United States or a State. A remedy
‚ ‚ ‚  under those sections and sections 30161 and 30162 of this title is
‚ ‚ ‚  in addition to other rights and remedies under other laws of the
‚ ‚ ‚  United States or a State.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Common Law Liability. – Compliance with a motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  safety standard prescribed under this chapter does not exempt a
‚ ‚ ‚  person from liability at common law.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 943; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  104-88, title III, Sec. 308(j), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 947.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30103(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(g).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Secs. 103(g),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  105(a)(6), 116, 80 Stat.‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  720, 721, 727.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30103(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(d).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 103(d), 80‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 719; Oct. 15, 1982,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 97-331, Sec. 3, 96‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 1619.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30103(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1405.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30103(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1394(a)(6).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410a(e).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Secs.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  124(e), 160; added Oct. 27,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Secs.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102(a), 106, 88 Stat. 1477,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1481.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1420.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30103(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(k).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(k), 80‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 723; Oct. 31, 1988,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 100-562, Sec. 2(b),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102 Stat. 2818.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the words “or the Transportation of Explosives
‚ ‚ ‚  Act, as amended (18 U.S.C. 831-835)” are omitted as obsolete
‚ ‚ ‚  because 18:831-835 have been repealed. The word “prescribe” is
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “adopt” for consistency. The words “or continue in
‚ ‚ ‚  effect” and “In prescribing safety regulations” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus. The word “prescribed” is substituted for “issued” for
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency. The words “to comply” and “Federal” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus. The words “in effect” are added for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1), the word “Federal” is omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚  The word “prescribe” is substituted for “either to establish, or to
‚ ‚ ‚  continue in effect” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary
‚ ‚ ‚  words. The words “standard prescribed under this chapter” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “Federal standard” for clarity. The words “However,
‚ ‚ ‚  the United States . . . may prescribe” are substituted for “Nothing
‚ ‚ ‚  in this section shall be construed to prevent the Federal . . .
‚ ‚ ‚  from establishing” for consistency. The words “of a State” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “thereof” for clarity. The word “standard” is
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “safety requirement” for consistency. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “performance requirement” are substituted for “standard of
‚ ‚ ‚  performance” to avoid using “standard” in 2 different ways.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsection (b)(2) is substituted for 15:1392(d) (2d sentence) for
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c), the words “be deemed to” and “of the United
‚ ‚ ‚  States” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d), the words “United States” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “Federal” in 15:1420 for consistency. The words “Consumer” in
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1420, “not in lieu of” in 15:1410a(e) and 1420, and “not in
‚ ‚ ‚  substitution for” in 15:1394(a)(6) are omitted as surplus. The word
‚ ‚ ‚  “other” is added for clarity.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1995 – Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104-88 substituted “subchapter I of
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter 135” for “subchapter II of chapter 105” in two places.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1995 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Amendment by Pub. L. 104-88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2
‚ ‚ ‚  of Pub. L. 104-88, set out as an Effective Date note under section
‚ ‚ ‚  701 of this title.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30104‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER I – GENERAL

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30104. Authorization of appropriations

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  $98,313,500 for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
‚ ‚ ‚  to carry out this part in each fiscal year beginning in fiscal year
‚ ‚ ‚  1999 and ending in fiscal year 2001.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 944; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  105-178, title VII, Sec. 7102(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 465; Pub.
‚ ‚ ‚  L. 106-39, Sec. 1(a), July 28, 1999, 113 Stat. 206.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30104‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392 (note).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102-240, Sec. 2501(a), 105‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 2081.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In this section, before clause (1), the words “to the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  of Transportation for the National Highway Traffic Safety
‚ ‚ ‚  Administration” are substituted for “For the National Highway
‚ ‚ ‚  Traffic Safety Administration” for clarity and consistency in the
‚ ‚ ‚  revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The
‚ ‚ ‚  reference to fiscal year 1992 is omitted as obsolete.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1999 – Pub. L. 106-39 substituted “$98,313,500” for
‚ ‚ ‚  “$81,200,000”.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1998 – Pub. L. 105-178 reenacted section catchline without change
‚ ‚ ‚  and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as
‚ ‚ ‚  follows: “The following amounts may be appropriated to the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation for the National Highway Traffic Safety
‚ ‚ ‚  Administration to carry out this chapter:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) $71,333,436 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) $74,044,106 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1994.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) $76,857,782 for the fiscal year ending September 30,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1995.”

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30105‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER I – GENERAL

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30105. Restriction on lobbying activities

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) In General. – No funds appropriated to the Secretary for the
‚ ‚ ‚  National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shall be available
‚ ‚ ‚  for any activity specifically designed to urge a State or local
‚ ‚ ‚  legislator to favor or oppose the adoption of any specific
‚ ‚ ‚  legislative proposal pending before any State or local legislative
‚ ‚ ‚  body.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Appearance as Witness Not Barred. – Subsection (a) does not
‚ ‚ ‚  prohibit officers or employees of the United States from testifying
‚ ‚ ‚  before any State or local legislative body in response to the
‚ ‚ ‚  invitation of any member of that legislative body or a State
‚ ‚ ‚  executive office.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Added and amended Pub. L. 105-178, title VII, Sec. 7104(a), (c),
‚ ‚ ‚  June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 466; Pub. L. 105-206, title IX, Sec.
‚ ‚ ‚  9012(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 864.)
-MISC1-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1998 – Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105-178, Sec. 7104(c), as added by
‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 105-206, inserted “for the National Highway Traffic Safety
‚ ‚ ‚  Administration” after “Secretary”.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Title IX of Pub. L. 105-206 effective simultaneously with
‚ ‚ ‚  enactment of Pub. L. 105-178 and to be treated as included in Pub.
‚ ‚ ‚  L. 105-178 at time of enactment, and provisions of Pub. L. 105-178,
‚ ‚ ‚  as in effect on day before July 22, 1998, that are amended by title
‚ ‚ ‚  IX of Pub. L. 105-206 to be treated as not enacted, see section
‚ ‚ ‚  9016 of Pub. L. 105-206, set out as a note under section 101 of
‚ ‚ ‚  Title 23, Highways.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30106‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER I – GENERAL

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30106. Rented or leased motor vehicle safety and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  responsibility

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) In General. – An owner of a motor vehicle that rents or
‚ ‚ ‚  leases the vehicle to a person (or an affiliate of the owner) shall
‚ ‚ ‚  not be liable under the law of any State or political subdivision
‚ ‚ ‚  thereof, by reason of being the owner of the vehicle (or an
‚ ‚ ‚  affiliate of the owner), for harm to persons or property that
‚ ‚ ‚  results or arises out of the use, operation, or possession of the
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle during the period of the rental or lease, if –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) the owner (or an affiliate of the owner) is engaged in the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  trade or business of renting or leasing motor vehicles; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) there is no negligence or criminal wrongdoing on the part
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of the owner (or an affiliate of the owner).

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Financial Responsibility Laws. – Nothing in this section
‚ ‚ ‚  supersedes the law of any State or political subdivision thereof –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) imposing financial responsibility or insurance standards on
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the owner of a motor vehicle for the privilege of registering and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  operating a motor vehicle; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) imposing liability on business entities engaged in the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  trade or business of renting or leasing motor vehicles for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  failure to meet the financial responsibility or liability
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  insurance requirements under State law.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Applicability and Effective Date. – Notwithstanding any other
‚ ‚ ‚  provision of law, this section shall apply with respect to any
‚ ‚ ‚  action commenced on or after the date of enactment of this section
‚ ‚ ‚  without regard to whether the harm that is the subject of the
‚ ‚ ‚  action, or the conduct that caused the harm, occurred before such
‚ ‚ ‚  date of enactment.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Definitions. – In this section, the following definitions
‚ ‚ ‚  apply:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) Affiliate. – The term “affiliate” means a person other than
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the owner that directly or indirectly controls, is controlled by,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  or is under common control with the owner. In the preceding
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence, the term “control” means the power to direct the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  management and policies of a person whether through ownership of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  voting securities or otherwise.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) Owner. – The term “owner” means a person who is –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) a record or beneficial owner, holder of title, lessor, or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  lessee of a motor vehicle;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) entitled to the use and possession of a motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  subject to a security interest in another person; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) a lessor, lessee, or a bailee of a motor vehicle, in the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  trade or business of renting or leasing motor vehicles, having
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the use or possession thereof, under a lease, bailment, or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  otherwise.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) Person. – The term “person” means any individual,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  corporation, company, limited liability company, trust,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  association, firm, partnership, society, joint stock company, or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  any other entity.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Added Pub. L. 109-59, title X, Sec. 10208(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119
‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 1935.)

-REFTEXT-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  REFERENCES IN TEXT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsec.
‚ ‚ ‚  (c), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109-59, which was approved
‚ ‚ ‚  Aug. 10, 2005.

-End-
-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30111‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30111. Standards

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) General Requirements. – The Secretary of Transportation shall
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribe motor vehicle safety standards. Each standard shall be
‚ ‚ ‚  practicable, meet the need for motor vehicle safety, and be stated
‚ ‚ ‚  in objective terms.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Considerations and Consultation. – When prescribing a motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standard under this chapter, the Secretary shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) consider relevant available motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  information;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) consult with the agency established under the Act of August
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  20, 1958 (Public Law 85-684, 72 Stat. 635), and other appropriate
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  State or interstate authorities (including legislative
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  committees);
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) consider whether a proposed standard is reasonable,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  practicable, and appropriate for the particular type of motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or motor vehicle equipment for which it is prescribed;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) consider the extent to which the standard will carry out
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30101 of this title.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Cooperation. – The Secretary may advise, assist, and
‚ ‚ ‚  cooperate with departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the
‚ ‚ ‚  United States Government, States, and other public and private
‚ ‚ ‚  agencies in developing motor vehicle safety standards.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Effective Dates of Standards. – The Secretary shall specify
‚ ‚ ‚  the effective date of a motor vehicle safety standard prescribed
‚ ‚ ‚  under this chapter in the order prescribing the standard. A
‚ ‚ ‚  standard may not become effective before the 180th day after the
‚ ‚ ‚  standard is prescribed or later than one year after it is
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed. However, the Secretary may prescribe a different
‚ ‚ ‚  effective date after finding, for good cause shown, that a
‚ ‚ ‚  different effective date is in the public interest and publishing
‚ ‚ ‚  the reasons for the finding.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) 5-Year Plan for Testing Standards. – The Secretary shall
‚ ‚ ‚  establish and periodically review and update on a continuing basis
‚ ‚ ‚  a 5-year plan for testing motor vehicle safety standards prescribed
‚ ‚ ‚  under this chapter that the Secretary considers capable of being
‚ ‚ ‚  tested. In developing the plan and establishing testing priorities,
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary shall consider factors the Secretary considers
‚ ‚ ‚  appropriate, consistent with section 30101 of this title and the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary’s other duties and powers under this chapter. The
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary may change at any time those priorities to address
‚ ‚ ‚  matters the Secretary considers of greater priority. The initial
‚ ‚ ‚  plan may be the 5-year plan for compliance testing in effect on
‚ ‚ ‚  December 18, 1991.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 944.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30111(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(a), (b),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) (1st sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Secs. 102(13),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  103(a)-(c), (e), (f), 107‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to standards), 80‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 719, 721.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30111(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(13).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(f).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30111(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1396 (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  standards).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30111(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(c), (e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (last sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30111(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(j).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  103(j); added Dec. 18, 1991,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 102-240, Sec. 2505,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  105 Stat. 2084.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the words “shall prescribe” are substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  for “shall establish by order” in 15:1392(a) and “may by order” in
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(e) (1st sentence) for consistency. The words “amend or
‚ ‚ ‚  revoke” in 15:1392(e) (1st sentence) and 1397(b)(1) (last sentence)
‚ ‚ ‚  are omitted because they are included in “prescribe”. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “appropriate Federal” in 15:1392(a) and “Federal” in 15:1392(e)
‚ ‚ ‚  (1st sentence) are omitted as surplus. The words “established under
‚ ‚ ‚  this section” are omitted because of the restatement. The text of
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(b) is omitted as surplus because 5:chs. 5, subch. II, and 7
‚ ‚ ‚  apply unless otherwise stated.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1), the words “including the results of
‚ ‚ ‚  research, development, testing and evaluation activities conducted
‚ ‚ ‚  pursuant to this chapter” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(2), the words “agency established under the Act
‚ ‚ ‚  of August 20, 1958 (Public Law 85-684, 72 Stat. 635)” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for 15:1391(13) and “the Vehicle Equipment Safety
‚ ‚ ‚  Commission” in 15:1392(f) because of the restatement. The citation
‚ ‚ ‚  in parenthesis is included only for information purposes.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(4), the words “contribute to” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c), the words “departments, agencies, and
‚ ‚ ‚  instrumentalities of the United States Government, States, and
‚ ‚ ‚  other public and private agencies” are substituted for “other
‚ ‚ ‚  Federal departments and agencies, and State and other interested
‚ ‚ ‚  public and private agencies” for consistency. The words “planning
‚ ‚ ‚  and” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d), the words “The Secretary” are added for
‚ ‚ ‚  clarity. The words “effective date” are substituted for “the date .
‚ ‚ ‚  . . is to take effect” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “under this chapter” are added for clarity. The words “However, the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary may prescribe a different effective date” are substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  for “unless the Secretary” for clarity. The word “different” is
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “earlier or later” to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (e), the words “duties and powers” are substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  for “responsibilities”, and the word “change” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “adjust”, and for clarity and consistency in the revised title.

-REFTEXT-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  REFERENCES IN TEXT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Act of August 20, 1958, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is set out
‚ ‚ ‚  as a note under former section 313 of Title 23, Highways.
-MISC2-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  PEDESTRIAN SAFETY ENHANCEMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 111-373, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4086, provided that:

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “This Act may be cited as the ‘Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act
‚ ‚ ‚  of 2010’.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “As used in this Act –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) the term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) the term ‘alert sound’ (herein referred to as the ‘sound’)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  means a vehicle-emitted sound to enable pedestrians to discern
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle presence, direction, location, and operation;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) the term ‘cross-over speed’ means the speed at which tire
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  noise, wind resistance, or other factors eliminate the need for a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  separate alert sound as determined by the Secretary;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(4) the term ‘motor vehicle’ has the meaning given such term
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in section 30102(a)(6) of title 49, United States Code, except
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  that such term shall not include a trailer (as such term is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  defined in section 571.3 of title 49, Code of Federal
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Regulations);
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(5) the term ‘conventional motor vehicle’ means a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle powered by a gasoline, diesel, or alternative fueled
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  internal combustion engine as its sole means of propulsion;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(6) the term ‘manufacturer’ has the meaning given such term in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30102(a)(5) of title 49, United States Code;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(7) the term ‘dealer’ has the meaning given such term in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30102(a)(1) of title 49, United States Code;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(8) the term ‘defect’ has the meaning given such term in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30102(a)(2) of title 49, United States Code;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(9) the term ‘hybrid vehicle’ means a motor vehicle which has
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  more than one means of propulsion; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(10) the term ‘electric vehicle’ means a motor vehicle with an
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  electric motor as its sole means of propulsion.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 3. MINIMUM SOUND REQUIREMENT FOR MOTOR VEHICLES.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) Rulemaking Required. – Not later than 18 months after the
‚ ‚ ‚  date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 4, 2011] the Secretary shall
‚ ‚ ‚  initiate rulemaking, under section 30111 of title 49, United States
‚ ‚ ‚  Code, to promulgate a motor vehicle safety standard –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) establishing performance requirements for an alert sound
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  that allows blind and other pedestrians to reasonably detect a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  nearby electric or hybrid vehicle operating below the cross-over
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  speed, if any; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) requiring new electric or hybrid vehicles to provide an
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  alert sound conforming to the requirements of the motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  safety standard established under this subsection.
‚ ‚ ‚  “The motor vehicle safety standard established under this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection shall not require either driver or pedestrian activation
‚ ‚ ‚  of the alert sound and shall allow the pedestrian to reasonably
‚ ‚ ‚  detect a nearby electric or hybrid vehicle in critical operating
‚ ‚ ‚  scenarios including, but not limited to, constant speed,
‚ ‚ ‚  accelerating, or decelerating. The Secretary shall allow
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturers to provide each vehicle with one or more sounds that
‚ ‚ ‚  comply with the motor vehicle safety standard at the time of
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacture. Further, the Secretary shall require manufacturers to
‚ ‚ ‚  provide, within reasonable manufacturing tolerances, the same sound
‚ ‚ ‚  or set of sounds for all vehicles of the same make and model and
‚ ‚ ‚  shall prohibit manufacturers from providing any mechanism for
‚ ‚ ‚  anyone other than the manufacturer or the dealer to disable, alter,
‚ ‚ ‚  replace, or modify the sound or set of sounds, except that the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer or dealer may alter, replace, or modify the sound or
‚ ‚ ‚  set of sounds in order to remedy a defect or non-compliance with
‚ ‚ ‚  the motor vehicle safety standard. The Secretary shall promulgate
‚ ‚ ‚  the required motor vehicle safety standard pursuant to this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection not later than 36 months after the date of enactment of
‚ ‚ ‚  this Act.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Consideration. – When conducting the required rulemaking,
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) determine the minimum level of sound emitted from a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle that is necessary to provide blind and other pedestrians
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  with the information needed to reasonably detect a nearby
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  electric or hybrid vehicle operating at or below the cross-over
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  speed, if any;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) determine the performance requirements for an alert sound
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  that is recognizable to a pedestrian as a motor vehicle in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  operation; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) consider the overall community noise impact.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(c) Phase-in Required. – The motor vehicle safety standard
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall
‚ ‚ ‚  establish a phase-in period for compliance, as determined by the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary, and shall require full compliance with the required
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle safety standard for motor vehicles manufactured on or
‚ ‚ ‚  after September 1st of the calendar year that begins 3 years after
‚ ‚ ‚  the date on which the final rule is issued.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(d) Required Consultation. – When conducting the required study
‚ ‚ ‚  and rulemaking, the Secretary shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) consult with the Environmental Protection Agency to assure
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  that the motor vehicle safety standard is consistent with
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  existing noise requirements overseen by the Agency;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) consult consumer groups representing individuals who are
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  blind;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) consult with automobile manufacturers and professional
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  organizations representing them;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(4) consult technical standardization organizations
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  responsible for measurement methods such as the Society of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Automotive Engineers, the International Organization for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Standardization, and the United Nations Economic Commission for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(e) Required Study and Report to Congress. – Not later than 48
‚ ‚ ‚  months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall
‚ ‚ ‚  complete a study and report to Congress as to whether there exists
‚ ‚ ‚  a safety need to apply the motor vehicle safety standard required
‚ ‚ ‚  by subsection (a) to conventional motor vehicles. In the event that
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary determines there exists a safety need, the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall initiate rulemaking under section 30111 of title 49, United
‚ ‚ ‚  States Code, to extend the standard to conventional motor vehicles.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 4. FUNDING.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, $2,000,000 of any
‚ ‚ ‚  amounts made available to the Secretary of Transportation under
‚ ‚ ‚  under section 406 of title 23, United States Code, shall be made
‚ ‚ ‚  available to the Administrator of the National Highway
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation Safety Administration for carrying out section 3 of
‚ ‚ ‚  this Act.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  CHILD SAFETY STANDARDS FOR MOTOR VEHICLES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 110-189, Feb. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 639, provided that:

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “This Act may be cited as the ‘Cameron Gulbransen Kids
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation Safety Act of 2007’ or the ‘K.T. Safety Act of
‚ ‚ ‚  2007’.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 2. RULEMAKING REGARDING CHILD SAFETY.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) Power Window Safety. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) Consideration of rule. – Not later than 18 months after
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 28, 2008], the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation (referred to in this Act as the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  ‘Secretary’) shall initiate a rulemaking to consider prescribing
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  or amending Federal motor vehicle safety standards to require
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  power windows and panels on motor vehicles to automatically
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  reverse direction when such power windows and panels detect an
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  obstruction to prevent children and others from being trapped,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  injured, or killed.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) Deadline for decision. – If the Secretary determines such
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  safety standards are reasonable, practicable, and appropriate,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary shall prescribe, under section 30111 of title 49,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  United States Code, the safety standards described in paragraph
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) not later than 30 months after the date of enactment of this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Act. If the Secretary determines that no additional safety
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  standards are reasonable, practicable, and appropriate, the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(A) not later than 30 months after the date of enactment of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  this Act, transmit a report to the Committee on Energy and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate describing
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the reasons such standards were not prescribed; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(B) publish and otherwise make available to the public
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  through the Internet and other means (such as the ‘Buying a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Safer Car’ brochure) information regarding which vehicles are
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  or are not equipped with power windows and panels that
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  automatically reverse direction when an obstruction is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  detected.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Rearward Visibility. – Not later than 12 months after the
‚ ‚ ‚  date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 28, 2008], the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall initiate a rulemaking to revise Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
‚ ‚ ‚  Standard 111 (FMVSS 111) to expand the required field of view to
‚ ‚ ‚  enable the driver of a motor vehicle to detect areas behind the
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle to reduce death and injury resulting from backing
‚ ‚ ‚  incidents, particularly incidents involving small children and
‚ ‚ ‚  disabled persons. The Secretary may prescribe different
‚ ‚ ‚  requirements for different types of motor vehicles to expand the
‚ ‚ ‚  required field of view to enable the driver of a motor vehicle to
‚ ‚ ‚  detect areas behind the motor vehicle to reduce death and injury
‚ ‚ ‚  resulting from backing incidents, particularly incidents involving
‚ ‚ ‚  small children and disabled persons. Such standard may be met by
‚ ‚ ‚  the provision of additional mirrors, sensors, cameras, or other
‚ ‚ ‚  technology to expand the driver’s field of view. The Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall prescribe final standards pursuant to this subsection not
‚ ‚ ‚  later than 36 months after the date of enactment of this Act.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(c) Phase-In Period. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) Phase-in period required. – The safety standards
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) shall establish a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  phase-in period for compliance, as determined by the Secretary,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  and require full compliance with the safety standards not later
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  than 48 months after the date on which the final rule is issued.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) Phase-in priorities. – In establishing the phase-in period
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of the rearward visibility safety standards required under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (b), the Secretary shall consider whether to require
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the phase-in according to different types of motor vehicles based
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  on data demonstrating the frequency by which various types of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicles have been involved in backing incidents resulting
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in injury or death. If the Secretary determines that any type of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle should be given priority, the Secretary shall issue
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  regulations that specify –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(A) which type or types of motor vehicles shall be phased-in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  first; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(B) the percentages by which such motor vehicles shall be
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  phased-in.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(d) Preventing Motor Vehicles From Rolling Away. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) Requirement. – Each motor vehicle with an automatic
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  transmission that includes a ‘park’ position manufactured for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sale after September 1, 2010, shall be equipped with a system
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  that requires the service brake to be depressed before the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  transmission can be shifted out of ‘park’. This system shall
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  function in any starting system key position in which the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  transmission can be shifted out of ‘park’.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) Treatment as motor vehicle safety standard. – A violation
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of paragraph (1) shall be treated as a violation of a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standard prescribed under section 30111 of title
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  49, United States Code, and shall be subject to enforcement by
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary under chapter 301 of such title.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) Publication of noncompliant vehicles. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(A) Information submission. – Not later than 60 days after
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 28, 2008], for the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  current model year and annually thereafter through 2010, each
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle manufacturer shall transmit to the Secretary the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  make and model of motor vehicles with automatic transmissions
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  that include a ‘park’ position that do not comply with the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  requirements of paragraph (1).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(B) Publication. – Not later than 30 days after receiving
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the information submitted under subparagraph (A), the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  shall publish and otherwise make available to the public
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  through the Internet and other means the make and model of the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  applicable motor vehicles that do not comply with the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  requirements of paragraph (1). Any motor vehicle not included
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in the publication under this subparagraph shall be presumed to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  comply with such requirements.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(e) Definition of Motor Vehicle. – As used in this Act and for
‚ ‚ ‚  purposes of the motor vehicle safety standards described in
‚ ‚ ‚  subsections (a) and (b), the term ‘motor vehicle’ has the meaning
‚ ‚ ‚  given such term in section 30102(a)(6) of title 49, United States
‚ ‚ ‚  Code, except that such term shall not include –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) a motorcycle or trailer (as such terms are defined in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 571.3 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations); or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) any motor vehicle that is rated at more than 10,000 pounds
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  gross vehicular weight.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(f) Database on Injuries and Deaths in Nontraffic, Noncrash
‚ ‚ ‚  Events. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) In general. – Not later than 12 months after the date of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the enactment of this Act [Feb. 28, 2008], the Secretary shall
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  establish and maintain a database of injuries and deaths in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  nontraffic, noncrash events involving motor vehicles.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) Contents. – The database established pursuant to paragraph
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) shall include information regarding –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(A) the number, types, and causes of injuries and deaths
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  resulting from the events described in paragraph (1);
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(B) the make, model, and model year of motor vehicles
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  involved in such events, when practicable; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(C) other variables that the Secretary determines will
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  enhance the value of the database.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) Availability. – The Secretary shall make the information
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  contained in the database established pursuant to paragraph (1)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  available to the public through the Internet and other means.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 3. CHILD SAFETY INFORMATION PROGRAM.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) In General. – Not later than 9 months after the date of the
‚ ‚ ‚  enactment of this Act [Feb. 28, 2008], the Secretary shall provide
‚ ‚ ‚  information about hazards to children in nontraffic, noncrash
‚ ‚ ‚  incident situations by –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) supplementing an existing consumer information program
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relating to child safety; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) creating a new consumer information program relating to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  child safety.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Program Requirements. – In carrying out the program under
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (a), the Secretary shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) utilize information collected pursuant to section 2(f)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  regarding nontraffic, noncrash injuries, and other relevant data
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary considers appropriate, to establish priorities for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the program;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) address ways in which parents and caregivers can reduce
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  risks to small children arising from back over incidents,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  hyperthermia in closed motor vehicles, accidental actuation of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  power windows, and any other risks the Secretary determines
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  should be addressed; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) make information related to the program available to the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  public through the Internet and other means.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 4. DEADLINES.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “If the Secretary determines that the deadlines applicable under
‚ ‚ ‚  this Act cannot be met, the Secretary shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) establish new deadlines; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) notify the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation of the Senate of the new deadlines and describing
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the reasons the deadlines specified under this Act could not be
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  met.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  IMPROVING CRITERIA USED IN A RECALL‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 15, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1808, provided
‚ ‚ ‚  that:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) Review of Standards and Criteria Used in Opening a Defect or
‚ ‚ ‚  Noncompliance Investigation. – The Secretary shall, not later than
‚ ‚ ‚  30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 1, 2000],
‚ ‚ ‚  undertake a comprehensive review of all standards, criteria,
‚ ‚ ‚  procedures, and methods, including data management and analysis
‚ ‚ ‚  used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in
‚ ‚ ‚  determining whether to open a defect or noncompliance investigation
‚ ‚ ‚  pursuant to subchapter II or IV of chapter 301 of title 49, United
‚ ‚ ‚  States Code, and shall undertake such steps as may be necessary to
‚ ‚ ‚  update and improve such standards, criteria, procedures, or
‚ ‚ ‚  methods, including data management and analysis.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Report to Congress. – Not later than 1 year after the date
‚ ‚ ‚  of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 1, 2000], the Secretary shall
‚ ‚ ‚  transmit to the Committee on Commerce [now Committee on Energy and
‚ ‚ ‚  Commerce] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on
‚ ‚ ‚  Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report
‚ ‚ ‚  describing the Secretary’s findings and actions under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (a).”

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30112‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30112. Prohibitions on manufacturing, selling, and importing
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  noncomplying motor vehicles and equipment

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) General. – (1) Except as provided in this section, sections
‚ ‚ ‚  30113 and 30114 of this title, and subchapter III of this chapter,
‚ ‚ ‚  a person may not manufacture for sale, sell, offer for sale,
‚ ‚ ‚  introduce or deliver for introduction in interstate commerce, or
‚ ‚ ‚  import into the United States, any motor vehicle or motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  equipment manufactured on or after the date an applicable motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter takes effect
‚ ‚ ‚  unless the vehicle or equipment complies with the standard and is
‚ ‚ ‚  covered by a certification issued under section 30115 of this
‚ ‚ ‚  title.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) Except as provided in this section, sections 30113 and 30114
‚ ‚ ‚  of this title, and subchapter III of this chapter, a school or
‚ ‚ ‚  school system may not purchase or lease a new 15-passenger van if
‚ ‚ ‚  it will be used significantly by, or on behalf of, the school or
‚ ‚ ‚  school system to transport preprimary, primary, or secondary school
‚ ‚ ‚  students to or from school or an event related to school, unless
‚ ‚ ‚  the 15-passenger van complies with the motor vehicle standards
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed for school buses and multifunction school activity buses
‚ ‚ ‚  under this title. This paragraph does not apply to the purchase or
‚ ‚ ‚  lease of a 15-passenger van under a contract executed before the
‚ ‚ ‚  date of enactment of this paragraph.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Nonapplication. – This section does not apply to –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) the sale, offer for sale, or introduction or delivery for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  introduction in interstate commerce of a motor vehicle or motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle equipment after the first purchase of the vehicle or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment in good faith other than for resale;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) a person –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) establishing that the person had no reason to know,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  despite exercising reasonable care, that a motor vehicle or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle equipment does not comply with applicable motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standards prescribed under this chapter; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) holding, without knowing about the noncompliance and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  before the vehicle or equipment is first purchased in good
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  faith other than for resale, a certificate issued by a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer or importer stating the vehicle or equipment
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  complies with applicable standards prescribed under this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  chapter;

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment intended only
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for export, labeled for export on the vehicle or equipment and on
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the outside of any container of the vehicle or equipment, and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  exported;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) a motor vehicle the Secretary of Transportation decides
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  under section 30141 of this title is capable of complying with
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  applicable standards prescribed under this chapter;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (5) a motor vehicle imported for personal use by an individual
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  who receives an exemption under section 30142 of this title;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (6) a motor vehicle under section 30143 of this title imported
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  by an individual employed outside the United States;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (7) a motor vehicle under section 30144 of this title imported
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  on a temporary basis;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (8) a motor vehicle or item of motor vehicle equipment under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30145 of this title requiring further manufacturing; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (9) a motor vehicle that is at least 25 years old.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 945; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  109-59, title X, Sec. 10309(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1942.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30112(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(A).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(a)(1)(A),‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  80 Stat. 722; Oct. 27, 1974,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  103(a)(1), 88 Stat. 1477;‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  100-562, Sec. 2(c), (d), 102
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 2824.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(1).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108(c)(1), (i); added Oct.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  31, 1988, Pub. L. 100-562,‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 2(b), 102 Stat. 2818,‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2823.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30112(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(2)(D),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1)-(3)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b)(1) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(a)(2)(D),‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence), (2).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b)(1) (1st sentence), (2),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  80 Stat. 722; Oct. 27, 1974,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  103(a)(1), 88 Stat. 1477,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(b)(3).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(b)(3), 80‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 723; Oct. 27, 1974,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  103(a)(1)(B), 88 Stat. 1478;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  100-562, Sec. 2(a), 102‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 2818.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30112(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (no source).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4)-(8)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30112(b)(9)‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(i).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the words “Except as provided in this section
‚ ‚ ‚  . . . and subchapter III of this chapter” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(1) to eliminate unnecessary words and because of the
‚ ‚ ‚  restatement. The reference to section 30113 is added for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b), before clause (1), the text of
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(2)(D) is omitted as obsolete because under section 30124
‚ ‚ ‚  of the revised title a standard prescribed under this chapter may
‚ ‚ ‚  not allow compliance by use of a safety belt interlock or a
‚ ‚ ‚  continuous buzzer. In clause (2)(A), the words “despite exercising
‚ ‚ ‚  reasonable care” are substituted for “in the exercise of due care”
‚ ‚ ‚  for clarity and consistency in the revised title. The words “motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standards prescribed under this chapter” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “Federal motor vehicle safety standards” for
‚ ‚ ‚  clarity and consistency in this chapter. In clause (2)(B), the
‚ ‚ ‚  words “without knowing about the noncompliance” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “unless such person knows that such vehicle or equipment does not
‚ ‚ ‚  so conform” to eliminate unnecessary words and for consistency in
‚ ‚ ‚  the revised title. Clauses (4)-(8) are added to provide cross-
‚ ‚ ‚  references to sections restating exceptions to the general rule
‚ ‚ ‚  restated in subsection (a) of this section.

-REFTEXT-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  REFERENCES IN TEXT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The date of enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec.
‚ ‚ ‚  (a)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109-59, which was
‚ ‚ ‚  approved Aug. 10, 2005.
-MISC2-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2005 – Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109-59, which directed amendment of
‚ ‚ ‚  section 30112(a), without specifying the title to be amended, by
‚ ‚ ‚  designating existing provisions as par. (1) and adding par. (2),
‚ ‚ ‚  was executed to this section, to reflect the probable intent of
‚ ‚ ‚  Congress.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30113‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30113. General exemptions

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Definition. – In this section, “low-emission motor vehicle”
‚ ‚ ‚  means a motor vehicle meeting the standards for new motor vehicles
‚ ‚ ‚  applicable to the vehicle under section 202 of the Clean Air Act
‚ ‚ ‚  (42 U.S.C. 7521) when the vehicle is manufactured and emitting an
‚ ‚ ‚  air pollutant in an amount significantly below one of those
‚ ‚ ‚  standards.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Authority To Exempt and Procedures. – (1) The Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation may exempt, on a temporary basis, motor vehicles
‚ ‚ ‚  from a motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter
‚ ‚ ‚  or passenger motor vehicles from a bumper standard prescribed under
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter 325 of this title, on terms the Secretary considers
‚ ‚ ‚  appropriate. An exemption may be renewed. A renewal may be granted
‚ ‚ ‚  only on reapplication and must conform to the requirements of this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretary may begin a proceeding under this subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  when a manufacturer applies for an exemption or a renewal of an
‚ ‚ ‚  exemption. The Secretary shall publish notice of the application
‚ ‚ ‚  and provide an opportunity to comment. An application for an
‚ ‚ ‚  exemption or for a renewal of an exemption shall be filed at a time
‚ ‚ ‚  and in the way, and contain information, this section and the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary require.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) The Secretary may act under this subsection on finding that –
‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) an exemption is consistent with the public interest and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  this chapter or chapter 325 of this title (as applicable); and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B)(i) compliance with the standard would cause substantial
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  economic hardship to a manufacturer that has tried to comply with
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the standard in good faith;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (ii) the exemption would make easier the development or field
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  evaluation of a new motor vehicle safety feature providing a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  safety level at least equal to the safety level of the standard;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (iii) the exemption would make the development or field
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  evaluation of a low-emission motor vehicle easier and would not
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  unreasonably lower the safety level of that vehicle; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (iv) compliance with the standard would prevent the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer from selling a motor vehicle with an overall safety
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  level at least equal to the overall safety level of nonexempt
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicles.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Contents of Applications. – A manufacturer applying for an
‚ ‚ ‚  exemption under subsection (b) of this section shall include the
‚ ‚ ‚  following information in the application:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) if the application is made under subsection (b)(3)(B)(i) of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  this section, a complete financial statement describing the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  economic hardship and a complete description of the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer’s good faith effort to comply with each motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter, or a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  bumper standard prescribed under chapter 325 of this title, from
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  which the manufacturer is requesting an exemption.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) if the application is made under subsection (b)(3)(B)(ii)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of this section, a record of the research, development, and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  testing establishing the innovative nature of the safety feature
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  and a detailed analysis establishing that the safety level of the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  feature at least equals the safety level of the standard.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) if the application is made under subsection (b)(3)(B)(iii)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of this section, a record of the research, development, and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  testing establishing that the motor vehicle is a low-emission
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle and that the safety level of the vehicle is not
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  lowered unreasonably by exemption from the standard.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) if the application is made under subsection (b)(3)(B)(iv)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of this section, a detailed analysis showing how the vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  provides an overall safety level at least equal to the overall
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  safety level of nonexempt vehicles.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Eligibility. – A manufacturer is eligible for an exemption
‚ ‚ ‚  under subsection (b)(3)(B)(i) of this section (including an
‚ ‚ ‚  exemption under subsection (b)(3)(B)(i) relating to a bumper
‚ ‚ ‚  standard referred to in subsection (b)(1)) only if the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  determines that the manufacturer’s total motor vehicle production
‚ ‚ ‚  in the most recent year of production is not more than 10,000. A
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer is eligible for an exemption under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (b)(3)(B)(ii), (iii), or (iv) of this section only if the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  determines the exemption is for not more than 2,500 vehicles to be
‚ ‚ ‚  sold in the United States in any 12-month period.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Maximum Period. – An exemption or renewal under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (b)(3)(B)(i) of this section may be granted for not more than 3
‚ ‚ ‚  years. An exemption or renewal under subsection (b)(3)(B)(ii),
‚ ‚ ‚  (iii), or (iv) of this section may be granted for not more than 2
‚ ‚ ‚  years.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (f) Disclosure. – The Secretary may make public, by the 10th day
‚ ‚ ‚  after an application is filed, information contained in the
‚ ‚ ‚  application or relevant to the application unless the information
‚ ‚ ‚  concerns or is related to a trade secret or other confidential
‚ ‚ ‚  information not relevant to the application.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (g) Notice of Decision. – The Secretary shall publish in the
‚ ‚ ‚  Federal Register a notice of each decision granting an exemption
‚ ‚ ‚  under this section and the reasons for granting it.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (h) Permanent Label Requirement. – The Secretary shall require a
‚ ‚ ‚  permanent label to be fixed to a motor vehicle granted an exemption
‚ ‚ ‚  under this section. The label shall either name or describe each
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter or
‚ ‚ ‚  bumper standard prescribed under chapter 325 of this title from
‚ ‚ ‚  which the vehicle is exempt. The Secretary may require that written
‚ ‚ ‚  notice of an exemption be delivered by appropriate means to the
‚ ‚ ‚  dealer and the first purchaser of the vehicle other than for
‚ ‚ ‚  resale.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 945; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  105-277, div. A, Sec. 101(g) [title III, Sec. 351(a)], Oct. 21,
‚ ‚ ‚  1998, 112 Stat. 2681-439, 2681-475.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30113(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410(g).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  123; added Apr. 10, 1968,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 90-283, 82 Stat. 72;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  restated Oct. 25, 1972, Pub.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  L. 92-548, Sec. 3, 86 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1159.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30113(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410(a) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence), (c)(1)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (23d-last words),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) (23d-last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  words).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30113(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410(e).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30113(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410(d).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30113(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410(c)(1)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1st-22d words),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) (1st-22d words).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30113(f)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410(f).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30113(g)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410(a) (last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30113(h)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410(b).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the words “the term” and “type of” are omitted
‚ ‚ ‚  as surplus. The words “when the vehicle is manufactured” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “at the time of manufacture” for consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1), the words “Except as provided in subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (d) of this section” are omitted as surplus. The words “to such
‚ ‚ ‚  extent” are omitted as being included in “on terms the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  considers appropriate”.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(2), the words “The Secretary may begin a
‚ ‚ ‚  proceeding under this subsection . . . for an exemption or a
‚ ‚ ‚  renewal of an exemption” are added because of the restatement. The
‚ ‚ ‚  words “of the application” are added for clarity. The words “An
‚ ‚ ‚  application for an exemption or for a renewal of an exemption shall
‚ ‚ ‚  be filed” are added because of the restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(3)(A), the words “such temporary” and “the
‚ ‚ ‚  objectives of” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(3)(B)(i), the words “to a manufacturer that”
‚ ‚ ‚  are substituted for “such manufacturer . . . and that the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “from which
‚ ‚ ‚  it requests to be exempted” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(3)(B)(ii), the words “from which an exemption
‚ ‚ ‚  is sought” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(3)(B)(iii), the words “lower the safety level”
‚ ‚ ‚  are substituted for “degrade the safety” for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(3)(B)(iv), the word “requiring” is omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “the following
‚ ‚ ‚  information” are added for clarity. In clause (1), the word
‚ ‚ ‚  “describing” is substituted for “the basis of showing” to eliminate
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary words. The words “each motor vehicle safety standard
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter from which the manufacturer is
‚ ‚ ‚  requesting an exemption” are substituted for “the standards” for
‚ ‚ ‚  clarity. In clauses (2) and (3), the words “a record” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “documentation” for consistency in the revised
‚ ‚ ‚  title. In clause (2), the words “establishing that the safety level
‚ ‚ ‚  of the feature at least equals the safety level of the standard”
‚ ‚ ‚  are substituted for “establishing that the level of safety of the
‚ ‚ ‚  new safety feature is equivalent to or exceeds the level of safety
‚ ‚ ‚  established in the standard from which the exemption is sought”
‚ ‚ ‚  because of the restatement. In clause (3), the word “level” is
‚ ‚ ‚  added, and the words “lowered . . . by exemption from the standard”
‚ ‚ ‚  are substituted for “degraded”, for consistency in this section. In
‚ ‚ ‚  clause (4), the words “at least equal to” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “equivalent to or exceeding” for consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (f), the text of 15:1410(f) (1st sentence) is
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as executed. The words “under this section all” and “other
‚ ‚ ‚  information” are omitted as surplus. The words “to the application”
‚ ‚ ‚  are substituted for “thereto” for clarity. The words “business” and
‚ ‚ ‚  “for exemption” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (g), the words “The Secretary” are added for
‚ ‚ ‚  clarity. The word “temporary” is omitted as surplus. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “under this section” are added for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (h), the words “a . . . label to be fixed to a
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle granted an exemption under this section” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “labeling of each exempted motor vehicle . . . and
‚ ‚ ‚  be affixed to such exempted vehicles” for clarity. The words “of
‚ ‚ ‚  such exempted motor vehicle in such manner as he deems” are omitted
‚ ‚ ‚  as surplus. The words “motor vehicle safety standard prescribed
‚ ‚ ‚  under this chapter” are substituted for “the standards” for clarity
‚ ‚ ‚  and consistency in this chapter.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1998 – Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 101(g) [title III,
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 351(a)(1)(A)], inserted “or passenger motor vehicles from a
‚ ‚ ‚  bumper standard prescribed under chapter 325 of this title,” after
‚ ‚ ‚  “a motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter”.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 101(g) [title III, Sec.
‚ ‚ ‚  351(a)(1)(B)], inserted “or chapter 325 of this title (as
‚ ‚ ‚  applicable)” after “this chapter”.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 101(g) [title III, Sec.
‚ ‚ ‚  351(a)(2)], inserted “, or a bumper standard prescribed under
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter 325 of this title,” after “motor vehicle safety standard
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter”.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 101(g) [title III, Sec.
‚ ‚ ‚  351(a)(3)], inserted “(including an exemption under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (b)(3)(B)(i) relating to a bumper standard referred to in
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (b)(1))” after “subsection (b)(3)(B)(i) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  section”.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105-277, Sec. 101(g) [title III, Sec.
‚ ‚ ‚  351(a)(4)], inserted “or bumper standard prescribed under chapter
‚ ‚ ‚  325 of this title” after “each motor vehicle safety standard
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter”.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30114‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30114. Special exemptions

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The Secretary of Transportation may exempt a motor vehicle or
‚ ‚ ‚  item of motor vehicle equipment from section 30112(a) of this title
‚ ‚ ‚  on terms the Secretary decides are necessary for research,
‚ ‚ ‚  investigations, demonstrations, training, competitive racing
‚ ‚ ‚  events, show, or display.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 947; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  105-178, title VII, Sec. 7107(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 469.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30114‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(j).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108(j); added Oct. 31, 1988,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 100-562, Sec. 2(b),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102 Stat. 2824.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The word “conditions” is omitted as being included in “terms”,
‚ ‚ ‚  and the word “studies” is omitted as being included in “research”.
‚ ‚ ‚  The word “solely” is omitted as unnecessary.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1998 – Pub. L. 105-178 substituted “competitive racing events,
‚ ‚ ‚  show, or display” for “or competitive racing events”.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  TRANSITION RULE‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 105-178, title VII, Sec. 7107(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚  469, provided that: “A person who is the owner of a motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  located in the United States on the date of enactment of this Act
‚ ‚ ‚  [June 9, 1998] may seek an exemption under section 30114 of title
‚ ‚ ‚  49, United States Code, as amended by subsection (a) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  section, for a period of 6 months after the date regulations of the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation promulgated in response to such
‚ ‚ ‚  amendment take effect.”

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30115‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30115. Certification of compliance

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) In General. – A manufacturer or distributor of a motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or motor vehicle equipment shall certify to the distributor
‚ ‚ ‚  or dealer at delivery that the vehicle or equipment complies with
‚ ‚ ‚  applicable motor vehicle safety standards prescribed under this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter. A person may not issue the certificate if, in exercising
‚ ‚ ‚  reasonable care, the person has reason to know the certificate is
‚ ‚ ‚  false or misleading in a material respect. Certification of a
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle must be shown by a label or tag permanently fixed to the
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle. Certification of equipment may be shown by a label or tag
‚ ‚ ‚  on the equipment or on the outside of the container in which the
‚ ‚ ‚  equipment is delivered.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Certification Label. – In the case of the certification label
‚ ‚ ‚  affixed by an intermediate or final stage manufacturer of a motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle built in more than 1 stage, each intermediate or final
‚ ‚ ‚  stage manufacturer shall certify with respect to each applicable
‚ ‚ ‚  Federal motor vehicle safety standard –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) that it has complied with the specifications set forth in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the compliance documentation provided by the incomplete motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle manufacturer in accordance with regulations prescribed by
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) that it has elected to assume responsibility for compliance
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  with that standard.

‚ ‚ ‚  If the intermediate or final stage manufacturer elects to assume
‚ ‚ ‚  responsibility for compliance with the standard covered by the
‚ ‚ ‚  documentation provided by an incomplete motor vehicle manufacturer,
‚ ‚ ‚  the intermediate or final stage manufacturer shall notify the
‚ ‚ ‚  incomplete motor vehicle manufacturer in writing within a
‚ ‚ ‚  reasonable time of affixing the certification label. A violation of
‚ ‚ ‚  this subsection shall not be subject to a civil penalty under
‚ ‚ ‚  section 30165.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 947; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  106-414, Sec. 9, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1805.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30115‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(C),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(a)(1)(C),‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1403).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (related to Sec. 114),‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  80 Stat. 722; Oct. 27, 1974,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  103(a)(1)(A), (2)(B), 88‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 1477, 1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1403.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 114, 80 Stat.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  726.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The words “fail to issue a certificate required by section 1403
‚ ‚ ‚  of this title” in 15:1397(a)(1)(C) and the text of 15:1397(a)(1)(E)
‚ ‚ ‚  (related to 15:1403) are omitted as surplus. The word “certify” is
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “furnish . . . the certification” in 15:1403 to
‚ ‚ ‚  eliminate unnecessary words. The words “the time of” and “of such
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or equipment by such manufacturer or distributor” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus. The words “prescribed under this chapter” are
‚ ‚ ‚  added for clarity. The word “reasonable” is substituted for “due”
‚ ‚ ‚  in 15:1397(a)(1)(C) for consistency in the revised title. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “to the effect that a motor vehicle or item of motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  equipment conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚  standards” are omitted because of the restatement. The words “shown
‚ ‚ ‚  by” are substituted for “in the form of” in 15:1403 for clarity.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2000 – Pub. L. 106-414 designated existing provisions as subsec.
‚ ‚ ‚  (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  FOLLOW-UP REPORT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 16, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1808, provided
‚ ‚ ‚  that: “One year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov.
‚ ‚ ‚  1, 2000], the Secretary of Transportation shall report to the
‚ ‚ ‚  Congress on the implementation of the amendments made by this Act
‚ ‚ ‚  [see Short Title of 2000 Amendment note set out under section 30101
‚ ‚ ‚  of this title] and any recommendations for additional amendments
‚ ‚ ‚  for consumer safety.”

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30116‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30116. Defects and noncompliance found before sale to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  purchaser

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Actions Required of Manufacturers and Distributors. – If,
‚ ‚ ‚  after a manufacturer or distributor sells a motor vehicle or motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle equipment to a distributor or dealer and before the
‚ ‚ ‚  distributor or dealer sells the vehicle or equipment, it is decided
‚ ‚ ‚  that the vehicle or equipment contains a defect related to motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety or does not comply with applicable motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  safety standards prescribed under this chapter –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) the manufacturer or distributor immediately shall
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  repurchase the vehicle or equipment at the price paid by the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  distributor or dealer, plus transportation charges and reasonable
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  reimbursement of at least one percent a month of the price paid
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  prorated from the date of notice of noncompliance or defect to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the date of repurchase; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) if a vehicle, the manufacturer or distributor immediately
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  shall give to the distributor or dealer at the manufacturer’s or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  distributor’s own expense, the part or equipment needed to make
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the vehicle comply with the standards or correct the defect.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Distributor or Dealer Installation. – The distributor or
‚ ‚ ‚  dealer shall install the part or equipment referred to in
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (a)(2) of this section. If the distributor or dealer
‚ ‚ ‚  installs the part or equipment with reasonable diligence after it
‚ ‚ ‚  is received, the manufacturer shall reimburse the distributor or
‚ ‚ ‚  dealer for the reasonable value of the installation and a
‚ ‚ ‚  reasonable reimbursement of at least one percent a month of the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer’s or distributor’s selling price prorated from the
‚ ‚ ‚  date of notice of noncompliance or defect to the date the motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle complies with applicable motor vehicle safety standards
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter or the defect is corrected.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Establishing Amount Due and Civil Actions. – The parties
‚ ‚ ‚  shall establish the value of installation and the amount of
‚ ‚ ‚  reimbursement under this section. If the parties do not agree, or
‚ ‚ ‚  if a manufacturer or distributor refuses to comply with subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (a) or (b) of this section, the distributor or dealer purchasing
‚ ‚ ‚  the motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment may bring a civil
‚ ‚ ‚  action. The action may be brought in a United States district court
‚ ‚ ‚  for the judicial district in which the manufacturer or distributor
‚ ‚ ‚  resides, is found, or has an agent, to recover damages, court
‚ ‚ ‚  costs, and a reasonable attorney’s fee. An action under this
‚ ‚ ‚  section must be brought not later than 3 years after the claim
‚ ‚ ‚  accrues.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 947.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30116(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1400(a) (less‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) (last 97‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 111, 80 Stat.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  words)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  724.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30116(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1400(a)(2) (last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  97 words).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30116(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1400(b), (c).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(1), the words “as the case may be”, “from such
‚ ‚ ‚  distributor or dealer”, “all . . . involved”, and “by the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer or distributor” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(2), the words “manufacturer’s or distributor’s”
‚ ‚ ‚  are substituted for “his” for clarity. The words “or parts” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted because of 1:1. The words “the vehicle comply with the
‚ ‚ ‚  standards or correct the defect” are substituted for “conforming”
‚ ‚ ‚  for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b), the words “the part or equipment referred to
‚ ‚ ‚  in subsection (a)(2) of this section” are added because of the
‚ ‚ ‚  restatement. The words “If the distributor or dealer installs the
‚ ‚ ‚  part or equipment with reasonable diligence after it is received,
‚ ‚ ‚  the manufacturer shall reimburse the distributor or dealer” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “and for the installation involved the manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚  shall reimburse such distributor or dealer . . . Provided, however,
‚ ‚ ‚  That the distributor or dealer proceeds with reasonable diligence
‚ ‚ ‚  with the installation after the required part, parts or equipment
‚ ‚ ‚  are received” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “on or in
‚ ‚ ‚  such vehicle” are omitted as surplus. The words “notice of
‚ ‚ ‚  noncompliance or defect” are substituted for “notice of such
‚ ‚ ‚  nonconformance”, and the words “complies with applicable motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standards prescribed under this chapter or the
‚ ‚ ‚  defect is corrected” are substituted for “is brought into
‚ ‚ ‚  conformance with applicable Federal standards”, to eliminate
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary words and for consistency in the revised title.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c), the words “the amount of reimbursement” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “such reasonable reimbursements” for clarity and
‚ ‚ ‚  because of the restatement. The words “by mutual agreement” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus. The words “If the parties do not agree” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “or failing such agreement”, and the words “by the
‚ ‚ ‚  court pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section”
‚ ‚ ‚  are omitted, because of the restatement. The words “the
‚ ‚ ‚  requirements of”, “then”, “as the case may be”, and “without
‚ ‚ ‚  respect to the amount in controversy” are omitted as surplus. The
‚ ‚ ‚  words “civil action” are substituted for “suit” because of rule 2
‚ ‚ ‚  of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “against such manufacturer or distributor” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚  The word “judicial” is added for consistency. The words “to recover
‚ ‚ ‚  damages, court costs, and a reasonable attorney’s fee” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “and shall recover the damage by him sustained, as
‚ ‚ ‚  well as all court costs plus reasonable attorneys’ fees”, and the
‚ ‚ ‚  words “must be brought” are substituted for “shall be forever
‚ ‚ ‚  barred unless commenced”, to eliminate unnecessary words. The word
‚ ‚ ‚  “claim” is substituted for “cause of action” for consistency.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30117‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30117. Providing information to, and maintaining records on,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  purchasers

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Providing Information and Notice. – The Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation may require that each manufacturer of a motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or motor vehicle equipment provide technical information
‚ ‚ ‚  related to performance and safety required to carry out this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter. The Secretary may require the manufacturer to give the
‚ ‚ ‚  following notice of that information when the Secretary decides it
‚ ‚ ‚  is necessary:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) to each prospective purchaser of a vehicle or equipment
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  before the first sale other than for resale at each location at
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  which the vehicle or equipment is offered for sale by a person
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  having a legal relationship with the manufacturer, in a way the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary decides is appropriate.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) to the first purchaser of a vehicle or equipment other than
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for resale when the vehicle or equipment is bought, in printed
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  matter placed in the vehicle or attached to or accompanying the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Maintaining Purchaser Records and Procedures. – (1) A
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer of a motor vehicle or tire (except a retreaded tire)
‚ ‚ ‚  shall cause to be maintained a record of the name and address of
‚ ‚ ‚  the first purchaser of each vehicle or tire it produces and, to the
‚ ‚ ‚  extent prescribed by regulations of the Secretary, shall cause to
‚ ‚ ‚  be maintained a record of the name and address of the first
‚ ‚ ‚  purchaser of replacement equipment (except a tire) that the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer produces. The Secretary may prescribe by regulation
‚ ‚ ‚  the records to be maintained and reasonable procedures for
‚ ‚ ‚  maintaining the records under this subsection, including procedures
‚ ‚ ‚  to be followed by distributors and dealers to assist the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer in obtaining the information required by this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection. A procedure shall be reasonable for the type of vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  or tire involved, and shall provide reasonable assurance that a
‚ ‚ ‚  customer list of a distributor or dealer, or similar information,
‚ ‚ ‚  will be made available to a person (except the distributor or
‚ ‚ ‚  dealer) only when necessary to carry out this subsection and
‚ ‚ ‚  sections 30118-30121, 30166(f), and 30167(a) and (b) of this title.
‚ ‚ ‚  Availability of assistance from a distributor or dealer does not
‚ ‚ ‚  affect an obligation of a manufacturer under this subsection.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2)(A) Except as provided in paragraph (3) of this subsection,
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary may require a distributor or dealer to maintain a
‚ ‚ ‚  record under paragraph (1) of this subsection only if the business
‚ ‚ ‚  of the distributor or dealer is owned or controlled by a
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer of tires.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) The Secretary shall require each distributor and dealer whose
‚ ‚ ‚  business is not owned or controlled by a manufacturer of tires to
‚ ‚ ‚  give a registration form (containing the tire identification
‚ ‚ ‚  number) to the first purchaser of a tire. The Secretary shall
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribe the form, which shall be standardized for all tires and
‚ ‚ ‚  designed to allow the purchaser to complete and return it directly
‚ ‚ ‚  to the manufacturer of the tire. The manufacturer shall give
‚ ‚ ‚  sufficient copies of forms to distributors and dealers.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3)(A) The Secretary shall evaluate from time to time how
‚ ‚ ‚  successful the procedures under paragraph (2) of this subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  have been in helping to maintain records about first purchasers of
‚ ‚ ‚  tires. After each evaluation, the Secretary shall decide –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (i) the extent to which distributors and dealers have complied
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  with the procedures;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (ii) the extent to which distributors and dealers have
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  encouraged first purchasers of tires to register the tires; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (iii) whether to prescribe for manufacturers, distributors, or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  dealers other requirements that the Secretary decides will
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  increase significantly the percentage of first purchasers of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  tires about whom records are maintained.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) The Secretary may prescribe a requirement under subparagraph
‚ ‚ ‚  (A) of this paragraph only if the Secretary decides it is necessary
‚ ‚ ‚  to reduce the risk to motor vehicle safety, after considering –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (i) the cost of the requirement to manufacturers and the burden
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of the requirement on distributors and dealers, compared to the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  increase in the percentage of first purchasers of tires about
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  whom records would be maintained as a result of the requirement;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (ii) the extent to which distributors and dealers have complied
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  with the procedures in paragraph (2) of this subsection; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (iii) the extent to which distributors and dealers have
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  encouraged first purchasers of tires to register the tires.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) A manufacturer of tires shall reimburse distributors and
‚ ‚ ‚  dealers of that manufacturer’s tires for all reasonable costs
‚ ‚ ‚  incurred by the distributors and dealers in complying with a
‚ ‚ ‚  requirement prescribed by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) of
‚ ‚ ‚  this paragraph.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (D) After making a decision under subparagraph (A) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  paragraph, the Secretary shall submit to each House of Congress a
‚ ‚ ‚  report containing a detailed statement of the decision and an
‚ ‚ ‚  explanation of the reasons for the decision.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Rollover Tests. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) Development. – Not later than 2 years from the date of the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) develop a dynamic test on rollovers by motor vehicles for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the purposes of a consumer information program; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) carry out a program of conducting such tests.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) Test results. – As the Secretary develops a test under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary shall conduct a rulemaking to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  determine how best to disseminate test results to the public.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) Motor vehicles covered. – This subsection applies to motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicles, including passenger cars, multipurpose passenger
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicles, and trucks, with a gross vehicle weight rating of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  10,000 pounds or less. A motor vehicle designed to provide
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  temporary residential accommodations is not covered.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 948; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  106-414, Sec. 12, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1806.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30117(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (as‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(a)(1)(B)‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1397(a)(1)(B), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to Sec. 112(d)),‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relates to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (D) (related to Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(d)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  158(b)), (E) (related to‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 112(d)), 80 Stat. 722;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Oct. 27, 1974, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  93-492, Sec. 103(a)(1)(A),‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2), (3), 88 Stat. 1477,‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(d).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 112(d), 80‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 725; May 22, 1970,‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 91-265, Sec. 3, 84‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 262.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30117(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1418(b)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1418(b)(1).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  158(b)(1); added Oct. 27,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102(a), 88 Stat. 1476; Nov.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  6, 1978, Pub. L. 95-599,‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 317, 92 Stat. 2752;‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Oct. 15, 1982, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  97-331, Sec. 4(a)(1), 96‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 1619.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1418(b)(2), (3).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  158(b)(2), (3); added Oct.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15, 1982, Pub. L. 97-331,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 4(a)(2), 96 Stat. 1620.
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In this section, the text of 15:1397(a)(1)(B) (related to
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(d)), (D) (related to 15:1418(b)), and (E) (related to
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(d)) is omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “such performance
‚ ‚ ‚  data and other”, “as may be”, “the purposes of”, “performance and
‚ ‚ ‚  technical”, and “to carry out the purposes of this chapter” the 2d
‚ ‚ ‚  time they appear are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words
‚ ‚ ‚  “such manufacturer’s” and “which may include, but is not limited
‚ ‚ ‚  to, printed matter (A) available for retention by such prospective
‚ ‚ ‚  purchaser and (B) sent by mail to such prospective purchaser upon
‚ ‚ ‚  his request” are omitted as surplus. The words “legal relationship”
‚ ‚ ‚  are substituted for “contractual, proprietary, or other legal
‚ ‚ ‚  relationship” to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1), the word “cause to be maintained” is
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “cause the establishment and maintenance of” to
‚ ‚ ‚  eliminate unnecessary words. The words “prescribe by regulation”
‚ ‚ ‚  are substituted for “by rule, specify” for consistency and because
‚ ‚ ‚  “rule” and “regulation” are synonymous. The words “under this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection” are added for clarity. The word “involved” is
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “for which they are prescribed” to eliminate
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary words. The words “the purpose of” and “except that . .
‚ ‚ ‚  . or not” are omitted as surplus. The words “from a distributor or
‚ ‚ ‚  dealer” are added for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(3)(A), before clause (i), the words “At the end
‚ ‚ ‚  of the two-year period following the effective date of this
‚ ‚ ‚  paragraph” are omitted as expired. In clause (iii), the words “(or
‚ ‚ ‚  any combination of such groups)” are omitted as unnecessary.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(3)(B), before clause (i), the words “may
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribe a requirement” are substituted for “may order by rule the
‚ ‚ ‚  imposition of requirements” for consistency and to eliminate
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary words.

-REFTEXT-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  REFERENCES IN TEXT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in
‚ ‚ ‚  subsec. (c)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106-414, which
‚ ‚ ‚  was approved Nov. 1, 2000.
-MISC2-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2000 – Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106-414 added subsec. (c).

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15-PASSENGER VAN SAFETY‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 109-59, title X, Sec. 10309(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚  1942, provided that:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) In general. – The Secretary of Transportation shall require
‚ ‚ ‚  the testing of 15-passenger vans as part of the rollover resistance
‚ ‚ ‚  program of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s new
‚ ‚ ‚  car assessment program.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) 15-passenger van defined. – In this subsection, the term ’15-
‚ ‚ ‚  passenger van’ means a vehicle that seats 10 to 14 passengers, not
‚ ‚ ‚  including the driver.”

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30118‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30118. Notification of defects and noncompliance

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Notification by Secretary. – The Secretary of Transportation
‚ ‚ ‚  shall notify the manufacturer of a motor vehicle or replacement
‚ ‚ ‚  equipment immediately after making an initial decision (through
‚ ‚ ‚  testing, inspection, investigation, or research carried out under
‚ ‚ ‚  this chapter, examining communications under section 30166(f) of
‚ ‚ ‚  this title, or otherwise) that the vehicle or equipment contains a
‚ ‚ ‚  defect related to motor vehicle safety or does not comply with an
‚ ‚ ‚  applicable motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter. The notification shall include the information on which
‚ ‚ ‚  the decision is based. The Secretary shall publish a notice of each
‚ ‚ ‚  decision under this subsection in the Federal Register. Subject to
‚ ‚ ‚  section 30167(a) of this title, the notification and information
‚ ‚ ‚  are available to any interested person.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Defect and Noncompliance Proceedings and Orders. – (1) The
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary may make a final decision that a motor vehicle or
‚ ‚ ‚  replacement equipment contains a defect related to motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  safety or does not comply with an applicable motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚  standard prescribed under this chapter only after giving the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer an opportunity to present information, views, and
‚ ‚ ‚  arguments showing that there is no defect or noncompliance or that
‚ ‚ ‚  the defect does not affect motor vehicle safety. Any interested
‚ ‚ ‚  person also shall be given an opportunity to present information,
‚ ‚ ‚  views, and arguments.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) If the Secretary decides under paragraph (1) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection that the vehicle or equipment contains the defect or
‚ ‚ ‚  does not comply, the Secretary shall order the manufacturer to –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) give notification under section 30119 of this title to the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  owners, purchasers, and dealers of the vehicle or equipment of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the defect or noncompliance; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) remedy the defect or noncompliance under section 30120 of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  this title.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Notification by Manufacturer. – A manufacturer of a motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or replacement equipment shall notify the Secretary by
‚ ‚ ‚  certified mail, and the owners, purchasers, and dealers of the
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or equipment as provided in section 30119(d) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  section, if the manufacturer –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) learns the vehicle or equipment contains a defect and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  decides in good faith that the defect is related to motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  safety; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) decides in good faith that the vehicle or equipment does
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  not comply with an applicable motor vehicle safety standard
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Exemptions. – On application of a manufacturer, the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall exempt the manufacturer from this section if the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  decides a defect or noncompliance is inconsequential to motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety. The Secretary may take action under this subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  only after notice in the Federal Register and an opportunity for
‚ ‚ ‚  any interested person to present information, views, and arguments.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Hearings About Meeting Notification Requirements. – On the
‚ ‚ ‚  motion of the Secretary or on petition of any interested person,
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary may conduct a hearing to decide whether the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer has reasonably met the notification requirements under
‚ ‚ ‚  this section. Any interested person may make written and oral
‚ ‚ ‚  presentations of information, views, and arguments on whether the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer has reasonably met the notification requirements. If
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary decides that the manufacturer has not reasonably met
‚ ‚ ‚  the notification requirements, the Secretary shall order the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer to take specified action to meet those requirements
‚ ‚ ‚  and may take any other action authorized under this chapter.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 950; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  106-346, Sec. 101(a) [title III, Sec. 364], Oct. 23, 2000, 114
‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 1356, 1356A-37; Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 2, Nov. 1, 2000, 114
‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 1800.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30118(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1412(a) (1st-3d ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to Secs. 151, 152,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentences)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  153(c) (1st sentence cl.‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (6)), 156, 157), 80 Stat.‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  722; restated Oct. 27, 1974,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  103(a)(1)(A), (3), 88 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1477, 1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1412(a) (1st-3d ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentences).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Secs.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  151, 152, 156 (related to‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  notice), 157 (related to‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  notice); added Oct. 27,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102(a), 88 Stat. 1470, 1475.
‚ ‚ ‚  30118(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1412(a) (last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence), (b)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1412(a) (last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence), (b).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30118(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1411, 1413(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1st sentence cl.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (6))).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1411.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1413(c) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence cl. (6)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  153(c) (1st sentence cl.‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (6)); added Oct. 27, 1974,‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec. 102(a),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  88 Stat. 1472; Oct. 15,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1982, Pub. L. 97-331, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  4(b)(2), 96 Stat. 1620.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30118(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1417).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1417 (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  notice).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30118(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1416).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1416 (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  notice).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In this section, the text of 15:1397(a)(1)(D) (related to
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1411, 1412, 1413(c) (1st sentence cl. (6)), and 1417) is omitted
‚ ‚ ‚  as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the words “making an initial decision” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “determines” to distinguish the decision from the
‚ ‚ ‚  decision made under subsection (b) of this section. The words “of
‚ ‚ ‚  such determination”, “to the manufacturer”, and “of the Secretary”
‚ ‚ ‚  are omitted as surplus. The words “under this subsection” are added
‚ ‚ ‚  for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1), the words “may make a final decision” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “determines”, and the words “prescribed under this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter” are added, for clarity and consistency in this chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(2), before clause (A), the words “If the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary decides under paragraph (1) of this subsection that the
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or equipment contains a defect or does not comply” are
‚ ‚ ‚  added for clarity and because of the restatement. The words “after
‚ ‚ ‚  such presentations by the manufacturer and interested persons” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus. In clause (A), the words “of the defect or
‚ ‚ ‚  noncompliance” are added for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “A manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚  of a motor vehicle or replacement equipment” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “manufactured by him” in 15:1411 for clarity. The words “shall
‚ ‚ ‚  notify” are substituted for “he shall furnish notification to” to
‚ ‚ ‚  eliminate unnecessary words. The words “to the Secretary, if
‚ ‚ ‚  section 1411 of this title applies” in 15:1413(c) (1st sentence cl.
‚ ‚ ‚  (6)) are omitted because of the restatement. The words “of the
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or equipment” are added for clarity. The words “and he
‚ ‚ ‚  shall remedy the defect or failure to comply in accordance with
‚ ‚ ‚  section 1414 of this title” in 15:1411 are omitted as unnecessary
‚ ‚ ‚  because of the source provisions restated in section 30120 of the
‚ ‚ ‚  revised title.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d), the words “any requirement under”, “to give
‚ ‚ ‚  notice with respect to”, and “as it relates” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus. The words “The Secretary may take action under this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection only” are added because of the restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (e), the words “(including a manufacturer)” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus. The word “information” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “data” for consistency in the revised title.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2000 – Pub. L. 106-346, Sec. 101(a) [title III, Sec. 364], which
‚ ‚ ‚  directed amendment of this section in subsecs. (a), (b)(1), and
‚ ‚ ‚  (c), by inserting “, original equipment,” before “or replacement
‚ ‚ ‚  equipment” wherever appearing, and in subsec. (c), by redesignating
‚ ‚ ‚  pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and
‚ ‚ ‚  realigning margins, by substituting “(1) In general. – A
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer” for “A manufacturer”, and by adding a new par (2)
‚ ‚ ‚  relating to duty of manufacturers, was repealed by Pub. L. 106-414,
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 2. See Construction of 2000 Amendment note below.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  CONSTRUCTION OF 2000 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 2, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1800, provided
‚ ‚ ‚  that: “The amendments made to section 30118 of title 49, United
‚ ‚ ‚  States Code, by section 364 of the Department of Transportation and
‚ ‚ ‚  Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001 [Pub. L. 106-346, Sec.
‚ ‚ ‚  101(a) [title III, Sec. 364], Oct. 23, 2000, 114 Stat. 1356, 1356A-
‚ ‚ ‚  37] are repealed and such section shall be effective as if such
‚ ‚ ‚  amending section had not been enacted.”

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30119‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30119. Notification procedures

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Contents of Notification. – Notification by a manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚  required under section 30118 of this title of a defect or
‚ ‚ ‚  noncompliance shall contain –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) a clear description of the defect or noncompliance;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) an evaluation of the risk to motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  reasonably related to the defect or noncompliance;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) the measures to be taken to obtain a remedy of the defect
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  or noncompliance;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) a statement that the manufacturer giving notice will remedy
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the defect or noncompliance without charge under section 30120 of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  this title;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (5) the earliest date on which the defect or noncompliance will
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  be remedied without charge, and for tires, the period during
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  which the defect or noncompliance will be remedied without charge
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  under section 30120 of this title;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (6) the procedure the recipient of a notice is to follow to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  inform the Secretary of Transportation when a manufacturer,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  distributor, or dealer does not remedy the defect or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  noncompliance without charge under section 30120 of this title;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (7) other information the Secretary prescribes by regulation.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Earliest Remedy Date. – The date specified by a manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚  in a notification under subsection (a)(5) of this section or
‚ ‚ ‚  section 30121(c)(2) of this title is the earliest date that parts
‚ ‚ ‚  and facilities reasonably can be expected to be available to remedy
‚ ‚ ‚  the defect or noncompliance. The Secretary may disapprove the date.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Time for Notification. – Notification required under section
‚ ‚ ‚  30118 of this title shall be given within a reasonable time –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) prescribed by the Secretary, after the manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  receives notice of a final decision under section 30118(b) of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  this title; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) after the manufacturer first decides that a safety-related
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  defect or noncompliance exists under section 30118(c) of this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  title.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Means of Providing Notification. – (1) Notification required
‚ ‚ ‚  under section 30118 of this title about a motor vehicle shall be
‚ ‚ ‚  sent by first class mail –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) to each person registered under State law as the owner and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  whose name and address are reasonably ascertainable by the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer through State records or other available sources; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) if a registered owner is not notified under clause (A) of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  this paragraph, to the most recent purchaser known to the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) Notification required under section 30118 of this title about
‚ ‚ ‚  replacement equipment (except a tire) shall be sent by first class
‚ ‚ ‚  mail to the most recent purchaser known to the manufacturer. In
‚ ‚ ‚  addition, if the Secretary decides that public notice is required
‚ ‚ ‚  for motor vehicle safety, public notice shall be given in the way
‚ ‚ ‚  required by the Secretary after consulting with the manufacturer.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) Notification required under section 30118 of this title about
‚ ‚ ‚  a tire shall be sent by first class mail (or, if the manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚  prefers, by certified mail) to the most recent purchaser known to
‚ ‚ ‚  the manufacturer. In addition, if the Secretary decides that public
‚ ‚ ‚  notice is required for motor vehicle safety, public notice shall be
‚ ‚ ‚  given in the way required by the Secretary after consulting with
‚ ‚ ‚  the manufacturer. In deciding whether public notice is required,
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary shall consider –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) the magnitude of the risk to motor vehicle safety caused by
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the defect or noncompliance; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) the cost of public notice compared to the additional number
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of owners the notice may reach.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) A dealer to whom a motor vehicle or replacement equipment was
‚ ‚ ‚  delivered shall be notified by certified mail or quicker means if
‚ ‚ ‚  available.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Second Notification. – If the Secretary decides that a
‚ ‚ ‚  notification sent by a manufacturer under this section has not
‚ ‚ ‚  resulted in an adequate number of motor vehicles or items of
‚ ‚ ‚  replacement equipment being returned for remedy, the Secretary may
‚ ‚ ‚  order the manufacturer to send a 2d notification in the way the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary prescribes by regulation.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (f) Notification by Lessor to Lessee. – (1) In this subsection,
‚ ‚ ‚  “leased motor vehicle” means a motor vehicle that is leased to a
‚ ‚ ‚  person for at least 4 months by a lessor that has leased at least 5
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicles in the 12 months before the date of the
‚ ‚ ‚  notification.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) A lessor that receives a notification required by section
‚ ‚ ‚  30118 of this title about a leased motor vehicle shall provide a
‚ ‚ ‚  copy of the notification to the lessee in the way the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribes by regulation.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 951.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30119(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1413(a)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to Secs. 153(a)-(c)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1st sentence cls. (1)-(5),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  last sentence), 154(b)(2)‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2d, last sentences)), 80‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 722; restated Oct. 27,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  103(a)(1)(A), (3), 88 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1477, 1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1413(a).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Secs.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  153(a), (b), 154(b)(2) (2d,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  last sentences); added Oct.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  27, 1974, Pub. L. 93-492,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 102(a), 88 Stat. 1471,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1473.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30119(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(b)(2) (2d,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  last sentences)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(b)(2) (2d,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  last sentences).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30119(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1413(b)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1413(b).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30119(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1413(c) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence cls.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1)-(5), last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1413(c) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence cls.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1)-(5), last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  153(c) (1st sentence cls.‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1)-(5), last sentence);‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  added Oct. 27, 1974, Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  93-492, Sec. 102(a), 88‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 1471, 1472; Oct. 15,‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1982, Pub. L. 97-331, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  4(b), 96 Stat. 1620.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30119(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1413(d).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  153(d), (e); added Dec. 18,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1991, Pub. L. 102-240, Sec.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2504(a), 105 Stat. 2083.‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30119(f)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1413(e).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In this section, the text of 15:1397(a)(1)(D) (related to
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1413(a)-(c) (1st sentence cls. (1)-(5), last sentence),
‚ ‚ ‚  1414(b)(2) (2d, last sentences), and 1416) is omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words “a motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  or item of replacement equipment” are omitted as surplus. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “by a manufacturer” are added for clarity. In clause (3), the words
‚ ‚ ‚  “a statement of” are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the word
‚ ‚ ‚  “remedy” is substituted for “cause . . . to be remedied” to
‚ ‚ ‚  eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (5), the words “(specified
‚ ‚ ‚  in accordance with the second and third sentences of section
‚ ‚ ‚  1414(b)(2) of this title)” are omitted as surplus. In clause (6),
‚ ‚ ‚  the words “a description of” are omitted as surplus. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “under section 30120 of this title” are added for consistency with
‚ ‚ ‚  the source provisions restated in this subsection. In clause (7),
‚ ‚ ‚  the words “in addition to such . . . as” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b), the words “in a notification under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (a)(5) of this section or section 30121(c) of this title” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “In either case” because of the restatement. The
‚ ‚ ‚  words “may disapprove” are substituted for “shall be subject to
‚ ‚ ‚  disapproval by” to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c)(1), the words “Secretary’s” and “that there is
‚ ‚ ‚  a defect or failure to comply” are omitted as surplus. The word
‚ ‚ ‚  “final” is added for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c)(2), the words “decides that a safety-related
‚ ‚ ‚  defect or noncompliance exists” are substituted for “makes a
‚ ‚ ‚  determination with respect to a defect or failure to comply” for
‚ ‚ ‚  clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d), the text of 15:1413(c) (1st sentence words
‚ ‚ ‚  before cl. (1)) is incorporated into each paragraph as appropriate.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d)(1)(A), the words “who is” and “of such vehicle”
‚ ‚ ‚  are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d)(1)(B), the words “if a registered owner is not
‚ ‚ ‚  notified” are substituted for “unless the registered owner (if any)
‚ ‚ ‚  of such vehicle was notified” for clarity. The words “most recent
‚ ‚ ‚  purchaser” are substituted for “first purchaser (or if a more
‚ ‚ ‚  recent purchaser is” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary
‚ ‚ ‚  words. The words “of each such vehicle containing such defect or
‚ ‚ ‚  failure to comply” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d)(3), the words “(or, if the manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚  prefers, by certified mail)” are substituted for 15:1413(c) (last
‚ ‚ ‚  sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d)(4), the words “or dealers” are omitted because
‚ ‚ ‚  of 1:1. The words “of such manufacturer” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (e), the word “replacement” is added for clarity
‚ ‚ ‚  and consistency with the source provisions being restated in
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (d) of this section.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30120‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30120. Remedies for defects and noncompliance

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Ways To Remedy. – (1) Subject to subsections (f) and (g) of
‚ ‚ ‚  this section, when notification of a defect or noncompliance is
‚ ‚ ‚  required under section 30118(b) or (c) of this title, the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer of the defective or noncomplying motor vehicle or
‚ ‚ ‚  replacement equipment shall remedy the defect or noncompliance
‚ ‚ ‚  without charge when the vehicle or equipment is presented for
‚ ‚ ‚  remedy. Subject to subsections (b) and (c) of this section, the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer shall remedy the defect or noncompliance in any of the
‚ ‚ ‚  following ways the manufacturer chooses:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) if a vehicle –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (i) by repairing the vehicle;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (ii) by replacing the vehicle with an identical or reasonably
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equivalent vehicle; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (iii) by refunding the purchase price, less a reasonable
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  allowance for depreciation.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) if replacement equipment, by repairing the equipment or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  replacing the equipment with identical or reasonably equivalent
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe regulations to
‚ ‚ ‚  allow the manufacturer to impose conditions on the replacement of a
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle or refund of its price.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Tire Remedies. – (1) A manufacturer of a tire, including an
‚ ‚ ‚  original equipment tire, shall remedy a defective or noncomplying
‚ ‚ ‚  tire if the owner or purchaser presents the tire for remedy not
‚ ‚ ‚  later than 60 days after the later of –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) the day the owner or purchaser receives notification under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30119 of this title; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) if the manufacturer decides to replace the tire, the day
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the owner or purchaser receives notification that a replacement
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  is available.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) If the manufacturer decides to replace the tire and the
‚ ‚ ‚  replacement is not available during the 60-day period, the owner or
‚ ‚ ‚  purchaser must present the tire for remedy during a subsequent 60-
‚ ‚ ‚  day period that begins only after the owner or purchaser receives
‚ ‚ ‚  notification that a replacement will be available during the
‚ ‚ ‚  subsequent period. If tires are available during the subsequent
‚ ‚ ‚  period, only a tire presented for remedy during that period must be
‚ ‚ ‚  remedied.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Adequacy of Repairs. – (1) If a manufacturer decides to
‚ ‚ ‚  repair a defective or noncomplying motor vehicle or replacement
‚ ‚ ‚  equipment and the repair is not done adequately within a reasonable
‚ ‚ ‚  time, the manufacturer shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) replace the vehicle or equipment without charge with an
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  identical or reasonably equivalent vehicle or equipment; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) for a vehicle, refund the purchase price, less a reasonable
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  allowance for depreciation.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) Failure to repair a motor vehicle or replacement equipment
‚ ‚ ‚  adequately not later than 60 days after its presentation is prima
‚ ‚ ‚  facie evidence of failure to repair within a reasonable time.
‚ ‚ ‚  However, the Secretary may extend, by order, the 60-day period if
‚ ‚ ‚  good cause for an extension is shown and the reason is published in
‚ ‚ ‚  the Federal Register before the period ends. Presentation of a
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or equipment for repair before the date specified by a
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer in a notice under section 30119(a)(5) or 30121(c)(2)
‚ ‚ ‚  of this title is not a presentation under this subsection.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) If the Secretary determines that a manufacturer’s remedy
‚ ‚ ‚  program is not likely to be capable of completion within a
‚ ‚ ‚  reasonable time, the Secretary may require the manufacturer to
‚ ‚ ‚  accelerate the remedy program if the Secretary finds –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) that there is a risk of serious injury or death if the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  remedy program is not accelerated; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) that acceleration of the remedy program can be reasonably
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  achieved by expanding the sources of replacement parts, expanding
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the number of authorized repair facilities, or both.

‚ ‚ ‚  The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out this
‚ ‚ ‚  paragraph.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Filing Manufacturer’s Remedy Program. – A manufacturer shall
‚ ‚ ‚  file with the Secretary a copy of the manufacturer’s program under
‚ ‚ ‚  this section for remedying a defect or noncompliance. The Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall make the program available to the public and publish a notice
‚ ‚ ‚  of availability in the Federal Register. A manufacturer’s remedy
‚ ‚ ‚  program shall include a plan for reimbursing an owner or purchaser
‚ ‚ ‚  who incurred the cost of the remedy within a reasonable time in
‚ ‚ ‚  advance of the manufacturer’s notification under subsection (b) or
‚ ‚ ‚  (c) of section 30118. The Secretary may prescribe regulations
‚ ‚ ‚  establishing what constitutes a reasonable time for purposes of the
‚ ‚ ‚  preceding sentence and other reasonable conditions for the
‚ ‚ ‚  reimbursement plan. In the case of a remedy program involving the
‚ ‚ ‚  replacement of tires, the manufacturer shall include a plan
‚ ‚ ‚  addressing how to prevent, to the extent reasonably within the
‚ ‚ ‚  control of the manufacturer, replaced tires from being resold for
‚ ‚ ‚  installation on a motor vehicle, and how to limit, to the extent
‚ ‚ ‚  reasonably within the control of the manufacturer, the disposal of
‚ ‚ ‚  replaced tires in landfills, particularly through shredding,
‚ ‚ ‚  crumbling, recycling, recovery, and other alternative beneficial
‚ ‚ ‚  non-vehicular uses. The manufacturer shall include information
‚ ‚ ‚  about the implementation of such plan with each quarterly report to
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary regarding the progress of any notification or remedy
‚ ‚ ‚  campaigns.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Hearings About Meeting Remedy Requirements. – On the motion
‚ ‚ ‚  of the Secretary or on application by any interested person, the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary may conduct a hearing to decide whether the manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚  has reasonably met the remedy requirements under this section. Any
‚ ‚ ‚  interested person may make written and oral presentations of
‚ ‚ ‚  information, views, and arguments on whether the manufacturer has
‚ ‚ ‚  reasonably met the remedy requirements. If the Secretary decides a
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer has not reasonably met the remedy requirements, the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary shall order the manufacturer to take specified action to
‚ ‚ ‚  meet those requirements and may take any other action authorized
‚ ‚ ‚  under this chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (f) Fair Reimbursement to Dealers. – A manufacturer shall pay
‚ ‚ ‚  fair reimbursement to a dealer providing a remedy without charge
‚ ‚ ‚  under this section.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (g) Nonapplication. – (1) The requirement that a remedy be
‚ ‚ ‚  provided without charge does not apply if the motor vehicle or
‚ ‚ ‚  replacement equipment was bought by the first purchaser more than
‚ ‚ ‚  10 calendar years, or the tire, including an original equipment
‚ ‚ ‚  tire, was bought by the first purchaser more than 5 calendar years,
‚ ‚ ‚  before notice is given under section 30118(c) of this title or an
‚ ‚ ‚  order is issued under section 30118(b) of this title, whichever is
‚ ‚ ‚  earlier.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) This section does not apply during any period in which
‚ ‚ ‚  enforcement of an order under section 30118(b) of this title is
‚ ‚ ‚  restrained or the order is set aside in a civil action to which
‚ ‚ ‚  section 30121(d) of this title applies.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (h) Exemptions. – On application of a manufacturer, the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall exempt the manufacturer from this section if the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  decides a defect or noncompliance is inconsequential to motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety. The Secretary may take action under this subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  only after notice in the Federal Register and an opportunity for
‚ ‚ ‚  any interested person to present information, views, and arguments.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (i) Limitation on Sale or Lease. – (1) If notification is
‚ ‚ ‚  required by an order under section 30118(b) of this title or is
‚ ‚ ‚  required under section 30118(c) of this title and the manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚  has provided to a dealer (including retailers of motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  equipment) notification about a new motor vehicle or new item of
‚ ‚ ‚  replacement equipment in the dealer’s possession at the time of
‚ ‚ ‚  notification that contains a defect related to motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚  or does not comply with an applicable motor vehicle safety standard
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter, the dealer may sell or lease the
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle or item of replacement equipment only if –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) the defect or noncompliance is remedied as required by this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section before delivery under the sale or lease; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) when the notification is required by an order under section
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  30118(b) of this title, enforcement of the order is restrained or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the order is set aside in a civil action to which section
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  30121(d) of this title applies.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) This subsection does not prohibit a dealer from offering for
‚ ‚ ‚  sale or lease the vehicle or equipment.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (j) Prohibition on Sales of Replaced Equipment. – No person may
‚ ‚ ‚  sell or lease any motor vehicle equipment (including a tire), for
‚ ‚ ‚  installation on a motor vehicle, that is the subject of a decision
‚ ‚ ‚  under section 30118(b) or a notice required under section 30118(c)
‚ ‚ ‚  in a condition that it may be reasonably used for its original
‚ ‚ ‚  purpose unless –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) the defect or noncompliance is remedied as required by this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section before delivery under the sale or lease; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) notification of the defect or noncompliance is required
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  under section 30118(b) but enforcement of the order is set aside
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in a civil action to which section 30121(d) applies.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 952; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  105-178, title VII, Sec. 7106(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 467; Pub.
‚ ‚ ‚  L. 106-414, Secs. 4, 6-8, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1803-1805.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30120(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(a)(1) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to Secs. 154(a),‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence), (2)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b)(1), (2) (1st sentence),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c), 156, 157), 80 Stat.‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  722; restated Oct. 27, 1974,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  103(a)(1)(A), (3), 88 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1477, 1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(a)(1) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence), (2).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Secs.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  154(a), (b)(1), (2) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence), (c), 156 (related
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  to remedy), 157 (related to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  remedy); added Oct. 27,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102(a), 88 Stat. 1472, 1474,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1475.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30120(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(a)(5)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(a)(5).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30120(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(b)(1), (2)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1st sentence)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(b)(1), (2)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1st sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30120(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(c)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(c).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30120(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1416).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1416 (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  remedy).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30120(f)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(a)(3)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(a)(3).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30120(g)(1)‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(a)(4)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(a)(4).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30120(g)(2)‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(a)(1) (last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(a)(1) (last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30120(h)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1417).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1417 (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  remedy).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30120(i)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(d).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  154(d); added Dec. 18, 1991,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 102-240, Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2504(b), 105 Stat. 2083.‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In this section, the text of 15:1397(a)(1)(D) (related to
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1414(a), (b)(1), (2) (1st sentence), and (c), and 1416) is
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words “Subject to
‚ ‚ ‚  subsections (f) and (g) of this section” are added for clarity. The
‚ ‚ ‚  words “with an applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standard . .
‚ ‚ ‚  . which relates to motor vehicle safety” and “pursuant to such
‚ ‚ ‚  notification” are omitted as surplus. The words “shall remedy” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “shall cause such defect or failure to comply in
‚ ‚ ‚  such motor vehicle or such item of replacement equipment to be
‚ ‚ ‚  remedied” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “the defect or
‚ ‚ ‚  noncompliance” are added for clarity. In clauses (A) and (B), the
‚ ‚ ‚  words “without charge” are omitted as unnecessary because of the
‚ ‚ ‚  words “without charge” in this subsection before this clause (A).
‚ ‚ ‚  In clause (A), the words “presented for remedy pursuant to such
‚ ‚ ‚  notification” and “of such motor vehicle in full” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsection (a)(2) is substituted for 15:1414(a)(2)(A) (last
‚ ‚ ‚  sentence) for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words “shall remedy
‚ ‚ ‚  a defective or noncomplying tire if” are substituted for “shall not
‚ ‚ ‚  be obligated to remedy such tire if such tire is not” to eliminate
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary words and for consistency. The words “pursuant to
‚ ‚ ‚  notification” are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the words
‚ ‚ ‚  “decides to replace the tire” are substituted for “elects
‚ ‚ ‚  replacement” for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsection (b)(2) is substituted for 15:1414(a)(5)(B) to
‚ ‚ ‚  eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c)(1), the words before clause (A) are substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  for “Whenever a manufacturer has elected under subsection (a) of
‚ ‚ ‚  this section to cause the repair of a defect in a motor vehicle or
‚ ‚ ‚  item of replacement equipment or of a failure of such vehicle or
‚ ‚ ‚  item of replacement equipment to comply with a motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚  standard, and he has failed to cause such defect or failure to
‚ ‚ ‚  comply to be adequately repaired within a reasonable time, then (A)
‚ ‚ ‚  he shall” to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (A), the word
‚ ‚ ‚  “replace” is substituted for “cause . . . to be replaced” for
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency. In clause (B), the word “refund” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “shall cause . . . to be refunded” for consistency. The words “in
‚ ‚ ‚  full” and “and if the manufacturer so elects)” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c)(2), the word “presentation” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “tender” for clarity. The words “for repair” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus. The last sentence is substituted for 15:1414(b)(2) (1st
‚ ‚ ‚  sentence) because of the restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (e), the words “(including a manufacturer)” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus. The word “information” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “data” for consistency in the revised title.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (f), the word “fair” is substituted for “fair and
‚ ‚ ‚  equitable” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “for such
‚ ‚ ‚  remedy” are omitted as surplus. The words “providing a” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “who effects” for consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (g)(2), the words “In the case of notification
‚ ‚ ‚  required by an order” are omitted as unnecessary. The word “civil”
‚ ‚ ‚  is added because of rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure
‚ ‚ ‚  (28 App. U.S.C.).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (h), the words “any requirement under”, “or to
‚ ‚ ‚  remedy”, and “as it relates” are omitted as surplus. The words “The
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary may take action under this subsection only” are added
‚ ‚ ‚  because of the restatement.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2000 – Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 6(a), added par.
‚ ‚ ‚  (3).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 7, inserted at end “In the
‚ ‚ ‚  case of a remedy program involving the replacement of tires, the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer shall include a plan addressing how to prevent, to the
‚ ‚ ‚  extent reasonably within the control of the manufacturer, replaced
‚ ‚ ‚  tires from being resold for installation on a motor vehicle, and
‚ ‚ ‚  how to limit, to the extent reasonably within the control of the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer, the disposal of replaced tires in landfills,
‚ ‚ ‚  particularly through shredding, crumbling, recycling, recovery, and
‚ ‚ ‚  other alternative beneficial non-vehicular uses. The manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚  shall include information about the implementation of such plan
‚ ‚ ‚  with each quarterly report to the Secretary regarding the progress
‚ ‚ ‚  of any notification or remedy campaigns.”
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 6(b), inserted at end “A manufacturer’s
‚ ‚ ‚  remedy program shall include a plan for reimbursing an owner or
‚ ‚ ‚  purchaser who incurred the cost of the remedy within a reasonable
‚ ‚ ‚  time in advance of the manufacturer’s notification under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (b) or (c) of section 30118. The Secretary may prescribe
‚ ‚ ‚  regulations establishing what constitutes a reasonable time for
‚ ‚ ‚  purposes of the preceding sentence and other reasonable conditions
‚ ‚ ‚  for the reimbursement plan.”
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 4, substituted “10 calendar
‚ ‚ ‚  years” for “8 calendar years” and “5 calendar years” for “3
‚ ‚ ‚  calendar years”.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 8, added subsec. (j).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1998 – Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 105-178 inserted “(including
‚ ‚ ‚  retailers of motor vehicle equipment)” after “provided to a dealer”
‚ ‚ ‚  in introductory provisions.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30121‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30121. Provisional notification and civil actions to enforce

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Provisional Notification. – (1) The Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation may order a manufacturer to issue a provisional
‚ ‚ ‚  notification if a civil action about an order issued under section
‚ ‚ ‚  30118(b) of this title has been brought under section 30163 of this
‚ ‚ ‚  title. The provisional notification shall contain –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) a statement that the Secretary has decided that a defect
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  related to motor vehicle safety or noncompliance with a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter exists and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  that the manufacturer is contesting the decision in a civil
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  action in a United States district court;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) a clear description of the Secretary’s stated basis for the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  decision;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) the Secretary’s evaluation of the risk to motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  safety reasonably related to the defect or noncompliance;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (D) measures the Secretary considers necessary to avoid an
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  unreasonable risk to motor vehicle safety resulting from the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  defect or noncompliance;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) a statement that the manufacturer will remedy the defect or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  noncompliance without charge under section 30120 of this title,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  but that the requirement to remedy without charge is conditioned
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  on the outcome of the civil action; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (F) other information the Secretary prescribes by regulation or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  includes in the order requiring the notice.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) A notification under this subsection does not relieve a
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer of liability for not giving notification required by
‚ ‚ ‚  an order under section 30118(b) of this title.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Civil Actions for Not Notifying. – (1) A manufacturer that
‚ ‚ ‚  does not notify owners and purchasers under section 30119(c) and
‚ ‚ ‚  (d) of this title is liable to the United States Government for a
‚ ‚ ‚  civil penalty, unless the manufacturer prevails in a civil action
‚ ‚ ‚  referred to in subsection (a) of this section or the court in that
‚ ‚ ‚  action enjoins enforcement of the order. Enforcement may be
‚ ‚ ‚  enjoined only if the court decides that the failure to notify is
‚ ‚ ‚  reasonable and that the manufacturer has demonstrated the
‚ ‚ ‚  likelihood of prevailing on the merits. If enforcement is enjoined,
‚ ‚ ‚  the manufacturer is not liable during the time the order is stayed.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) A manufacturer that does not notify owners and purchasers as
‚ ‚ ‚  required under subsection (a) of this section is liable for a civil
‚ ‚ ‚  penalty regardless of whether the manufacturer prevails in an
‚ ‚ ‚  action on the validity of the order issued under section 30118(b)
‚ ‚ ‚  of this title.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Orders to Manufacturers. – If the Secretary prevails in a
‚ ‚ ‚  civil action referred to in subsection (a) of this section, the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary shall order the manufacturer –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) to notify each owner, purchaser, and dealer described in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30119(d) of this title of the outcome of the action and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  other information the Secretary requires, and notification under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  this clause may be combined with notification required under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30118(b) of this title;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) to specify the earliest date under section 30119(b) of this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  title on which the defect or noncompliance will be remedied
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  without charge under section 30120 of this title; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) if notification was required under subsection (a) of this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section, to reimburse an owner or purchaser for reasonable and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  necessary expenses (in an amount that is not more than the amount
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  specified in the order of the Secretary under subsection (a))
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  incurred for repairing the defect or noncompliance during the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  period beginning on the date that notification was required to be
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  issued and ending on the date the owner or purchaser receives the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  notification under this subsection.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Venue. – Notwithstanding section 30163(c) of this title, a
‚ ‚ ‚  civil action about an order issued under section 30118(b) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  title must be brought in the United States district court for a
‚ ‚ ‚  judicial district in the State in which the manufacturer is
‚ ‚ ‚  incorporated or the District of Columbia. On motion of a party, the
‚ ‚ ‚  court may transfer the action to another district court if good
‚ ‚ ‚  cause is shown. All actions related to the same order under section
‚ ‚ ‚  30118(b) shall be consolidated in an action in one judicial
‚ ‚ ‚  district under an order of the court in which the first action was
‚ ‚ ‚  brought. If the first action is transferred to another court, that
‚ ‚ ‚  court shall issue the consolidation order.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 954.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30121(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1415(b)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to Sec. 155), 80‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 722; restated Oct. 27,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  103(a)(1)(A), (3), 88 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1477, 1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1415(b).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  155(b)-(d); added Oct. 27,‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102(a), 88 Stat. 1474.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30121(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1415(c)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1415(c).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30121(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1415(d)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1415(d).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30121(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1415(a)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1415(a).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  155(a); added Oct. 27, 1974,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec. 102(a),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  88 Stat. 1474; Nov. 8, 1984,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 98-620, Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  402(17), 98 Stat. 3358.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In this section, the text of 15:1397(a)(1)(D) (related to
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1415) is omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words “and to which
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (a) of this section applies” are omitted because of the
‚ ‚ ‚  restatement. In clause (A), the words “prescribed under this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter” are substituted for “Federal”, and the words “civil
‚ ‚ ‚  action” are substituted for “proceeding”, for consistency. In
‚ ‚ ‚  clause (B), the words “that there is such a defect or failure” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus. In clause (D), the word “considers” is
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “which in the judgment of . . . are” to eliminate
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary words. In clause (E), the word “remedy” is substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  for “cause . . . to be remedied” to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚  The words “civil action” are substituted for “court proceeding” for
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1), the words “with respect to such failure to
‚ ‚ ‚  notify” are omitted as surplus. The word “enjoins” is substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  for “restrains” for consistency. The words “of such an order” and
‚ ‚ ‚  “for which the effectiveness of” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(2), the words “by an order”, “or not”, and “(to
‚ ‚ ‚  which subsection (a) of the section applies)” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “a civil action
‚ ‚ ‚  referred to in subsection (a) of this section” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “(i) a manufacturer fails within the period specified in section
‚ ‚ ‚  1413(b) of this title to comply with an order under section 1412(b)
‚ ‚ ‚  of this title to afford notification to owners and purchasers, (ii)
‚ ‚ ‚  a civil action to which subsection (a) of this section applies is
‚ ‚ ‚  commenced with respect to such order, and (iii) . . . in such
‚ ‚ ‚  action” to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (1), the word
‚ ‚ ‚  “action” is substituted for “proceeding” for consistency. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “containing” and “by an order” are omitted as surplus. In clause
‚ ‚ ‚  (2), the words “under section 30119(b) of this title” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “(in accordance with the second and third sentences
‚ ‚ ‚  of section 1414(b) of this title)” for clarity. The words “under
‚ ‚ ‚  section 30120 of this title” are added for clarity. In clause (3),
‚ ‚ ‚  the words “which are . . . by such owner or purchaser”, “the
‚ ‚ ‚  purpose of”, and “to which the order relates” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d), the words “Notwithstanding section 30163(c) of
‚ ‚ ‚  this title” are added for clarity. The words “An action under
‚ ‚ ‚  section 1399(a) of this title to restrain a violation of an order .
‚ ‚ ‚  . . or under section 1398 of this title to collect a civil penalty
‚ ‚ ‚  with respect to a violation of such an order” and “to which the
‚ ‚ ‚  order applies” are omitted as surplus. The words “may transfer the
‚ ‚ ‚  action” are substituted for “orders a change of venue” for
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency with 28:1404. The words “(including enforcement
‚ ‚ ‚  actions)” are omitted as surplus. The words “that court shall issue
‚ ‚ ‚  the consolidation order” are substituted for “by order of such
‚ ‚ ‚  other court” for clarity.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30122‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30122. Making safety devices and elements inoperative

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Definition. – In this section, “motor vehicle repair
‚ ‚ ‚  business” means a person holding itself out to the public to repair
‚ ‚ ‚  for compensation a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Prohibition. – A manufacturer, distributor, dealer, or motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle repair business may not knowingly make inoperative any part
‚ ‚ ‚  of a device or element of design installed on or in a motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  or motor vehicle equipment in compliance with an applicable motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter unless the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer, distributor, dealer, or repair business reasonably
‚ ‚ ‚  believes the vehicle or equipment will not be used (except for
‚ ‚ ‚  testing or a similar purpose during maintenance or repair) when the
‚ ‚ ‚  device or element is inoperative.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Regulations. – The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe
‚ ‚ ‚  regulations –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) to exempt a person from this section if the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  decides the exemption is consistent with motor vehicle safety and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30101 of this title; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) to define “make inoperative”.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Nonapplication. – This section does not apply to a safety
‚ ‚ ‚  belt interlock or buzzer designed to indicate a safety belt is not
‚ ‚ ‚  in use as described in section 30124 of this title.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 956.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30122(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(2)(A)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (last sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108(a)(2)(A)- (C); added ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Oct. 27, 1974, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  93-492, Sec. 103(a) (1)(A),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  88 Stat. 1477.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30122(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(2)(A)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1st sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30122(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(2)(B).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30122(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(2)(C).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsections (a) and (c), the words “the term” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the words “in the business of” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b), the words “an applicable motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚  standard prescribed under this chapter” are substituted for “an
‚ ‚ ‚  applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standard” for consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚  The words “of design” the 2d time they appear and “rendered” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c)(1), the words “section 30101 of this title” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “the purposes of this chapter” as being more
‚ ‚ ‚  precise.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d), the words “with respect . . . the rendering
‚ ‚ ‚  inoperative of” are omitted as surplus.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30123‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30123. Tires

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Regrooved Tire Limitations. – (1) In this subsection,
‚ ‚ ‚  “regrooved tire” means a tire with a new tread produced by cutting
‚ ‚ ‚  into the tread of a worn tire.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretary may authorize the sale, offer for sale,
‚ ‚ ‚  introduction for sale, or delivery for introduction in interstate
‚ ‚ ‚  commerce, of a regrooved tire or a motor vehicle equipped with
‚ ‚ ‚  regrooved tires if the Secretary decides the tires are designed and
‚ ‚ ‚  made in a way consistent with section 30101 of this title. A person
‚ ‚ ‚  may not sell, offer for sale, introduce for sale, or deliver for
‚ ‚ ‚  introduction in interstate commerce, a regrooved tire or a vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  equipped with regrooved tires unless authorized by the Secretary.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Uniform Quality Grading System, Nomenclature, and Marketing
‚ ‚ ‚  Practices. – The Secretary shall prescribe through standards a
‚ ‚ ‚  uniform quality grading system for motor vehicle tires to help
‚ ‚ ‚  consumers make an informed choice when purchasing tires. The
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary also shall cooperate with industry and the Federal Trade
‚ ‚ ‚  Commission to the greatest extent practicable to eliminate
‚ ‚ ‚  deceptive and confusing tire nomenclature and marketing practices.
‚ ‚ ‚  A tire standard or regulation prescribed under this chapter
‚ ‚ ‚  supersedes an order or administrative interpretation of the
‚ ‚ ‚  Commission.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Maximum Load Standards. – The Secretary shall require a motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle to be equipped with tires that meet maximum load standards
‚ ‚ ‚  when the vehicle is loaded with a reasonable amount of luggage and
‚ ‚ ‚  the total number of passengers the vehicle is designed to carry.
‚ ‚ ‚  The vehicle shall be equipped with those tires by the manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚  or by the first purchaser when the vehicle is first bought in good
‚ ‚ ‚  faith other than for resale.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 956; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  105-178, title VII, Sec. 7106(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 467.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30123(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1421 (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Secs. 201-203,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  204(c), 205, 80 Stat. 728,‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  729.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30123(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1421 (2d ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30123(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1421 (last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30123(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1424(a).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 204(a), 80‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 729; restated Oct. 27,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  110(c), 88 Stat. 1484.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1424(c).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30123(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1423.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1425.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30123(f)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1422.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsections (a) and (d)(2), the words “section 30101 of this
‚ ‚ ‚  title” are substituted for “the purposes of this chapter” as being
‚ ‚ ‚  more precise.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the words “to a motor vehicle safety standard
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter” are substituted for “In all
‚ ‚ ‚  standards for . . . established under subchapter I of this chapter
‚ ‚ ‚  . . . thereto” for consistency and because of the restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1)(A) and (B), the word “suitable” is omitted
‚ ‚ ‚  as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1)(C), the words “for a tire containing” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “unless the tire contains . . . in which case it
‚ ‚ ‚  shall also contain” to eliminate unnecessary words. The word
‚ ‚ ‚  “allowing” is substituted for “which would permit” for consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(3), the word “actual” is omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(5)(A), the word “statement” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “recital” for clarity. The words “complies with” are substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  for “conforms to”, the words “prescribed under this chapter” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “Federal”, and the word “or” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “except that in lieu of such recital”, for consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(5)(B), the word “appropriate” is omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d)(2), the words “by order” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus. The words “a regrooved tire or a motor vehicle equipped
‚ ‚ ‚  with regrooved tires” are substituted for “any tire or motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle equipped with any tire which has been regrooved” for
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency. The words “A person may not . . . unless authorized by
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary” are substituted for “No person shall” for clarity
‚ ‚ ‚  and consistency in the revised title. The word “introduce” is
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “introduction” after “or” to correct a mistake.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (e), the words “The Secretary shall prescribe
‚ ‚ ‚  through standards” are substituted for “within two years after
‚ ‚ ‚  September 9, 1966, the Secretary shall, through standards
‚ ‚ ‚  established under subchapter I of this chapter, prescribe by order,
‚ ‚ ‚  and publish in the Federal Register” in 15:1423 to eliminate
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary and executed words. The text of 15:1423 (2d sentence)
‚ ‚ ‚  is omitted as executed. The last sentence is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1425 to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (f), the words “In standards established under
‚ ‚ ‚  subchapter I of this chapter” and “fully” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚  The words “The vehicle shall be equipped” are added for clarity.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1998 – Pub. L. 105-178 redesignated subsecs. (d) to (f) as (a) to
‚ ‚ ‚  (c), respectively, and struck out former subsecs. (a) to (c), which
‚ ‚ ‚  related to labeling requirements, contents of label, and additional
‚ ‚ ‚  information that may be required, respectively.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  IMPROVED TIRE INFORMATION‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 11, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1806, provided
‚ ‚ ‚  that:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) Tire Labeling. – Within 30 days after the date of the
‚ ‚ ‚  enactment of this Act [Nov. 1, 2000], the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding to improve
‚ ‚ ‚  the labeling of tires required by section 30123 of title 49, United
‚ ‚ ‚  States Code[,] to assist consumers in identifying tires that may be
‚ ‚ ‚  the subject of a decision under section 30118(b) [of title 49] or a
‚ ‚ ‚  notice required under section 30118(c). The Secretary shall
‚ ‚ ‚  complete the rulemaking not later than June 1, 2002.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Inflation Levels and Load Limits. – In the rulemaking
‚ ‚ ‚  initiated under subsection (a), the Secretary may take whatever
‚ ‚ ‚  additional action is appropriate to ensure that the public is aware
‚ ‚ ‚  of the importance of observing motor vehicle tire load limits and
‚ ‚ ‚  maintaining proper tire inflation levels for the safe operation of
‚ ‚ ‚  a motor vehicle. Such additional action may include a requirement
‚ ‚ ‚  that the manufacturer of motor vehicles provide the purchasers of
‚ ‚ ‚  the motor vehicles information on appropriate tire inflation levels
‚ ‚ ‚  and load limits if the Secretary determines that requiring such
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturers to provide such information is the most appropriate
‚ ‚ ‚  way such information can be provided.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  TIRE PRESSURE WARNING‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 13, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1806, provided
‚ ‚ ‚  that: “Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of
‚ ‚ ‚  this Act [Nov. 1, 2000], the Secretary of Transportation shall
‚ ‚ ‚  complete a rulemaking for a regulation to require a warning system
‚ ‚ ‚  in new motor vehicles to indicate to the operator when a tire is
‚ ‚ ‚  significantly under inflated. Such requirement shall become
‚ ‚ ‚  effective not later than 2 years after the date of the completion
‚ ‚ ‚  of such rulemaking.”

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30124‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30124. Buzzers indicating nonuse of safety belts

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  A motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter may
‚ ‚ ‚  not require or allow a manufacturer to comply with the standard by
‚ ‚ ‚  using a safety belt interlock designed to prevent starting or
‚ ‚ ‚  operating a motor vehicle if an occupant is not using a safety belt
‚ ‚ ‚  or a buzzer designed to indicate a safety belt is not in use,
‚ ‚ ‚  except a buzzer that operates only during the 8-second period after
‚ ‚ ‚  the ignition is turned to the “start” or “on” position.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 957.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30124‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410b.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  125; added Oct. 27, 1974,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec. 109, 88
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 1482.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The text of 15:1410b(a) and (c)-(e) is omitted as obsolete. The
‚ ‚ ‚  text of 15:1410b(b)(2) and (3) and (f)(2) and (3) is omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary because of the restatement. The words “After the
‚ ‚ ‚  effective date of the amendment prescribed under subsection (a) of
‚ ‚ ‚  this section” are omitted as executed. The words “prescribed under
‚ ‚ ‚  this chapter” are substituted for “Federal” for consistency in this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30125‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30125. Schoolbuses and schoolbus equipment

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Definitions. – In this section –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) “schoolbus” means a passenger motor vehicle designed to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  carry a driver and more than 10 passengers, that the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation decides is likely to be used significantly to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  transport preprimary, primary, and secondary school students to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  or from school or an event related to school.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) “schoolbus equipment” means equipment designed primarily
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for a schoolbus or manufactured or sold to replace or improve a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  system, part, or component of a schoolbus or as an accessory or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  addition to a schoolbus.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Standards. – The Secretary shall prescribe motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  safety standards for schoolbuses and schoolbus equipment
‚ ‚ ‚  manufactured in, or imported into, the United States. Standards
‚ ‚ ‚  shall include minimum performance requirements for –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) emergency exits;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) interior protection for occupants;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) floor strength;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) seating systems;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (5) crashworthiness of body and frame (including protection
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  against rollover hazards);
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (6) vehicle operating systems;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (7) windows and windshields; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (8) fuel systems.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Test Driving by Manufacturers. – The Secretary may require by
‚ ‚ ‚  regulation a schoolbus to be test-driven by a manufacturer before
‚ ‚ ‚  introduction in commerce.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 957.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30125(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1391(14), (15).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102(14), (15); added Oct.‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  27, 1974, Pub. L. 93-492,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 201, 88 Stat. 1484.‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30125(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(i)(1).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  103(i)(1), (2); added Oct.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  27, 1974, Pub. L. 93-492,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 202, 88 Stat. 1484;‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  July 8, 1976, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  94-346, Sec. 2, 90 Stat. 815.
‚ ‚ ‚  30125(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(i)(2).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(F).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108(a)(1)(F); added Oct. 27,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  203, 88 Stat. 1485.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(1), the words “the purpose of” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(2), the words “any similar part or component”
‚ ‚ ‚  are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b), before clause (1), the text of
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392(i)(1)(A) (1st sentence) and (B) (words before 2d comma) is
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as executed. The word “prescribe” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “promulgate”, and the word “Federal” is omitted, for consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚  The words “Such proposed standards” and “those aspects of
‚ ‚ ‚  performance set out in clauses (i) through (viii) of subparagraph
‚ ‚ ‚  (A) of this paragraph” are omitted because of the restatement. The
‚ ‚ ‚  word “requirements” is substituted for “standards” to avoid using
‚ ‚ ‚  “standards” in 2 different ways. The text of 15:1392(i)(1)(B) (last
‚ ‚ ‚  6 words) is omitted as executed.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c), the text of 15:1397(a)(1)(F) is omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary because of the restatement.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30126‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30126. Used motor vehicles

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  To ensure a continuing and effective national safety program, it
‚ ‚ ‚  is the policy of the United States Government to encourage and
‚ ‚ ‚  strengthen State inspection of used motor vehicles. Therefore, the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe uniform motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  safety standards applicable to all used motor vehicles. The
‚ ‚ ‚  standards shall be stated in terms of motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚  performance.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 958.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30126‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(b)(1)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2d-last sentences).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(b)(1)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2d-last sentences), 80‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 722.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The words “In order” are omitted as surplus. The words “United
‚ ‚ ‚  States Government” are substituted for “Congress” for clarity and
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency in the revised title. The words “Therefore, the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe uniform motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  safety standards applicable to all used motor vehicles” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for 15:1397(b)(1) (4th sentence) to eliminate
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary and executed words. The text of 15:1397(b)(1) (last
‚ ‚ ‚  sentence) is omitted as unnecessary because of 5:ch. 5, subch. II.
‚ ‚ ‚  The text of 15:1397(b)(1) (3d sentence) is omitted as executed.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30127‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30127. Automatic occupant crash protection and seat belt use

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Definitions. – In this section –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) “bus” means a motor vehicle with motive power (except a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  trailer) designed to carry more than 10 individuals.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) “multipurpose passenger vehicle” means a motor vehicle with
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  motive power (except a trailer), designed to carry not more than
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  10 individuals, that is constructed either on a truck chassis or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  with special features for occasional off-road operation.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) “passenger car” means a motor vehicle with motive power
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (except a multipurpose passenger vehicle, motorcycle, or trailer)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  designed to carry not more than 10 individuals.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) “truck” means a motor vehicle with motive power (except a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  trailer) designed primarily to transport property or special
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  purpose equipment.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Inflatable Restraint Requirements. – (1) Not later than
‚ ‚ ‚  September 1, 1993, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe
‚ ‚ ‚  under this chapter an amendment to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
‚ ‚ ‚  Standard 208 issued under the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  Safety Act of 1966. The amendment shall require that the automatic
‚ ‚ ‚  occupant crash protection system for both of the front outboard
‚ ‚ ‚  seating positions for each of the following vehicles be an
‚ ‚ ‚  inflatable restraint (with lap and shoulder belts) complying with
‚ ‚ ‚  the occupant protection requirements under section 4.1.2.1 of
‚ ‚ ‚  Standard 208:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) 95 percent of each manufacturer’s annual production of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  passenger cars manufactured after August 31, 1996, and before
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  September 1, 1997.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) 80 percent of each manufacturer’s annual production of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  buses, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks (except walk-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in van-type trucks and vehicles designed to be sold only to the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  United States Postal Service) with a gross vehicle weight rating
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of not more than 8,500 pounds and an unloaded vehicle weight of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  not more than 5,500 pounds manufactured after August 31, 1997,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  and before September 1, 1998.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) 100 percent of each manufacturer’s annual production of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  passenger cars manufactured after August 31, 1997.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (D) 100 percent of each manufacturer’s annual production of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicles described in clause (B) of this paragraph manufactured
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  after August 31, 1998.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) Manufacturers may not use credits and incentives available
‚ ‚ ‚  before September 1, 1998, under the provisions of Standard 208 (as
‚ ‚ ‚  amended by this section) to comply with the requirements of
‚ ‚ ‚  paragraph (1)(D) of this subsection after August 31, 1998.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Owner Manual Requirements. – In amending Standard 208, the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation shall require, to be effective as soon
‚ ‚ ‚  as possible after the amendment is prescribed, that owner manuals
‚ ‚ ‚  for passenger cars, buses, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and
‚ ‚ ‚  trucks equipped with an inflatable restraint include a statement in
‚ ‚ ‚  an easily understandable format stating that –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) either or both of the front outboard seating positions of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the vehicle are equipped with an inflatable restraint referred to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  as an “airbag” and a lap and shoulder belt;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) the “airbag” is a supplemental restraint and is not a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  substitute for lap and shoulder belts;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) lap and shoulder belts also must be used correctly by an
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  occupant in a front outboard seating position to provide
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  restraint or protection from frontal crashes as well as other
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  types of crashes or accidents; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) occupants should always wear their lap and shoulder belts,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  if available, or other safety belts, whether or not there is an
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  inflatable restraint.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Seat Belt Use Laws. – Congress finds that it is in the public
‚ ‚ ‚  interest for each State to adopt and enforce mandatory seat belt
‚ ‚ ‚  use laws and for the United States Government to adopt and enforce
‚ ‚ ‚  mandatory seat belt use regulations.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Temporary Exemptions. – (1) On application of a manufacturer,
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary of Transportation may exempt, on a temporary basis,
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicles of that manufacturer from any requirement under
‚ ‚ ‚  subsections (b) and (c) of this section on terms the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  considers appropriate. An exemption may be renewed.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretary of Transportation may grant an exemption under
‚ ‚ ‚  paragraph (1) of this subsection if the Secretary finds that there
‚ ‚ ‚  has been a disruption in the supply of any component of an
‚ ‚ ‚  inflatable restraint or in the use and installation of that
‚ ‚ ‚  component by the manufacturer because of an unavoidable event not
‚ ‚ ‚  under the control of the manufacturer that will prevent the
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer from meeting its anticipated production volume of
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicles with those restraints.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) Only an affected manufacturer may apply for an exemption. The
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe in the amendment to
‚ ‚ ‚  Standard 208 required under this section the information an
‚ ‚ ‚  affected manufacturer must include in its application under this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection. The manufacturer shall specify in the application the
‚ ‚ ‚  models, lines, and types of vehicles affected. The Secretary may
‚ ‚ ‚  consolidate similar applications from different manufacturers.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) An exemption or renewal of an exemption is conditioned on the
‚ ‚ ‚  commitment of the manufacturer to recall the exempted vehicles for
‚ ‚ ‚  installation of the omitted inflatable restraints within a
‚ ‚ ‚  reasonable time that the manufacturer proposes and the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation approves after the components become available in
‚ ‚ ‚  sufficient quantities to satisfy both anticipated production and
‚ ‚ ‚  recall volume requirements.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (5) The Secretary of Transportation shall publish in the Federal
‚ ‚ ‚  Register a notice of each application under this subsection and
‚ ‚ ‚  each decision to grant or deny a temporary exemption and the
‚ ‚ ‚  reasons for the decision.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (6) The Secretary of Transportation shall require a label for
‚ ‚ ‚  each exempted vehicle that can be removed only after recall and
‚ ‚ ‚  installation of the required inflatable restraint. The Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall require that written notice of the exemption be provided to
‚ ‚ ‚  the dealer and the first purchaser of each exempted vehicle other
‚ ‚ ‚  than for resale, with the notice being provided in a way, and
‚ ‚ ‚  containing the information, the Secretary considers appropriate.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (f) Application. – (1) This section revises, but does not
‚ ‚ ‚  replace, Standard 208 as in effect on December 18, 1991, including
‚ ‚ ‚  the amendment of March 26, 1991 (56 Fed. Reg. 12472), to Standard
‚ ‚ ‚  208, extending the requirements for automatic crash protection,
‚ ‚ ‚  with incentives for more innovative automatic crash protection, to
‚ ‚ ‚  trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles. This section
‚ ‚ ‚  may not be construed as –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) affecting another provision of law carried out by the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation applicable to passenger cars, buses,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  multipurpose passenger vehicles, or trucks; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) establishing a precedent related to developing or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  prescribing a Government motor vehicle safety standard.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) This section and amendments to Standard 208 made under this
‚ ‚ ‚  section may not be construed as indicating an intention by Congress
‚ ‚ ‚  to affect any liability of a motor vehicle manufacturer under
‚ ‚ ‚  applicable law related to vehicles with or without inflatable
‚ ‚ ‚  restraints.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (g) Report. – (1) On October 1, 1992, and annually after that
‚ ‚ ‚  date through October 1, 2000, the Secretary of Transportation shall
‚ ‚ ‚  submit reports on the effectiveness of occupant restraint systems
‚ ‚ ‚  expressed as a percentage reduction in fatalities or injuries of
‚ ‚ ‚  restrained occupants compared to unrestrained occupants for –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) a combination of inflated restraints and lap and shoulder
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  belts;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) inflated restraints only; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) lap and shoulder belts only.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) In consultation with the Secretaries of Labor and Defense,
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary of Transportation also shall provide information and
‚ ‚ ‚  analysis on lap and shoulder belt use, nationally and in each State
‚ ‚ ‚  by –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) military personnel;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) Government, State, and local law enforcement officers;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) other Government and State employees; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (D) the public.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (h) Airbags for Government Cars. – In cooperation with the
‚ ‚ ‚  Administrator of General Services and the heads of appropriate
‚ ‚ ‚  departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation shall establish a program, consistent
‚ ‚ ‚  with applicable procurement laws of the Government and available
‚ ‚ ‚  appropriations, requiring that all passenger cars acquired –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) after September 30, 1994, for use by the Government be
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipped, to the maximum extent practicable, with driver-side
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  inflatable restraints; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) after September 30, 1996, for use by the Government be
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipped, to the maximum extent practicable, with inflatable
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  restraints for both front outboard seating positions.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 958; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  105-178, title VII, Sec. 7106(c), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 467.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30127(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392 (note).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102-240, Sec. 2502(a), 105‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 2081.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30127(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392 (note).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102-240, Sec. 2508(a)(1)‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1st sentence), (b), 105‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 2084, 2085.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30127(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392 (note).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102-240, Sec. 2508(a)(2),‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  105 Stat. 2085.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30127(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392 (note).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102-240, Sec. 2508(a)(3),‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  105 Stat. 2085.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30127(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392 (note).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102-240, Sec. 2508(c), 105‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 2086.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30127(f)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392 (note).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102-240, Sec. 2508(a)(1)‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (last sentence), (d), 105‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 2085, 2086.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30127(g)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392 (note).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102-240, Sec. 2508(e), 105‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 2086.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30127(h)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1392 (note).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Dec. 18, 1991, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102-240, Sec. 2508(f), 105‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 2087.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the definitions are derived from section
‚ ‚ ‚  2502(a) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of
‚ ‚ ‚  1991 (Public Law 102-240, 105 Stat. 2081) and are restated because
‚ ‚ ‚  those definitions apply to the source provisions being restated in
‚ ‚ ‚  this section.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words
‚ ‚ ‚  “Notwithstanding any other provision of law or rule” and “(to the
‚ ‚ ‚  extent such Act is not in conflict with the provisions of this
‚ ‚ ‚  section)” are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚  The words “The amendment shall require” are substituted for “The
‚ ‚ ‚  amendment promulgated under subsection (a) shall establish the
‚ ‚ ‚  following schedule” for clarity. The words “manufactured on or
‚ ‚ ‚  after the dates specified in the applicable schedule established by
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (b)”, “The amendment shall take effect”, and “Subject to
‚ ‚ ‚  the provisions of subsection (c)” are omitted as unnecessary
‚ ‚ ‚  because of the restatement. The words “for both of the front
‚ ‚ ‚  outboard seating positions for each” are substituted for “for the
‚ ‚ ‚  front outboard designated seating positions of each” for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚  In clause (B), the word “new” is omitted as unnecessary because of
‚ ‚ ‚  the restatement. The word “only” is substituted for “exclusively”
‚ ‚ ‚  for consistency in the revised title.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(2), the words “after August 31, 1998” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “on and after such date” for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “In amending
‚ ‚ ‚  Standard 208, the Secretary of Transportation shall require” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “The amendment to such Standard 208 shall also
‚ ‚ ‚  require” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (e)(3), the words “Only an affected manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚  may apply for an exemption” are added for clarity. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “consolidate similar applications from different manufacturers” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “consolidate applications of a similar nature of 1
‚ ‚ ‚  or more manufacturers” for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (f)(1), before clause (A), the words “by the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary or any other person, including any court” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus. In clause (A), the word “affecting” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “altering or affecting” to eliminate an unnecessary word.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (f)(2), the words “by any person or court” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as unnecessary. The word “affect” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “affect, change, or modify” to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (g)(1), before clause (A), the words “and every 6
‚ ‚ ‚  months after that date through” are substituted for “biannually . .
‚ ‚ ‚  . and continuing to” for clarity. The word “actual” is omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary. The word “expressed” is substituted for “defined” for
‚ ‚ ‚  clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (g)(2)(C), the words “other Government and State
‚ ‚ ‚  employees” are substituted for “Federal and State employees other
‚ ‚ ‚  than law enforcement officers” for clarity and because of the
‚ ‚ ‚  restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (h)(2), the words “for both front outboard seating
‚ ‚ ‚  positions” are substituted for “for both the driver and front seat
‚ ‚ ‚  outboard seating positions” for clarity and consistency in this
‚ ‚ ‚  section.

-REFTEXT-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  REFERENCES IN TEXT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966,
‚ ‚ ‚  referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is Pub. L. 89-563, Sept. 9, 1966, 80
‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 718, as amended, which was classified generally to chapter 38
‚ ‚ ‚  (Sec. 1381 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and was
‚ ‚ ‚  substantially repealed by Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 7(b), July 5, 1994,
‚ ‚ ‚  108 Stat. 1379, and reenacted by the first section thereof as this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter.
-MISC2-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1998 – Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 105-178 substituted “annually” for
‚ ‚ ‚  “every 6 months” in introductory provisions.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  IMPROVING THE SAFETY OF CHILD RESTRAINTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 107-318, Dec. 4, 2002, 116 Stat. 2772, provided that:

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “This Act may be cited as ‘Anton’s Law’.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “Congress finds the following:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) It is the policy of the Department of Transportation that
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  all child occupants of motor vehicles, regardless of seating
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  position, be appropriately restrained in order to reduce the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  incidence of injuries and fatalities resulting from motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  crashes on the streets, roads, and highways.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) Research has shown that very few children between the ages
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of 4 to 8 years old are in the appropriate restraint for their
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  age when riding in passenger motor vehicles.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) Children who have outgrown their child safety seats should
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  ride in a belt-positioning booster seat until an adult seat belt
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  fits properly.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(4) Children who were properly restrained when riding in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  passenger motor vehicles suffered less severe injuries from
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  accidents than children not properly restrained.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 3. IMPROVEMENT OF SAFETY OF CHILD RESTRAINTS IN PASSENGER
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  MOTOR VEHICLES.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) In General. – The Secretary of Transportation (hereafter
‚ ‚ ‚  referred to as the ‘Secretary’) shall initiate a rulemaking
‚ ‚ ‚  proceeding to establish performance requirements for child
‚ ‚ ‚  restraints, including booster seats, for the restraint of children
‚ ‚ ‚  weighing more than 50 pounds.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Elements for Consideration. – In the rulemaking proceeding
‚ ‚ ‚  required by subsection (a), the Secretary shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) consider whether to include injury performance criteria
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for child restraints, including booster seats and other products
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for use in passenger motor vehicles for the restraint of children
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  weighing more than 50 pounds, under the requirements established
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in the rulemaking proceeding;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) consider whether to establish performance requirements for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  seat belt fit when used with booster seats and other belt
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  guidance devices;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) consider whether to address situations where children
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  weighing more than 50 pounds only have access to seating
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  positions with lap belts, such as allowing tethered child
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  restraints for such children; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(4) review the definition of the term ‘booster seat’ in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Federal motor vehicle safety standard No. 213 under section
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  571.213 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, to determine if
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  it is sufficiently comprehensive.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(c) Completion. – The Secretary shall complete the rulemaking
‚ ‚ ‚  proceeding required by subsection (a) not later than 30 months
‚ ‚ ‚  after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2002].

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 4. DEVELOPMENT OF ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICE SIMULATING A
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  10-YEAR OLD CHILD.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) Development and Evaluation. – Not later than 24 months after
‚ ‚ ‚  the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2002], the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall develop and evaluate an anthropomorphic test device that
‚ ‚ ‚  simulates a 10-year old child for use in testing child restraints
‚ ‚ ‚  used in passenger motor vehicles.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Adoption by Rulemaking. – Within 1 year following the
‚ ‚ ‚  development and evaluation carried out under subsection (a), the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding for the adoption
‚ ‚ ‚  of an anthropomorphic test device as developed under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (a).

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 5. REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATION OF LAP AND SHOULDER BELTS.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) In General. – Not later than 24 months after the date of the
‚ ‚ ‚  enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2002], the Secretary shall complete
‚ ‚ ‚  a rulemaking proceeding to amend Federal motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚  standard No. 208 under section 571.208 of title 49, Code of Federal
‚ ‚ ‚  Regulations, relating to occupant crash protection, in order to –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) require a lap and shoulder belt assembly for each rear
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  designated seating position in a passenger motor vehicle with a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less, except that
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  if the Secretary determines that installation of a lap and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  shoulder belt assembly is not practicable for a particular
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  designated seating position in a particular type of passenger
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle, the Secretary may exclude the designated seating
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  position from the requirement; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) apply that requirement to passenger motor vehicles in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  phases in accordance with subsection (b).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Implementation Schedule. – The requirement prescribed under
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (a)(1) shall be implemented in phases on a production
‚ ‚ ‚  year basis beginning with the production year that begins not later
‚ ‚ ‚  than 12 months after the end of the year in which the regulations
‚ ‚ ‚  are prescribed under subsection (a). The final rule shall apply to
‚ ‚ ‚  all passenger motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of
‚ ‚ ‚  10,000 pounds or less that are manufactured in the third production
‚ ‚ ‚  year of the implementation phase-in under the schedule.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 6. EVALUATION OF INTEGRATED CHILD SAFETY SYSTEMS.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) Evaluation. – Not later than 180 days after the date of
‚ ‚ ‚  enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2002], the Secretary shall initiate
‚ ‚ ‚  an evaluation of integrated or built-in child restraints and
‚ ‚ ‚  booster seats. The evaluation should include –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) the safety of the child restraint and correctness of fit
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for the child;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) the availability of testing data on the system and vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in which the child restraint will be used;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) the compatibility of the child restraint with different
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  makes and models;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(4) the cost-effectiveness of mass production of the child
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  restraint for consumers;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(5) the ease of use and relative availability of the child
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  restraint to children riding in motor vehicles; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(6) the benefits of built-in seats for improving compliance
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  with State child occupant restraint laws.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Report. – Not later than 12 months after the date of
‚ ‚ ‚  enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2002], the Secretary shall transmit
‚ ‚ ‚  to the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of
‚ ‚ ‚  Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation of the Senate a report of this evaluation.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “As used in this Act, the following definitions apply:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) Child restraint. – The term ‘child restraint’ means any
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  product designed to provide restraint to a child (including
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  booster seats and other products used with a lap and shoulder
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  belt assembly) that meets applicable Federal motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  standards prescribed by the National Highway Traffic Safety
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Administration.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) Production year. – The term ‘production year’ means the 12-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  month period between September 1 of a year and August 31 of the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  following year.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) Passenger motor vehicle. – The term ‘passenger motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle’ has the meaning given that term in section 405(f)(5) of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  title 23, United States Code.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “SEC. 8. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) In General. – There are authorized to be appropriated
‚ ‚ ‚  $5,000,000 to the Secretary of Transportation for –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) the evaluation required by section 6 of this Act; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) research of the nature and causes of injury to children
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  involved in motor vehicle crashes.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Limitation. – Funds appropriated under subsection (a) shall
‚ ‚ ‚  not be available for the general administrative expenses of the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary.”
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 106-414, Sec. 14, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1806, provided
‚ ‚ ‚  that:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) In General. – Not later than 12 months after the date of the
‚ ‚ ‚  enactment of this Act [Nov. 1, 2000], the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation shall initiate a rulemaking for the purpose of
‚ ‚ ‚  improving the safety of child restraints, including minimizing head
‚ ‚ ‚  injuries from side impact collisions.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Elements for Consideration. – In the rulemaking required by
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (a), the Secretary shall consider –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) whether to require more comprehensive tests for child
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  restraints than the current Federal motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  standards requires, including the use of dynamic tests that –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(A) replicate an array of crash conditions, such as side-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  impact crashes and rear-impact crashes; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(B) reflect the designs of passenger motor vehicles as of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 1, 2000];
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) whether to require the use of anthropomorphic test devices
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  that –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(A) represent a greater range of sizes of children including
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the need to require the use of an anthropomorphic test device
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  that is representative of a ten-year-old child; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(B) are Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) whether to require improved protection from head injuries
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in side-impact and rear-impact crashes;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(4) how to provide consumer information on the physical
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  compatibility of child restraints and vehicle seats on a model-by-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  model basis;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(5) whether to prescribe clearer and simpler labels and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  instructions required to be placed on child restraints;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(6) whether to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  213 (49 CFR 571.213) to cover restraints for children weighing up
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  to 80 pounds;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(7) whether to establish booster seat performance and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  structural integrity requirements to be dynamically tested in 3-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  point lap and shoulder belts;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(8) whether to apply scaled injury criteria performance
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  levels, including neck injury, developed for Federal Motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208 to child restraints and booster
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  seats covered by in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  213; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(9) whether to include child restraint in each vehicle crash
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  tested under the New Car Assessment Program.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(c) Report to Congress. – If the Secretary does not incorporate
‚ ‚ ‚  any element described in subsection (b) in the final rule, the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary shall explain, in a report to the Senate Committee on
‚ ‚ ‚  Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of
‚ ‚ ‚  Representatives Committee on Commerce [now Committee on Energy and
‚ ‚ ‚  Commerce] submitted within 30 days after issuing the final rule,
‚ ‚ ‚  specifically why the Secretary did not incorporate any such element
‚ ‚ ‚  in the final rule.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(d) Completion. – Notwithstanding any other provision of law,
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary shall complete the rulemaking required by subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (a) not later than 24 months after the date of the enactment of
‚ ‚ ‚  this Act [Nov. 1, 2000].
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(e) Child Restraint Defined. – In this section, the term ‘child
‚ ‚ ‚  restraint’ has the meaning given the term ‘Child restraint system’
‚ ‚ ‚  in section 571.213 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (as in
‚ ‚ ‚  effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 1, 2000]).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(f) Funding. – For each fiscal year, of the funds made available
‚ ‚ ‚  to the Secretary for activities relating to safety, not less than
‚ ‚ ‚  $750,000 shall be made available to carry out crash testing of
‚ ‚ ‚  child restraints.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(g) Child Restraint Safety Ratings Program. – No later than 12
‚ ‚ ‚  months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 1, 2000],
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary of Transportation shall issue a notice of proposed
‚ ‚ ‚  rulemaking to establish a child restraint safety rating consumer
‚ ‚ ‚  information program to provide practicable, readily understandable,
‚ ‚ ‚  and timely information to consumers for use in making informed
‚ ‚ ‚  decisions in the purchase of child restraints. No later than 24
‚ ‚ ‚  months after the date of the enactment of this Act the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall issue a final rule establishing a child restraint safety
‚ ‚ ‚  rating program and providing other consumer information which the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary determines would be useful [to] consumers who purchase
‚ ‚ ‚  child restraint systems.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(h) Booster Seat Study. – In addition to consideration of
‚ ‚ ‚  booster seat performance and structural integrity contained in
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (b)(7), not later than 12 months after the date of the
‚ ‚ ‚  enactment of this Act [Nov. 1, 2000], the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation shall initiate and complete a study, taking into
‚ ‚ ‚  account the views of the public, on the use and effectiveness of
‚ ‚ ‚  automobile booster seats for children, compiling information on the
‚ ‚ ‚  advantages and disadvantages of using booster seats and determining
‚ ‚ ‚  the benefits, if any, to children from use of booster with lap and
‚ ‚ ‚  shoulder belts compared to children using lap and shoulder belts
‚ ‚ ‚  alone, and submit a report on the results of that study to the
‚ ‚ ‚  Congress.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(i) Booster Seat Education Program. – The Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation within 1 year after the date of the enactment of
‚ ‚ ‚  this Act [Nov. 1, 2000] shall develop [a] 5 year strategic plan to
‚ ‚ ‚  reduce deaths and injuries caused by failure to use the appropriate
‚ ‚ ‚  booster seat in the 4 to 8 year old age group by 25 percent.”

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  IMPROVING AIR BAG SAFETY‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 105-178, title VII, Sec. 7103, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚  465, provided that:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(a) Rulemaking To Improve Air Bags. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(1) Notice of proposed rulemaking. – Not later than September
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1, 1998, the Secretary of Transportation shall issue a notice of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  proposed rulemaking to improve occupant protection for occupants
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of different sizes, belted and unbelted, under Federal Motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208, while minimizing the risk to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  infants, children, and other occupants from injuries and deaths
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  caused by air bags, by means that include advanced air bags.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(2) Final rule. – Notwithstanding any other provision of law,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary shall complete the rulemaking required by this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  subsection by issuing, not later than September 1, 1999, a final
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  rule with any provision the Secretary deems appropriate,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  consistent with paragraph (1) and the requirements of section
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  30111, title 49, United States Code. If the Secretary determines
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  that the final rule cannot be completed by that date to meet the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  purposes of paragraph (1), the Secretary may extend the date for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  issuing the final rule to not later than March 1, 2000.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(3) Effective date. – The final rule issued under this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  subsection shall become effective in phases as rapidly as
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  practicable, beginning not earlier than September 1, 2002, and no
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sooner than 30 months after the date of the issuance of the final
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  rule, but not later than September 1, 2003. The final rule shall
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  become fully effective for all vehicles identified in section
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  30127(b), title 49, United States Code, that are manufactured on
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  and after September 1, 2005. Should the phase-in of the final
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  rule required by this paragraph commence on September 1, 2003,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  then in that event, and only in that event, the Secretary is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  authorized to make the final rule fully effective on September 1,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2006, for all vehicles that are manufactured on and after that
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  date.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(4) Coordination of effective dates. – The requirements of S13
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of Standard No. 208 shall remain in effect unless and until
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  changed by the rule required by this subsection.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(5) Credit for early compliance. – To encourage early
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  compliance, the Secretary is directed to include in the notice of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  proposed rulemaking required by paragraph (1) means by which
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturers may earn credits for future compliance. Credits, on
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  a one-vehicle for one-vehicle basis, may be earned for vehicles
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  certified as being in full compliance under section 30115 of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  title 49, United States Code, with the rule required by paragraph
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) which are either –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(A) so certified in advance of the phase-in period; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(B) in excess of the percentage requirements during the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  phase-in period.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  “(b) Advisory Committees. – Any government advisory committee,
‚ ‚ ‚  task force, or other entity involving air bags shall include
‚ ‚ ‚  representatives of consumer and safety organizations, insurers,
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturers, and suppliers.”

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30128‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER II – STANDARDS AND COMPLIANCE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30128. Vehicle rollover prevention and crash mitigation

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) In General. – The Secretary shall initiate rulemaking
‚ ‚ ‚  proceedings, for the purpose of establishing rules or standards
‚ ‚ ‚  that will reduce vehicle rollover crashes and mitigate deaths and
‚ ‚ ‚  injuries associated with such crashes for motor vehicles with a
‚ ‚ ‚  gross vehicle weight rating of not more than 10,000 pounds.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Rollover Prevention. – One of the rulemaking proceedings
‚ ‚ ‚  initiated under subsection (a) shall be to establish performance
‚ ‚ ‚  criteria to reduce the occurrence of rollovers consistent with
‚ ‚ ‚  stability enhancing technologies. The Secretary shall issue a
‚ ‚ ‚  proposed rule in this proceeding by rule by October 1, 2006, and a
‚ ‚ ‚  final rule by April 1, 2009.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Occupant Ejection Prevention. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) In general. – The Secretary shall also initiate a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  rulemaking proceeding to establish performance standards to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  reduce complete and partial ejections of vehicle occupants from
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  outboard seating positions. In formulating the standards the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary shall consider various ejection mitigation systems. The
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary shall issue a final rule under this paragraph no later
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  than October 1, 2009.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) Door locks and door retention. – The Secretary shall
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  complete the rulemaking proceeding initiated to upgrade Federal
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 206, relating to door locks and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  door retention, no later than 30 months after the date of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  enactment of this section.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Protection of Occupants. – One of the rulemaking proceedings
‚ ‚ ‚  initiated under subsection (a) shall be to establish performance
‚ ‚ ‚  criteria to upgrade Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 216
‚ ‚ ‚  relating to roof strength for driver and passenger sides. The
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary may consider industry and independent dynamic tests that
‚ ‚ ‚  realistically duplicate the actual forces transmitted during a
‚ ‚ ‚  rollover crash. The Secretary shall issue a proposed rule by
‚ ‚ ‚  December 31, 2005, and a final rule by July 1, 2008.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Deadlines. – If the Secretary determines that the deadline
‚ ‚ ‚  for a final rule under this section cannot be met, the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) notify the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Energy and Commerce and explain why that deadline cannot be met;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) establish a new deadline.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Added Pub. L. 109-59, title X, Sec. 10301(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119
‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 1939.)

-REFTEXT-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  REFERENCES IN TEXT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsec.
‚ ‚ ‚  (c)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109-59, which was
‚ ‚ ‚  approved Aug. 10, 2005.

-COD-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  CODIFICATION‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section 10301(a) of Pub. L. 109-59, which directed that this
‚ ‚ ‚  section be added at the end of subchapter II of chapter 301,
‚ ‚ ‚  without specifying the title to be amended, was executed by adding
‚ ‚ ‚  this section at the end of subchapter II of this chapter, to
‚ ‚ ‚  reflect the probable intent of Congress.

-End-
-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC SUBCHAPTER III – IMPORTING NONCOMPLYING MOTOR
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER III – IMPORTING NONCOMPLYING MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER III – IMPORTING NONCOMPLYING MOTOR VEHICLES AND
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  EQUIPMENT

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30141‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER III – IMPORTING NONCOMPLYING MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30141. Importing motor vehicles capable of complying with
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  standards

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) General. – Section 30112(a) of this title does not apply to a
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle if –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) on the initiative of the Secretary of Transportation or on
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  petition of a manufacturer or importer registered under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (c) of this section, the Secretary decides –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) the vehicle is –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (i) substantially similar to a motor vehicle originally
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufactured for import into and sale in the United States;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (ii) certified under section 30115 of this title;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (iii) the same model year (as defined under regulations of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary of Transportation) as the model of the motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle it is being compared to; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (iv) capable of being readily altered to comply with
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  applicable motor vehicle safety standards prescribed under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  this chapter; or

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) if there is no substantially similar United States motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle, the safety features of the vehicle comply with or are
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  capable of being altered to comply with those standards based
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  on destructive test information or other evidence the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of Transportation decides is adequate;

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) the vehicle is imported by a registered importer; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) the registered importer pays the annual fee the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of Transportation establishes under subsection (e) of this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section to pay for the costs of carrying out the registration
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  program for importers under subsection (c) of this section and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  any other fees the Secretary of Transportation establishes to pay
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for the costs of –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) processing bonds provided to the Secretary of the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Treasury under subsection (d) of this section; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) making the decisions under this subchapter.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Procedures on Deciding on Motor Vehicle Capability. – (1) The
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation shall establish by regulation
‚ ‚ ‚  procedures for making a decision under subsection (a)(1) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  section and the information a petitioner must provide to show
‚ ‚ ‚  clearly that the motor vehicle is capable of being brought into
‚ ‚ ‚  compliance with applicable motor vehicle safety standards
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter. In establishing the procedures, the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary shall provide for a minimum period of public notice and
‚ ‚ ‚  written comment consistent with ensuring expeditious, but complete,
‚ ‚ ‚  consideration and avoiding delay by any person. In making a
‚ ‚ ‚  decision under those procedures, the Secretary shall consider test
‚ ‚ ‚  information and other information available to the Secretary,
‚ ‚ ‚  including any information provided by the manufacturer. If the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary makes a negative decision, the Secretary may not make
‚ ‚ ‚  another decision for the same model until at least 3 calendar
‚ ‚ ‚  months have elapsed after the negative decision.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretary of Transportation shall publish each year in
‚ ‚ ‚  the Federal Register a list of all decisions made under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (a)(1) of this section. Each published decision applies to the
‚ ‚ ‚  model of the motor vehicle for which the decision was made. A
‚ ‚ ‚  positive decision permits another importer registered under
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (c) of this section to import a vehicle of the same
‚ ‚ ‚  model under this section if the importer complies with all the
‚ ‚ ‚  terms of the decision.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Registration. – (1) The Secretary of Transportation shall
‚ ‚ ‚  establish procedures for registering a person who complies with
‚ ‚ ‚  requirements prescribed by the Secretary by regulation under this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection, including –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) recordkeeping requirements;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) inspection of records and facilities related to motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicles the person has imported, altered, or both; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) requirements that ensure that the importer (or a successor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in interest) will be able technically and financially to carry
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  out responsibilities under sections 30117(b), 30118-30121, and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  30166(f) of this title.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretary of Transportation shall deny registration to a
‚ ‚ ‚  person whose registration is revoked under paragraph (4) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) The Secretary of Transportation may deny registration to a
‚ ‚ ‚  person that is or was owned or controlled by, or under common
‚ ‚ ‚  ownership or control with, a person whose registration was revoked
‚ ‚ ‚  under paragraph (4) of this subsection.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) The Secretary of Transportation shall establish procedures
‚ ‚ ‚  for –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) revoking or suspending a registration issued under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  paragraph (1) of this subsection for not complying with a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  requirement of this subchapter or any of sections 30112, 30115,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  30117-30122, 30125(c), 30127, or 30166 of this title or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  regulations prescribed under this subchapter or any of those
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sections;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) automatically suspending a registration for not paying a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  fee under subsection (a)(3) of this section in a timely manner or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for knowingly filing a false or misleading certification under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30146 of this title; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) reinstating suspended registrations.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Bonds. – (1) A person importing a motor vehicle under this
‚ ‚ ‚  section shall provide a bond to the Secretary of the Treasury
‚ ‚ ‚  (acting for the Secretary of Transportation) and comply with the
‚ ‚ ‚  terms the Secretary of Transportation decides are appropriate to
‚ ‚ ‚  ensure that the vehicle –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) will comply with applicable motor vehicle safety standards
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter within a reasonable time (specified
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  by the Secretary of Transportation) after the vehicle is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  imported; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) will be exported (at no cost to the United States
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Government) by the Secretary of the Treasury or abandoned to the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Government.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The amount of the bond provided under this subsection shall
‚ ‚ ‚  be at least equal to the dutiable value of the motor vehicle (as
‚ ‚ ‚  determined by the Secretary of the Treasury) but not more than 150
‚ ‚ ‚  percent of that value.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Fee Review, Adjustment, and Use. – The Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation shall review and make appropriate adjustments at
‚ ‚ ‚  least every 2 years in the amounts of the fees required to be paid
‚ ‚ ‚  under subsection (a)(3) of this section. The Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation shall establish the fees for each fiscal year before
‚ ‚ ‚  the beginning of that year. All fees collected remain available
‚ ‚ ‚  until expended without fiscal year limit to the extent provided in
‚ ‚ ‚  advance by appropriation laws. The amounts are only for use by the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) in carrying out this section and sections 30146(a)-(c)(1),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d), and (e) and 30147(b) of this title; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) in advancing to the Secretary of the Treasury amounts for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  costs incurred under this section and section 30146 of this title
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  to reimburse the Secretary of the Treasury for those costs.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 960; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  103-429, Sec. 6(23), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4380.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  PUB. L. 103-272‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30141(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(3)(A),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C)(i).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108(c)(2), (3)(A)-(D); added
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Oct. 31, 1988, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  100-562, Sec. 2(b), 102‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 2818.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30141(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(3)(C)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (ii)-(iv).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30141(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(3)(D).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30141(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(2).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30141(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(3)(B).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(1)(A)(iv), the words “prescribed under this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter” are substituted for “Federal” for consistency in this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(3), before clause (A), the words “any other
‚ ‚ ‚  fees” are substituted for “such other annual fee or fees” to
‚ ‚ ‚  eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (B), the words “this
‚ ‚ ‚  subchapter” are substituted for “this section” for clarity. See H.
‚ ‚ ‚  Rept. No. 100-431, 100th Cong., 1st Sess., p. 19 (1987).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1), the words “procedures for making a decision
‚ ‚ ‚  under subsection (a)(1) of this section” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “procedures for considering such petitions” and “procedures for
‚ ‚ ‚  determinations made on the Secretary’s initiative” because of the
‚ ‚ ‚  restatement. The words “(whether or not confidential)” are omitted
‚ ‚ ‚  as unnecessary because of the restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(2), the word “permits” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “shall be sufficient authority” for clarity. The word “conditions”
‚ ‚ ‚  is omitted as being included in “terms”.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words “under this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection” are added for clarity. The word “including” is
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “include, as a minimum” to eliminate unnecessary
‚ ‚ ‚  words. In clause (B), the words “(relating to discovery,
‚ ‚ ‚  notification, and remedy of defects)” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c)(3), the words “directly or indirectly” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d)(1), before clause (A), the word “conditions” is
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as being included in “terms”.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  PUB. L. 103-429‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  This amends 49:30141(c)(4)(A) and 30165(a) to correct erroneous
‚ ‚ ‚  cross-references.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1994 – Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 103-429 substituted “any of
‚ ‚ ‚  sections 30112” for “section 30112” and inserted “any of” before
‚ ‚ ‚  “those sections”.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Amendment by Pub. L. 103-429 effective July 5, 1994, see section
‚ ‚ ‚  9 of Pub. L. 103-429, set out as a note under section 321 of this
‚ ‚ ‚  title.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30142‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER III – IMPORTING NONCOMPLYING MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30142. Importing motor vehicles for personal use

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) General. – Section 30112(a) of this title does not apply to
‚ ‚ ‚  an imported motor vehicle if –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) the vehicle is imported for personal use, and not for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  resale, by an individual (except an individual described in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sections 30143 and 30144 of this title);
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) the vehicle is imported after January 31, 1990; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) the individual takes the actions required under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) of this section to receive an exemption.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Exemptions. – (1) To receive an exemption under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (a) of this section, an individual must –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) provide the Secretary of the Treasury (acting for the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation) with –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (i) an appropriate bond in an amount determined under section
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  30141(d) of this title;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (ii) a copy of an agreement with an importer registered under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30141(c) of this title for bringing the motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  into compliance with applicable motor vehicle safety standards
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (iii) a certification that the vehicle meets the requirement
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of section 30141(a)(1)(A) or (B) of this title; and

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) comply with appropriate terms the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation imposes to ensure that the vehicle –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (i) will be brought into compliance with those standards
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  within a reasonable time (specified by the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation) after the vehicle is imported; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (ii) will be exported (at no cost to the United States
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Government) by the Secretary of the Treasury or abandoned to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the Government.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) For good cause shown, the Secretary of Transportation may
‚ ‚ ‚  allow an individual additional time, but not more than 30 days
‚ ‚ ‚  after the day on which the motor vehicle is offered for import, to
‚ ‚ ‚  comply with paragraph (1)(A)(ii) of this subsection.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 962.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30142(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(f)(1).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108(f); added Oct. 31, 1988,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 100-562, Sec. 2(b),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102 Stat. 2822.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30142(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(f)(2).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(2), the words “after January 31, 1990” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “after the effective date of the regulations
‚ ‚ ‚  initially issued to implement the amendments made to this section
‚ ‚ ‚  by the Imported Vehicle Safety Compliance Act of 1988” for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚  See 49 C.F.R. part 591.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(3), the words “the individual takes the actions
‚ ‚ ‚  required under subsection (b) of this section” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “if that individual takes the actions required by paragraph (2)”
‚ ‚ ‚  for clarity and because of the restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1), the word “compliance” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “conformity” for consistency in this chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1)(B), before subclause (i), the word
‚ ‚ ‚  “conditions” is omitted as being included in “terms”.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30143‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER III – IMPORTING NONCOMPLYING MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30143. Motor vehicles imported by individuals employed outside
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the United States

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Definition. – In this section, “assigned place of employment”
‚ ‚ ‚  means –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) the principal location at which an individual is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  permanently or indefinitely assigned to work; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) for a member of the uniformed services, the individual’s
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  permanent duty station.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) General. – Section 30112(a) of this title does not apply to a
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle imported for personal use, and not for resale, by an
‚ ‚ ‚  individual –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) whose assigned place of employment was outside the United
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  States as of October 31, 1988, and who has not had an assigned
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  place of employment in the United States from that date through
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the date the vehicle is imported into the United States;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) who previously had not imported a motor vehicle into the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  United States under this section or section 108(g) of the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 or, before
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  October 31, 1988, under section 108(b)(3) of that Act;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) who acquired, or made a binding contract to acquire, the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle before October 31, 1988;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) who imported the vehicle into the United States not later
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  than October 31, 1992; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (5) who satisfies section 108(b)(3) of that Act as in effect on
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  October 30, 1988.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Certification. – Subsection (b) of this section is carried
‚ ‚ ‚  out by certification in the form the Secretary of Transportation or
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 963.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30143(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(g) (3d,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  last sentences).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108(g); added Oct. 31, 1988,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 100-562, Sec. 2(b),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102 Stat. 2823.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30143(b),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(g) (1st, 2d ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentences).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “(including a
‚ ‚ ‚  member of the uniformed services)” are omitted as unnecessary
‚ ‚ ‚  because of the restatement. In clause (1), the words “from that
‚ ‚ ‚  date through the date the vehicle is imported into the United
‚ ‚ ‚  States” are substituted for “that date and the date of entry of
‚ ‚ ‚  such motor vehicle” for clarity and consistency in this chapter. In
‚ ‚ ‚  clause (2), the words “under this section or section 108(g) of the
‚ ‚ ‚  National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “this subsection” to preserve the exemption for
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicles imported under the source provisions between October
‚ ‚ ‚  30, 1988, and the effective date of this restatement. In clause
‚ ‚ ‚  (4), the word “imports” is substituted for “enters” for clarity and
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency in this chapter. In clause (5) the word “satisfies” is
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “meets the terms, conditions, and other
‚ ‚ ‚  requirements . . . under” to eliminate unnecessary words.

-REFTEXT-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  REFERENCES IN TEXT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsections (b)(3) and (g) of section 108 of the National Traffic
‚ ‚ ‚  and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, referred to in subsec.
‚ ‚ ‚  (b)(2), (5), are subsecs. (b)(3) and (g) of section 108 of Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, which were classified to subsecs. (b)(3) and (g),
‚ ‚ ‚  respectively, of section 1397 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, were
‚ ‚ ‚  repealed and reenacted in sections 30112(b)(1)-(3) and 30143,
‚ ‚ ‚  respectively, of this title by Pub. L. 103-272, Secs. 1(e), 7(b),
‚ ‚ ‚  July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 945, 963, 1379.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30144‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER III – IMPORTING NONCOMPLYING MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30144. Importing motor vehicles on a temporary basis

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) General. – Section 30112(a) of this title does not apply to a
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle imported on a temporary basis for personal use by an
‚ ‚ ‚  individual who is a member of –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1)(A) the personnel of the government of a foreign country on
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  assignment in the United States or a member of the Secretariat of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  a public international organization designated under the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288 et
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  seq.); and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) the class of individuals for whom the Secretary of State
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  has authorized free importation of motor vehicles; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) the armed forces of a foreign country on assignment in the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  United States.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Verification. – The Secretary of Transportation or the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of the Treasury may require verification, that the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation considers appropriate, that an
‚ ‚ ‚  individual is a member described under subsection (a) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  section. The Secretary of Transportation shall ensure that a motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle imported under this section will be exported (at no cost to
‚ ‚ ‚  the United States Government) or abandoned to the Government when
‚ ‚ ‚  the individual no longer –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) resides in the United States; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) is a member described under subsection (a) of this section.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Sale in the United States. – A motor vehicle imported under
‚ ‚ ‚  this section may not be sold when in the United States.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 964; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  104-287, Sec. 5(57), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3394.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  PUB. L. 103-272‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30144(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(h) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108(h); added Oct. 31, 1988,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 100-562, Sec. 2(b),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102 Stat. 2823.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30144(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(h) (2d, 3d ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentences).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30144(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(h) (last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(1)(B), the word “importation” is substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  for “entry” for clarity and consistency in this chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words “that an
‚ ‚ ‚  individual is a member described under subsection (a) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  section” are substituted for “such status” for clarity. The word
‚ ‚ ‚  “imported” is substituted for “entered” for clarity and consistency
‚ ‚ ‚  in this chapter. In clause (2), the words “a member described under
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (a) of this section” are substituted for “hold such
‚ ‚ ‚  status” for clarity.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  PUB. L. 104-287‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  This amends 49:30144(a)(1)(A) to correct an erroneous cross-
‚ ‚ ‚  reference.

-REFTEXT-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  REFERENCES IN TEXT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The International Organizations Immunities Act, referred to in
‚ ‚ ‚  subsec. (a)(1)(A), is title I of act Dec. 29, 1945, ch. 652, 59
‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 669, as amended, which is classified principally to
‚ ‚ ‚  subchapter XVIII (Sec. 288 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 22,
‚ ‚ ‚  Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of
‚ ‚ ‚  this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section
‚ ‚ ‚  288 of Title 22 and Tables.
-MISC2-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1996 – Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104-287 substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  “International Organizations” for “International Organization”.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30145‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER III – IMPORTING NONCOMPLYING MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30145. Importing motor vehicles or equipment requiring further
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturing

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section 30112(a) of this title does not apply to a motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  or motor vehicle equipment if the vehicle or equipment –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) requires further manufacturing to perform its intended
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  function as decided under regulations prescribed by the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of Transportation; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) is accompanied at the time of importation by a written
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  statement issued by the manufacturer indicating the applicable
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter with
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  which it does not comply.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 964.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30145‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(e).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108(e); added Oct. 31, 1988,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 100-562, Sec. 2(b),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102 Stat. 2822.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In clause (2), the word “importation” is substituted for “entry”
‚ ‚ ‚  for clarity and consistency in this chapter. The words “of the
‚ ‚ ‚  incomplete motor vehicle or item of equipment” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary because of the restatement. The words “prescribed under
‚ ‚ ‚  this chapter” are substituted for “Federal” for consistency in this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30146‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER III – IMPORTING NONCOMPLYING MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30146. Release of motor vehicles and bonds

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Compliance Certification and Bond. – (1) Except as provided
‚ ‚ ‚  in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, an importer registered
‚ ‚ ‚  under section 30141(c) of this title may license or register an
‚ ‚ ‚  imported motor vehicle for use on public streets, roads, or
‚ ‚ ‚  highways, or release custody of a motor vehicle imported by the
‚ ‚ ‚  registered importer or imported by an individual under section
‚ ‚ ‚  30142 of this title and altered by the registered importer to meet
‚ ‚ ‚  applicable motor vehicle safety standards prescribed under this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter to a person for license or registration for use on public
‚ ‚ ‚  streets, roads, or highways, only after 30 days after the
‚ ‚ ‚  registered importer certifies to the Secretary of Transportation,
‚ ‚ ‚  in the way the Secretary prescribes, that the motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  complies with each standard prescribed in the year the vehicle was
‚ ‚ ‚  manufactured and that applies in that year to that vehicle. A
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle may not be released if the Secretary gives written notice
‚ ‚ ‚  before the end of the 30-day period that the Secretary will inspect
‚ ‚ ‚  the vehicle under subsection (c) of this section.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretaries of Transportation and the Treasury shall
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribe regulations –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) ensuring the release of a motor vehicle and bond required
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  under section 30141(d) of this title at the end of the 30-day
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  period, unless the Secretary of Transportation issues a notice of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  an inspection under subsection (c) of this section; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) providing that the Secretary of Transportation shall
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  release the vehicle and bond promptly after an inspection under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (c) of this section showing compliance with the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  standards applicable to the vehicle.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) Each registered importer shall include on each motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  released under this subsection a label prescribed by the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  of Transportation identifying the importer and stating that the
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle has been altered by the importer to comply with the
‚ ‚ ‚  standards applicable to the vehicle.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Reliance on Manufacturer’s Certification. – In making a
‚ ‚ ‚  certification under subsection (a)(1) of this section, the
‚ ‚ ‚  registered importer may rely on the manufacturer’s certification
‚ ‚ ‚  for the model to which the motor vehicle involved is substantially
‚ ‚ ‚  similar if the importer certifies that any alteration made by the
‚ ‚ ‚  importer did not affect the compliance of the safety features of
‚ ‚ ‚  the vehicle and the importer keeps records verifying the
‚ ‚ ‚  certification for the period the Secretary of Transportation
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribes.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Evidence of Compliance. – (1) The Secretary of Transportation
‚ ‚ ‚  may require that the certification under subsection (a)(1) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  section be accompanied by evidence of compliance the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  considers appropriate or may inspect the certified motor vehicle,
‚ ‚ ‚  or both. If the Secretary gives notice of an inspection, an
‚ ‚ ‚  importer may release the vehicle only after –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) an inspection showing the motor vehicle complies with
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  applicable motor vehicle safety standards prescribed under this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  chapter for which the inspection was made; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) release of the vehicle by the Secretary.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretary of Transportation shall inspect periodically a
‚ ‚ ‚  representative number of motor vehicles for which certifications
‚ ‚ ‚  have been filed under subsection (a)(1) of this section. In
‚ ‚ ‚  carrying out a motor vehicle testing program under this chapter,
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary shall include a representative number of motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicles for which certifications have been filed under subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (a)(1).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Challenging the Certification. – A motor vehicle or bond may
‚ ‚ ‚  not be released under subsection (a) of this section if the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation, not later than 30 days after receiving
‚ ‚ ‚  a certification under subsection (a)(1) of this section, gives
‚ ‚ ‚  written notice that the Secretary believes or has reason to believe
‚ ‚ ‚  that the certification is false or contains a mispresentation.(!1)
‚ ‚ ‚  The vehicle and bond may be released only after the Secretary is
‚ ‚ ‚  satisfied with the certification and any modification of the
‚ ‚ ‚  certification.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Bond Release. – A release of a bond required under section
‚ ‚ ‚  30141(d) of this title is deemed an acceptance of a certification
‚ ‚ ‚  or completion of an inspection under this section but is not a
‚ ‚ ‚  decision by the Secretary of Transportation under section 30118(a)
‚ ‚ ‚  or (b) of this title of compliance with applicable motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  safety standards prescribed under this chapter.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 964.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30146(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(3)(E)(i)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1st, 3d, last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentences), (vii).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108(c)(3)(E); added Oct. 31,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1988, Pub. L. 100-562, Sec.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2(b), 102 Stat. 2820.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30146(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(3)(E)(‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  ii).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30146(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(3)(E)(i)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2d sentence),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (iii), (iv).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30146(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(3)(E)(‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vi).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30146(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(c)(3)(E)(v).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(1), the words “Except as provided in
‚ ‚ ‚  subsections (c) and (d) of this section” are added because of the
‚ ‚ ‚  restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(2)(B), the words “showing compliance with the
‚ ‚ ‚  standards” are substituted for “showing no such failure to comply”
‚ ‚ ‚  for clarity.

-FOOTNOTE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (!1) So in original. Probably should be “misrepresentation.”
-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30147‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER III – IMPORTING NONCOMPLYING MOTOR VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30147. Responsibility for defects and noncompliance

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Deeming Defect or Noncompliance to Certain Vehicles and
‚ ‚ ‚  Importer as Manufacturer. – (1) In carrying out sections 30117(b),
‚ ‚ ‚  30118-30121, and 30166(f) of this title –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) for a defect or noncompliance with an applicable motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter for a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle originally manufactured for import into the United
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  States, an imported motor vehicle having a valid certification
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  under section 30146(a)(1) of this title and decided to be
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  substantially similar to that motor vehicle shall be deemed as
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  having the same defect or as not complying with the same standard
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  unless the manufacturer or importer registered under section
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  30141(c) of this title demonstrates otherwise to the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) the registered importer shall be deemed to be the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer of any motor vehicle that the importer imports or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  brings into compliance with the standards for an individual under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30142 of this title.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register notice of
‚ ‚ ‚  any defect or noncompliance under paragraph (1)(A) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Financial Responsibility Requirement. – The Secretary shall
‚ ‚ ‚  require by regulation each registered importer (including any
‚ ‚ ‚  successor in interest) to provide and maintain evidence,
‚ ‚ ‚  satisfactory to the Secretary, of sufficient financial
‚ ‚ ‚  responsibility to meet its obligations under sections 30117(b),
‚ ‚ ‚  30118-30121, and 30166(f) of this title.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 966.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30147(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(d)(1).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  108(d); added Oct. 31, 1988,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 100-562, Sec. 2(b),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102 Stat. 2821.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30147(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(d)(2).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In this section, the words “(relating to discovery, notification,
‚ ‚ ‚  and remedy of motor vehicle defects)” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(1)(A), the words “for a motor vehicle” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “in, or regarding, any motor vehicle” to eliminate
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a)(1)(B), the word “compliance” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “conformity” for consistency in this chapter.

-End-
-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC SUBCHAPTER IV – ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER IV – ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER IV – ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30161‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER IV – ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30161. Judicial review of standards

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Filing and Venue. – A person adversely affected by an order
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribing a motor vehicle safety standard under this chapter may
‚ ‚ ‚  apply for review of the order by filing a petition for review in
‚ ‚ ‚  the court of appeals of the United States for the circuit in which
‚ ‚ ‚  the person resides or has its principal place of business. The
‚ ‚ ‚  petition must be filed not later than 59 days after the order is
‚ ‚ ‚  issued.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Notifying Secretary. – The clerk of the court shall send
‚ ‚ ‚  immediately a copy of the petition to the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation. The Secretary shall file with the court a record of
‚ ‚ ‚  the proceeding in which the order was prescribed.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Additional Proceedings. – (1) On request of the petitioner,
‚ ‚ ‚  the court may order the Secretary to receive additional evidence
‚ ‚ ‚  and evidence in rebuttal if the court is satisfied that the
‚ ‚ ‚  additional evidence is material and there were reasonable grounds
‚ ‚ ‚  for not presenting the evidence in the proceeding before the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretary may modify findings of fact or make new
‚ ‚ ‚  findings because of the additional evidence presented. The
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary shall file a modified or new finding, a recommendation to
‚ ‚ ‚  modify or set aside the order, and the additional evidence with the
‚ ‚ ‚  court.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Certified Copies of Records of Proceedings. – The Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  shall give any interested person a certified copy of the transcript
‚ ‚ ‚  of the record in a proceeding under this section on request and
‚ ‚ ‚  payment of costs. A certified copy of the record of the proceeding
‚ ‚ ‚  is admissible in a proceeding arising out of a matter under this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter, regardless of whether the proceeding under this section
‚ ‚ ‚  has begun or becomes final.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Finality of Judgment and Supreme Court Review. – A judgment
‚ ‚ ‚  of a court under this section is final and may be reviewed only by
‚ ‚ ‚  the Supreme Court under section 1254 of title 28.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 966.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30161(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1394(a)(1) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence), (3).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 105(a)(1)-(5),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b), 80 Stat. 720, 721.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30161(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1394(a)(1) (2d,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  last sentences).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30161(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1394(a)(2).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30161(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1394(b).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30161(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1394(a)(4), (5).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the words “In a case of actual controversy as
‚ ‚ ‚  to the validity of” and “who will be . . . when it is effective”
‚ ‚ ‚  are omitted as surplus. The words “an order prescribing a motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standard under this chapter” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “any order under section 1392 of this title” for consistency. The
‚ ‚ ‚  words “apply for review” are added for clarity. The words “The
‚ ‚ ‚  petition must be filed” are substituted for “at any time” for
‚ ‚ ‚  clarity. The text of 15:1394(a)(3) is omitted as surplus because
‚ ‚ ‚  5:ch. 7 applies unless otherwise stated.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b), the words “or other officer designated by him
‚ ‚ ‚  for that purpose” are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(b). The
‚ ‚ ‚  words “in which the order was prescribed” are substituted for “on
‚ ‚ ‚  which the Secretary based his order” for consistency. The words “as
‚ ‚ ‚  provided in section 2112 of title 28” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c)(1), the words “in such manner and upon such
‚ ‚ ‚  terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper” are omitted
‚ ‚ ‚  as surplus. The words “is satisfied” are substituted for “shows to
‚ ‚ ‚  the satisfaction of” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “and
‚ ‚ ‚  to be adduced upon the hearing” are omitted as unnecessary.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c)(2), the words “with the court” are substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  for “the return of” for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d), the words “thereof” and “criminal, exclusion
‚ ‚ ‚  of imports, or other” are omitted as surplus. The words “under this
‚ ‚ ‚  section” are substituted for “with respect to the order” for
‚ ‚ ‚  clarity. The word “previously” is omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (e), the words “under this section is final and may
‚ ‚ ‚  be reviewed only” are substituted for “affirming or setting aside,
‚ ‚ ‚  in whole or in part, any such order of the Secretary shall be
‚ ‚ ‚  final, subject to review” to eliminate unnecessary words. The text
‚ ‚ ‚  of 15:1394(a)(5) is omitted because of rule 43 of the Federal Rules
‚ ‚ ‚  of Appellate Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.).

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30162‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER IV – ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30162. Petitions by interested persons for standards and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  enforcement

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Filing. – Any interested person may file a petition with the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation requesting the Secretary to begin a
‚ ‚ ‚  proceeding –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) to prescribe a motor vehicle safety standard under this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  chapter; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) to decide whether to issue an order under section 30118(b)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of this title.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Statement of Facts. – The petition must state facts that the
‚ ‚ ‚  person claims establish that a motor vehicle safety standard or
‚ ‚ ‚  order referred to in subsection (a) of this section is necessary
‚ ‚ ‚  and briefly describe the order the Secretary should issue.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Proceedings. – The Secretary may hold a public hearing or
‚ ‚ ‚  conduct an investigation or proceeding to decide whether to grant
‚ ‚ ‚  the petition.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Actions of Secretary. – The Secretary shall grant or deny a
‚ ‚ ‚  petition not later than 120 days after the petition is filed. If a
‚ ‚ ‚  petition is granted, the Secretary shall begin the proceeding
‚ ‚ ‚  promptly. If a petition is denied, the Secretary shall publish the
‚ ‚ ‚  reasons for the denial in the Federal Register.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 967.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30162(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410a(a).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  124(a)-(d); added Oct. 27,‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  106, 88 Stat. 1481.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30162(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410a(b).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30162(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410a(c).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30162(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1410a(d).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Subsection (a)(1) is substituted for “the issuance of an order
‚ ‚ ‚  pursuant to section 1392 of this title” for clarity and because of
‚ ‚ ‚  the restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b), the words “a motor vehicle safety standard”
‚ ‚ ‚  are added because of the restatement. The words “referred to in
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (a) of this section” are added for clarity. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “of the substance” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c), the words “as he deems appropriate in order”
‚ ‚ ‚  and “or not” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d), the words “described in subsection (b) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  section”, “either”, and “requested in the petition” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30163‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER IV – ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30163. Actions by the Attorney General

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Civil Actions To Enforce. – The Attorney General may bring a
‚ ‚ ‚  civil action in a United States district court to enjoin –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) a violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  order issued under this chapter; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) the sale, offer for sale, or introduction or delivery for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  introduction, in interstate commerce, or the importation into the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  United States, of a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  which it is decided, before the first purchase in good faith
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  other than for resale, that the vehicle or equipment –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) contains a defect related to motor vehicle safety about
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  which notice was given under section 30118(c) of this title or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  an order was issued under section 30118(b) of this title; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) does not comply with an applicable motor vehicle safety
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  standard prescribed under this chapter.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Prior Notice. – When practicable, the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation shall notify a person against whom a civil action
‚ ‚ ‚  under subsection (a) of this section is planned, give the person an
‚ ‚ ‚  opportunity to present that person’s views, and, except for a
‚ ‚ ‚  knowing and willful violation of this chapter, give the person a
‚ ‚ ‚  reasonable opportunity to remedy the defect or comply with the
‚ ‚ ‚  applicable motor vehicle safety standard prescribed under this
‚ ‚ ‚  chapter. Failure to give notice and an opportunity to remedy the
‚ ‚ ‚  defect or comply with the applicable motor vehicle safety standard
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter does not prevent a court from
‚ ‚ ‚  granting appropriate relief.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Venue. – Except as provided in section 30121(d) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  title, a civil action under this section or section 30165(a) of
‚ ‚ ‚  this title may be brought in the judicial district in which the
‚ ‚ ‚  violation occurred or the defendant is found, resides, or does
‚ ‚ ‚  business. Process in the action may be served in any other judicial
‚ ‚ ‚  district in which the defendant resides or is found.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Jury Trial Demand. – In a trial for criminal contempt for
‚ ‚ ‚  violating an injunction or restraining order issued under
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (a) of this section, the violation of which is also a
‚ ‚ ‚  violation of this chapter, the defendant may demand a jury trial.
‚ ‚ ‚  The defendant shall be tried as provided in rule 42(b) of the
‚ ‚ ‚  Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure (18 App. U.S.C.).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Subpenas for Witnesses. – In a civil action brought under
‚ ‚ ‚  this section, a subpena for a witness may be served in any judicial
‚ ‚ ‚  district.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 967.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30163(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1399(a) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 110(a), (c), 80
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 723, 724; Oct. 27,‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Secs.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102(b)(2), 103(c), 88 Stat.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1477, 1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1424(b) (related ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  to injunctions).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 204(b) (related
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  to injunctions), 80 Stat.‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  729.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30163(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1399(a) (2d,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  last sentences).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30163(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1399(c).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30163(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1399(b).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 110(b), (d)‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to Sec. 110), 80‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 723, 724.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30163(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1399(d) (related ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  to 15:1399).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), before clause (1), the text of 15:1424(b)
‚ ‚ ‚  (related to injunctions) is omitted because of the restatement. The
‚ ‚ ‚  words “The Attorney General may bring a civil action” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “upon petition by . . . the Attorney General” for
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency. The words “the appropriate United States attorney or .
‚ ‚ ‚  . . on behalf of the United States” are omitted as surplus. The
‚ ‚ ‚  words “for cause shown and subject to the provisions of rule 65(a)
‚ ‚ ‚  and (b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus. In clause (1), the words “a regulation prescribed or order
‚ ‚ ‚  issued under this chapter” are substituted for “(or rules,
‚ ‚ ‚  regulations or orders thereunder)” for clarity and consistency and
‚ ‚ ‚  because “rule” and “regulation” are synonymous. In clause (2),
‚ ‚ ‚  before subclause (A), the words “that the vehicle or equipment” are
‚ ‚ ‚  added for clarity. The words “of such vehicle” and “purposes” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus. In subclause (B), the words “does not comply
‚ ‚ ‚  with” are substituted for “is determined . . . not to conform to”
‚ ‚ ‚  for clarity and consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsections (b), (c), and (e), the word “civil” is added
‚ ‚ ‚  because of rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App.
‚ ‚ ‚  U.S.C.).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b), the words “comply with the applicable motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety standard prescribed under this chapter” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “achieve compliance”, and the words “a court” are
‚ ‚ ‚  added, for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c), the words “any act or transaction constituting
‚ ‚ ‚  the” are omitted as surplus. The word “resides” is substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “is an inhabitant” for consistency in the revised title. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “the action” are substituted for “such cases” for consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d), the words “the defendant may demand a jury
‚ ‚ ‚  trial” are substituted for “trial shall be by the court, or, upon
‚ ‚ ‚  demand of the accused, by a jury” to eliminate unnecessary words
‚ ‚ ‚  and for consistency in the revised title.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (e), the words “who are required to attend a United
‚ ‚ ‚  States district court” are omitted as surplus. The words “be served
‚ ‚ ‚  in” are substituted for “run into” for clarity.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30164‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER IV – ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30164. Service of process

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Designating Agents. – A manufacturer offering a motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚  or motor vehicle equipment for import shall designate an agent on
‚ ‚ ‚  whom service of notices and process in administrative and judicial
‚ ‚ ‚  proceedings may be made. The designation shall be in writing and
‚ ‚ ‚  filed with the Secretary of Transportation. The designation may be
‚ ‚ ‚  changed in the same way as originally made.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Service. – An agent may be served at the agent’s office or
‚ ‚ ‚  usual place of residence. Service on the agent is deemed to be
‚ ‚ ‚  service on the manufacturer. If a manufacturer does not designate
‚ ‚ ‚  an agent, service may be made by posting the notice or process in
‚ ‚ ‚  the office of the Secretary.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 968.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30164(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1399(e) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 110(e), 80‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 724.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30164(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1399(e) (last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the words “A manufacturer offering . . .
‚ ‚ ‚  shall” are substituted for “It shall be the duty of every
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer offering . . . to” to eliminate unnecessary words. The
‚ ‚ ‚  words “into the United States”, “all . . . orders, decisions and
‚ ‚ ‚  requirements”, and “for and on behalf of said manufacturer” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus. The words “The designation may be changed in
‚ ‚ ‚  the same way as originally made” are substituted for “which
‚ ‚ ‚  designation may from time to time be changed by like writing,
‚ ‚ ‚  similarly filed” for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b), the words “An agent may be served” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “Service of all administrative and judicial
‚ ‚ ‚  processes, notices, orders, decisions and requirements may be made
‚ ‚ ‚  upon said manufacturer by service upon such designated agent” to
‚ ‚ ‚  eliminate unnecessary words. The words “Service on the agent is
‚ ‚ ‚  deemed to be service on the manufacturer” are substituted for “with
‚ ‚ ‚  like effects as if made personally upon said manufacturer”, and the
‚ ‚ ‚  words “If a manufacturer does not designate an agent” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “and in default of such designation of such agent”,
‚ ‚ ‚  for clarity. The words “of process, notice, order, requirement or
‚ ‚ ‚  decision in any proceeding before the Secretary or in any judicial
‚ ‚ ‚  proceeding for enforcement of this subchapter or any standards
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed pursuant to this subchapter” and “order, requirement or
‚ ‚ ‚  decision” are omitted as surplus.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30165‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER IV – ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30165. Civil penalty

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Civil Penalties. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) In general. – A person that violates any of section 30112,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  30115, 30117 through 30122, 30123(d),(!1) 30125(c), 30127, or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  30141 through 30147, or a regulation prescribed thereunder, is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  more than $5,000 for each violation. A separate violation occurs
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for each motor vehicle or item of motor vehicle equipment and for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  each failure or refusal to allow or perform an act required by
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  any of those sections. The maximum penalty under this subsection
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for a related series of violations is $15,000,000.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) School buses. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) In general. – Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the maximum
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  amount of a civil penalty under this paragraph shall be $10,000
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  in the case of –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (i) the manufacture, sale, offer for sale, introduction or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  delivery for introduction into interstate commerce, or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  importation of a school bus or school bus equipment (as those
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  terms are defined in section 30125(a) of this title) in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  violation of section 30112(a)(1) of this title; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (ii) a violation of section 30112(a)(2) of this title.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) Related series of violations. – A separate violation
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  occurs for each motor vehicle or item of motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment and for each failure or refusal to allow or perform
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  an act required by that section. The maximum penalty under this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  paragraph for a related series of violations is $15,000,000.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) Section 30166. – A person who violates section 30166 or a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  regulation prescribed under that section is liable to the United
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  States Government for a civil penalty for failing or refusing to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  allow or perform an act required under that section or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  regulation. The maximum penalty under this paragraph is $5,000
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  per violation per day. The maximum penalty under this paragraph
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for a related series of daily violations is $15,000,000.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Compromise and Setoff. – (1) The Secretary of Transportation
‚ ‚ ‚  may compromise the amount of a civil penalty imposed under this
‚ ‚ ‚  section.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Government may deduct the amount of a civil penalty
‚ ‚ ‚  imposed or compromised under this section from amounts it owes the
‚ ‚ ‚  person liable for the penalty.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Considerations. – In determining the amount of a civil
‚ ‚ ‚  penalty or compromise, the appropriateness of the penalty or
‚ ‚ ‚  compromise to the size of the business of the person charged and
‚ ‚ ‚  the gravity of the violation shall be considered.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Subpenas for Witnesses. – In a civil action brought under
‚ ‚ ‚  this section, a subpena for a witness may be served in any judicial
‚ ‚ ‚  district.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 968; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  103-429, Sec. 6(23), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4380; Pub. L. 106-
‚ ‚ ‚  414, Sec. 5(a), Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1803; Pub. L. 109-59,
‚ ‚ ‚  title X, Sec. 10309(c), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1942.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  PUB. L. 103-272‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30165(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1398(a).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 109(a), 80‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 723; Oct. 27, 1974,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec. 103(b),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  88 Stat. 1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1424(b) (related ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  to civil penalty).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Secs. 109(b), 110(d)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to Sec. 109),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  204(b) (related to civil‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  penalty), 80 Stat. 723, 724,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  729.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30165(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1398(b) (1st,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  last sentences).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30165(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1398(b) (2d ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30165(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1399(d) (related ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  to 15:1398).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the text of 15:1424(b) (related to civil
‚ ‚ ‚  penalty) is omitted because of the restatement. The words “is
‚ ‚ ‚  liable to the United States Government for” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “shall be subject to” for consistency. The words “A separate
‚ ‚ ‚  violation occurs for” are substituted for “Such violation of a
‚ ‚ ‚  provision of section 1397 of this title, or regulations issued
‚ ‚ ‚  thereunder, shall constitute a separate violation with respect to”
‚ ‚ ‚  to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(2), the words “amount of a civil penalty
‚ ‚ ‚  imposed or compromised” are substituted for “amount of such
‚ ‚ ‚  penalty, when finally determined, or the amount agreed upon in
‚ ‚ ‚  compromise” to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d), the words “who are required to attend a United
‚ ‚ ‚  States district court” are omitted as surplus. The words “be served
‚ ‚ ‚  in” are substituted for “run into” for clarity.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  PUB. L. 103-429‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  This amends 49:30141(c)(4)(A) and 30165(a) to correct erroneous
‚ ‚ ‚  cross-references.

-REFTEXT-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  REFERENCES IN TEXT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section 30123(d) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1),
‚ ‚ ‚  was redesignated section 30123(a) of this title by Pub. L. 105-178,
‚ ‚ ‚  title VII, Sec. 7106(b), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 467.
-MISC2-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2005 – Subsec. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 109-59, which directed
‚ ‚ ‚  amendment of section 30165(a), without specifying the title to be
‚ ‚ ‚  amended, by adding par. (2) and redesignating former par. (2) as
‚ ‚ ‚  (3), was executed to this section, to reflect the probable intent
‚ ‚ ‚  of Congress.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2000 – Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106-414 amended heading and text
‚ ‚ ‚  generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “A person that
‚ ‚ ‚  violates any of sections 30112, 30115, 30117-30122, 30123(d),
‚ ‚ ‚  30125(c), 30127, 30141-30147, or 30166 of this title or a
‚ ‚ ‚  regulation prescribed under any of those sections is liable to the
‚ ‚ ‚  United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than
‚ ‚ ‚  $1,000 for each violation. A separate violation occurs for each
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle or item of motor vehicle equipment and for each
‚ ‚ ‚  failure or refusal to allow or perform an act required by any of
‚ ‚ ‚  those sections. The maximum penalty under this subsection for a
‚ ‚ ‚  related series of violations is $800,000.”
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1994 – Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-429 substituted “any of sections
‚ ‚ ‚  30112” for “section 30112” and inserted “any of” before “those
‚ ‚ ‚  sections” in two places.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Amendment by Pub. L. 103-429 effective July 5, 1994, see section
‚ ‚ ‚  9 of Pub. L. 103-429, set out as a note under section 321 of this
‚ ‚ ‚  title.

-FOOTNOTE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (!1) See References in Text note below.
-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30166‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER IV – ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30166. Inspections, investigations, and records

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Definition. – In this section, “motor vehicle accident” means
‚ ‚ ‚  an occurrence associated with the maintenance or operation of a
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment resulting in personal
‚ ‚ ‚  injury, death, or property damage.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Authority To Inspect and Investigate. – (1) The Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation may conduct an inspection or investigation –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) that may be necessary to enforce this chapter or a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) related to a motor vehicle accident and designed to carry
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  out this chapter.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) The Secretary of Transportation shall cooperate with State
‚ ‚ ‚  and local officials to the greatest extent possible in an
‚ ‚ ‚  inspection or investigation under paragraph (1)(B) of this
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Matters That Can Be Inspected and Impoundment. – In carrying
‚ ‚ ‚  out this chapter, an officer or employee designated by the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of Transportation –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) at reasonable times, may inspect and copy any record
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  related to this chapter;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) on request, may inspect records of a manufacturer,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  distributor, or dealer to decide whether the manufacturer,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  distributor, or dealer has complied or is complying with this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  chapter or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  chapter; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) at reasonable times, in a reasonable way, and on display of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  proper credentials and written notice to an owner, operator, or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  agent in charge, may –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) enter and inspect with reasonable promptness premises in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  which a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufactured, held for introduction in interstate commerce, or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  held for sale after introduction in interstate commerce;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) enter and inspect with reasonable promptness premises at
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  which a vehicle or equipment involved in a motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  accident is located;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) inspect with reasonable promptness that vehicle or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (D) impound for not more than 72 hours a vehicle or equipment
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  involved in a motor vehicle accident.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Reasonable Compensation. – When a motor vehicle (except a
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle subject to subchapter I of chapter 135 of this title) or
‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle equipment is inspected or temporarily impounded under
‚ ‚ ‚  subsection (c)(3) of this section, the Secretary of Transportation
‚ ‚ ‚  shall pay reasonable compensation to the owner of the vehicle if
‚ ‚ ‚  the inspection or impoundment results in denial of use, or
‚ ‚ ‚  reduction in value, of the vehicle.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (e) Records and Making Reports. – The Secretary of Transportation
‚ ‚ ‚  reasonably may require a manufacturer of a motor vehicle or motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle equipment to keep records, and a manufacturer, distributor,
‚ ‚ ‚  or dealer to make reports, to enable the Secretary to decide
‚ ‚ ‚  whether the manufacturer, distributor, or dealer has complied or is
‚ ‚ ‚  complying with this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order
‚ ‚ ‚  issued under this chapter. This subsection does not impose a
‚ ‚ ‚  recordkeeping requirement on a distributor or dealer in addition to
‚ ‚ ‚  those imposed under subsection (f) of this section and section
‚ ‚ ‚  30117(b) of this title or a regulation prescribed or order issued
‚ ‚ ‚  under subsection (f) or section 30117(b).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (f) Providing Copies of Communications About Defects and
‚ ‚ ‚  Noncompliance. – A manufacturer shall give the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation a true or representative copy of each communication
‚ ‚ ‚  to the manufacturer’s dealers or to owners or purchasers of a motor
‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or replacement equipment produced by the manufacturer about
‚ ‚ ‚  a defect or noncompliance with a motor vehicle safety standard
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter in a vehicle or equipment that is
‚ ‚ ‚  sold or serviced.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (g) Administrative Authority on Reports, Answers, and Hearings. –
‚ ‚ ‚  (1) In carrying out this chapter, the Secretary of Transportation
‚ ‚ ‚  may –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) require, by general or special order, any person to file
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  reports or answers to specific questions, including reports or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  answers under oath; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) conduct hearings, administer oaths, take testimony, and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  require (by subpena or otherwise) the appearance and testimony of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  witnesses and the production of records the Secretary considers
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  advisable.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) A witness summoned under this subsection is entitled to the
‚ ‚ ‚  same fee and mileage the witness would have been paid in a court of
‚ ‚ ‚  the United States.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (h) Civil Actions To Enforce and Venue. – A civil action to
‚ ‚ ‚  enforce a subpena or order under subsection (g) of this section may
‚ ‚ ‚  be brought in the United States district court for any judicial
‚ ‚ ‚  district in which the proceeding is conducted. The court may punish
‚ ‚ ‚  a failure to obey an order of the court to comply with a subpena or
‚ ‚ ‚  order as a contempt of court.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (i) Governmental Cooperation. – The Secretary of Transportation
‚ ‚ ‚  may request a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United
‚ ‚ ‚  States Government to provide records the Secretary considers
‚ ‚ ‚  necessary to carry out this chapter. The head of the department,
‚ ‚ ‚  agency, or instrumentality shall provide the record on request, may
‚ ‚ ‚  detail personnel on a reimbursable basis, and otherwise shall
‚ ‚ ‚  cooperate with the Secretary. This subsection does not affect a law
‚ ‚ ‚  limiting the authority of a department, agency, or instrumentality
‚ ‚ ‚  to provide information to another department, agency, or
‚ ‚ ‚  instrumentality.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (j) Cooperation of Secretary. – The Secretary of Transportation
‚ ‚ ‚  may advise, assist, and cooperate with departments, agencies, and
‚ ‚ ‚  instrumentalities of the Government, States, and other public and
‚ ‚ ‚  private agencies in developing a method for inspecting and testing
‚ ‚ ‚  to determine compliance with a motor vehicle safety standard.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (k) Providing Information. – The Secretary of Transportation
‚ ‚ ‚  shall provide the Attorney General and, when appropriate, the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary of the Treasury, information obtained that indicates a
‚ ‚ ‚  violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order
‚ ‚ ‚  issued under this chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (l) Reporting of Defects in Motor Vehicles and Products in
‚ ‚ ‚  Foreign Countries. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) Reporting of defects, manufacturer determination. – Not
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  later than 5 working days after determining to conduct a safety
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  recall or other safety campaign in a foreign country on a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or motor vehicle equipment that is identical or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  substantially similar to a motor vehicle or motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment offered for sale in the United States, the manufacturer
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  shall report the determination to the Secretary.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) Reporting of defects, foreign government determination. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Not later than 5 working days after receiving notification that
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the government of a foreign country has determined that a safety
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  recall or other safety campaign must be conducted in the foreign
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  country on a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment that is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  identical or substantially similar to a motor vehicle or motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle equipment offered for sale in the United States, the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer of the motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  shall report the determination to the Secretary.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) Reporting requirements. – The Secretary shall prescribe the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  contents of the notification required by this subsection.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (m) Early Warning Reporting Requirements. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) Rulemaking required. – Not later than 120 days after the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  date of the enactment of the Transportation Recall Enhancement,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Accountability, and Documentation (TREAD) Act, the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding to establish early warning
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  reporting requirements for manufacturers of motor vehicles and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle equipment to enhance the Secretary’s ability to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  carry out the provisions of this chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) Deadline. – The Secretary shall issue a final rule under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  paragraph (1) not later than June 30, 2002.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) Reporting elements. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) Warranty and claims data. – As part of the final rule
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  promulgated under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall require
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturers of motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  report, periodically or upon request by the Secretary,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  information which is received by the manufacturer derived from
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  foreign and domestic sources to the extent that such
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  information may assist in the identification of defects related
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  to motor vehicle safety in motor vehicles and motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment in the United States and which concerns –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (i) data on claims submitted to the manufacturer for
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  serious injuries (including death) and aggregate statistical
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  data on property damage from alleged defects in a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or in motor vehicle equipment; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (ii) customer satisfaction campaigns, consumer advisories,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  recalls, or other activity involving the repair or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  replacement of motor vehicles or items of motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) Other data. – As part of the final rule promulgated under
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  paragraph (1), the Secretary may, to the extent that such
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  information may assist in the identification of defects related
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  to motor vehicle safety in motor vehicles and motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment in the United States, require manufacturers of motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicles or motor vehicle equipment to report, periodically or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  upon request of the Secretary, such information as the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary may request.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) Reporting of possible defects. – The manufacturer of a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment shall report to the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary, in such manner as the Secretary establishes by
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  regulation, all incidents of which the manufacturer receives
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  actual notice which involve fatalities or serious injuries
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  which are alleged or proven to have been caused by a possible
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  defect in such manufacturer’s motor vehicle or motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment in the United States, or in a foreign country when
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  the possible defect is in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  equipment that is identical or substantially similar to a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or motor vehicle equipment offered for sale in the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  United States.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) Handling and utilization of reporting elements. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) Secretary’s specifications. – In requiring the reporting
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  of any information requested by the Secretary under this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  subsection, the Secretary shall specify in the final rule
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  promulgated under paragraph (1) –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (i) how such information will be reviewed and utilized to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  assist in the identification of defects related to motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle safety;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (ii) the systems and processes the Secretary will employ or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  establish to review and utilize such information; and
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (iii) the manner and form of reporting such information,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  including in electronic form.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) Information in possession of manufacturer. – The
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  regulations promulgated by the Secretary under paragraph (1)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  may not require a manufacturer of a motor vehicle or motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle equipment to maintain or submit records respecting
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  information not in the possession of the manufacturer.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C) Disclosure. – None of the information collected pursuant
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  to the final rule promulgated under paragraph (1) shall be
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  disclosed pursuant to section 30167(b) unless the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  determines the disclosure of such information will assist in
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  carrying out sections 30117(b) and 30118 through 30121.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (D) Burdensome requirements. – In promulgating the final rule
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall not impose
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  requirements unduly burdensome to a manufacturer of a motor
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  vehicle or motor vehicle equipment, taking into account the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer’s cost of complying with such requirements and the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary’s ability to use the information sought in a
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  meaningful manner to assist in the identification of defects
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  related to motor vehicle safety.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (5) Periodic review. – As part of the final rule promulgated
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  pursuant to paragraph (1), the Secretary shall specify procedures
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for the periodic review and update of such rule.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (n) Sale or Lease of Defective or Noncompliant Tire. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) In general. – The Secretary shall, within 90 days of the
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  date of the enactment of the Transportation Recall Enhancement,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Accountability, and Documentation (TREAD) Act, issue a final rule
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  requiring any person who knowingly and willfully sells or leases
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  for use on a motor vehicle a defective tire or a tire which is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  not compliant with an applicable tire safety standard with actual
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  knowledge that the manufacturer of such tire has notified its
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  dealers of such defect or noncompliance as required under section
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  30118(c) or as required by an order under section 30118(b) to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  report such sale or lease to the Secretary.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) Defect or noncompliance remedied or order not in effect. –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Regulations under paragraph (1) shall not require the reporting
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  described in paragraph (1) where before delivery under a sale or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  lease of a tire –
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (A) the defect or noncompliance of the tire is remedied as
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  required by section 30120; or
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (B) notification of the defect or noncompliance is required
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  under section 30118(b) but enforcement of the order is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  restrained or the order is set aside in a civil action to which
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  section 30121(d) applies.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 969; Pub. L.
‚ ‚ ‚  103-429, Sec. 6(24), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4380; Pub. L. 104-88,
‚ ‚ ‚  title III, Sec. 308(j), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 104-
‚ ‚ ‚  287, Sec. 6(f)(3), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3399; Pub. L. 106-414,
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 3(a)-(c), Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1800-1802.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  PUB. L. 103-272‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30166(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (as‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(a)(1)(B)‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1397(a)(1)(B), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relates to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  112(a)-(c)), (D) (related to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(3)(B)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 158(a)(1)), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  112(a)-(c)), 80 Stat. 722;‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Oct. 27, 1974, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  93-492, Sec. 103(a)(1)(A),‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2), (3), 88 Stat. 1477,‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(3)(B).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 112(a)-(c), 80
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 725; restated Oct. 27,
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  104(a), 88 Stat. 1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30166(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (as‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1397(a)(1)(B), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relates to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(1) (1st,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  last sentences)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(1) (1st,‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  last sentences).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30166(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (as‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1397(a)(1)(B), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relates to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(2), (b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1st sentence ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  61st-last words),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c)(2)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(2), (b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1st sentence ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  61st-last words),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c)(2).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30166(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (as‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1397(a)(1)(B), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relates to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(3)(A)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(3)(A).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30166(e)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (as‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1397(a)(1)(B), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relates to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(b) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence 1st-60th‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  words, last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(b) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence 1st-60th‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  words, last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30166(f)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1418(a)(1)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1418(a)(1).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  158(a)(1); added Oct. 27,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102(a), 88 Stat. 1475.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30166(g)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (as‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1397(a)(1)(B), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relates to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(c)(1), (3),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (5)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(c)(1), (3),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (5).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30166(h)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (as‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1397(a)(1)(B), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relates to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(c)(4)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(c)(4).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30166(i)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (as‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1397(a)(1)(B), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relates to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(c)(6)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(c)(6).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30166(j)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1396 (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  inspecting and ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 107 (related to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  testing).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  inspecting and testing), 80
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 721.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30166(k)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (as‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1397(a)(1)(B), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relates to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(1) (2d ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(1) (2d ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In this section, the words “regulation prescribed or order issued
‚ ‚ ‚  under this chapter” are substituted for “rules, regulations, or
‚ ‚ ‚  orders issued thereunder” and “regulations and orders promulgated
‚ ‚ ‚  thereunder” for consistency and because “rule” and “regulation” are
‚ ‚ ‚  synonymous. The text of 15:1397(a)(1)(B) and (E) (as 1397(a)(1)(B),
‚ ‚ ‚  (E) relates to 15:1401) is omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (a), the words “As used” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚  The word “use” is omitted as being included in “operation”.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1)(A), the words “this chapter” are substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  for “this subchapter” because of the restatement.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(1)(B), the words “the facts, circumstances,
‚ ‚ ‚  conditions, and causes of” are omitted as surplus. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “designed to carry out” are substituted for “which is for the
‚ ‚ ‚  purposes of carrying out” to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (b)(2), the words “making”, “appropriate”, and
‚ ‚ ‚  “consistent with the purposes of this subsection” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words “In carrying out
‚ ‚ ‚  this chapter” are substituted for “For purposes of carrying out
‚ ‚ ‚  paragraph (1)” in 15:1401(a)(2) and “In order to carry out the
‚ ‚ ‚  provisions of this subchapter” in 15:1401(c)(2) for clarity and
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency in this chapter. The words “an officer or employee
‚ ‚ ‚  designated by the Secretary of Transportation” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “officers or employees duly designated by the Secretary” in
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(2), “an officer or employee duly designated by the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary” in 15:1401(b), and “his duly authorized agent” in
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(c)(2) for consistency. In clause (1), the words “may
‚ ‚ ‚  inspect and copy” are substituted for “shall . . . have access to,
‚ ‚ ‚  and for the purposes of examination the right to copy” in
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(c)(2) to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “of any
‚ ‚ ‚  person having materials or information . . . any function of the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary under” are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the word
‚ ‚ ‚  “may” is substituted for “permit such officer or employee to” in
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(b) because of the restatement. The words “appropriate” and
‚ ‚ ‚  “relevant” are omitted as surplus. In clause (3)(A)-(C), the words
‚ ‚ ‚  “inspect with reasonable promptness” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(a)(2) (last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words and
‚ ‚ ‚  for consistency. In clause (3)(A), the word “premises” is
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “factory, warehouse, or establishment” for
‚ ‚ ‚  consistency. In clause (3)(D), the words “not more than” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “a period not to exceed” for consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (d), the words “for the purpose of inspection” and
‚ ‚ ‚  “the authority of” are omitted as surplus. The words “is inspected
‚ ‚ ‚  or temporarily impounded under subsection (c)(3) of this section”
‚ ‚ ‚  are substituted for “Whenever, under the authority of paragraph
‚ ‚ ‚  (2)(B), the Secretary inspects or temporarily impounds for the
‚ ‚ ‚  purpose of inspection” for clarity and to correct the cross-
‚ ‚ ‚  reference in the source provision. The words “to its owner” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (e), the words “establish and” are omitted as
‚ ‚ ‚  surplus. The words “This subsection does not impose” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as
‚ ‚ ‚  imposing” for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (f), the words “notices, bulletins, and other” are
‚ ‚ ‚  omitted as surplus. The words “with a motor vehicle safety standard
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribed under this chapter” are added for clarity. The text of
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D) (related to 15:1418(a)(1)) is omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (g)(1), before clause (A), the words “or on the
‚ ‚ ‚  authorization of the Secretary, any officer or employee of the
‚ ‚ ‚  Department of Transportation” are omitted as surplus because of
‚ ‚ ‚  49:322(b). In clause (A), the words “in writing”, “in such form as
‚ ‚ ‚  the Secretary may prescribe”, “relating to any function of the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary under this subchapter”, and “shall be filed with the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary within such reasonable period as the Secretary may
‚ ‚ ‚  prescribe” are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the words “sit
‚ ‚ ‚  and act at such times and places” are omitted as being included in
‚ ‚ ‚  “conduct hearings”. The word “records” is substituted for “such
‚ ‚ ‚  books, papers, correspondence, memorandums, contracts, agreements,
‚ ‚ ‚  or other records” for consistency in the revised title and with
‚ ‚ ‚  other titles of the United States Code.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (h), the words “A civil action to enforce a subpena
‚ ‚ ‚  or order . . . may be brought in the United States district court
‚ ‚ ‚  for the judicial district in which the proceeding is conducted” are
‚ ‚ ‚  substituted for “any of the district courts of the United States
‚ ‚ ‚  within the jurisdiction of which an inquiry is carried on may, in
‚ ‚ ‚  the case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena or order of the
‚ ‚ ‚  Secretary or such officer or employee . . . issue an order
‚ ‚ ‚  requiring compliance therewith” for clarity and to eliminate
‚ ‚ ‚  unnecessary words. The words “an order of the court to comply with
‚ ‚ ‚  a subpena or order” are substituted for “such order of the court”
‚ ‚ ‚  for clarity.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (i), the words “United States” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  “Federal” for consistency. The words “to provide” are substituted
‚ ‚ ‚  for “from” because of the restatement. The words “his functions
‚ ‚ ‚  under” are omitted as surplus. The words “head of the” are added
‚ ‚ ‚  for consistency. The words “to the Department of Transportation . .
‚ ‚ ‚  . made by the Secretary” are omitted as surplus. The words “detail
‚ ‚ ‚  personnel on a reimbursable basis” are substituted for
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(c)(6)(B) to eliminate unnecessary words and because of the
‚ ‚ ‚  restatement. The word “otherwise” is added for clarity. The words
‚ ‚ ‚  “be deemed to” and “provision of” are omitted as surplus.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (j), the words “departments, agencies, and
‚ ‚ ‚  instrumentalities of the Government, States, and other public and
‚ ‚ ‚  private agencies” are substituted for “other Federal departments
‚ ‚ ‚  and agencies, and State and other interested public and private
‚ ‚ ‚  agencies” for consistency.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  In subsection (k), the words “for appropriate action” are omitted
‚ ‚ ‚  as surplus.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  PUB. L. 103-429‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  This amends 49:30166(h) to clarify the restatement of
‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(c)(4) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law
‚ ‚ ‚  103-272, 108 Stat. 970).

-REFTEXT-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  REFERENCES IN TEXT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  The date of the enactment of the Transportation Recall
‚ ‚ ‚  Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation (TREAD) Act,
‚ ‚ ‚  referred to in subsecs. (m)(1) and (n)(1), is the date of enactment
‚ ‚ ‚  of Pub. L. 106-414, which was approved Nov. 1, 2000.
-MISC2-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  AMENDMENTS‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  2000 – Subsecs. (l) to (n). Pub. L. 106-414 added subsecs. (l) to
‚ ‚ ‚  (n).
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1996 – Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104-287 made technical amendment to
‚ ‚ ‚  directory language of Pub. L. 104-88, Sec. 308(j). See 1995
‚ ‚ ‚  Amendment note below.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1995 – Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104-88, Sec. 308(j), as amended by
‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 104-287, substituted “subchapter I of chapter 135” for
‚ ‚ ‚  “subchapter II of chapter 105”.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1994 – Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103-429 substituted “any judicial
‚ ‚ ‚  district” for “the judicial district”.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section 6(f)(3) of Pub. L. 104-287 provided that the amendment
‚ ‚ ‚  made by that section is effective Dec. 29, 1995.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1995 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Amendment by Pub. L. 104-88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2
‚ ‚ ‚  of Pub. L. 104-88, set out as an Effective Date note under section
‚ ‚ ‚  701 of this title.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Amendment by Pub. L. 103-429 effective July 5, 1994, see section
‚ ‚ ‚  9 of Pub. L. 103-429, set out as a note under section 321 of this
‚ ‚ ‚  title.

-End-

 

-CITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  49 USC Sec. 30167‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1/07/2011 (111-383)

-EXPCITE-
‚ ‚ ‚  TITLE 49 – TRANSPORTATION
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBTITLE VI – MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
‚ ‚ ‚  PART A – GENERAL
‚ ‚ ‚  CHAPTER 301 – MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY
‚ ‚ ‚  SUBCHAPTER IV – ENFORCEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE

-HEAD-
‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 30167. Disclosure of information by the Secretary of
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Transportation

-STATUTE-
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (a) Confidentiality of Information. – Information obtained under
‚ ‚ ‚  this chapter related to a confidential matter referred to in
‚ ‚ ‚  section 1905 of title 18 may be disclosed only in the following
‚ ‚ ‚  ways:
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (1) to other officers and employees carrying out this chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2) when relevant to a proceeding under this chapter.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (3) to the public if the confidentiality of the information is
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  preserved.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (4) to the public when the Secretary of Transportation decides
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  that disclosure is necessary to carry out section 30101 of this
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  title.

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (b) Defect and Noncompliance Information. – Subject to subsection
‚ ‚ ‚  (a) of this section, the Secretary shall disclose information
‚ ‚ ‚  obtained under this chapter related to a defect or noncompliance
‚ ‚ ‚  that the Secretary decides will assist in carrying out sections
‚ ‚ ‚  30117(b) and 30118-30121 of this title or that is required to be
‚ ‚ ‚  disclosed under section 30118(a) of this title. A requirement to
‚ ‚ ‚  disclose information under this subsection is in addition to the
‚ ‚ ‚  requirements of section 552 of title 5.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c) Information About Manufacturer’s Increased Costs. – A
‚ ‚ ‚  manufacturer opposing an action of the Secretary under this chapter
‚ ‚ ‚  because of increased cost shall submit to the Secretary information
‚ ‚ ‚  about the increased cost, including the manufacturer’s cost and the
‚ ‚ ‚  cost to retail purchasers, that allows the public and the Secretary
‚ ‚ ‚  to evaluate the manufacturer’s statement. The Secretary shall
‚ ‚ ‚  evaluate the information promptly and, subject to subsection (a) of
‚ ‚ ‚  this section, shall make the information and evaluation available
‚ ‚ ‚  to the public. The Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal
‚ ‚ ‚  Register that the information is available.
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (d) Withholding Information From Congress. – This section does
‚ ‚ ‚  not authorize information to be withheld from a committee of
‚ ‚ ‚  Congress authorized to have the information.

-SOURCE-
‚ ‚ ‚  (Pub. L. 103-272, Sec. 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 970.)

-MISC1-

 

‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Revised ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (U.S. Code)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Source (Statutes at Large)
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Section‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  ——————————————————————–
‚ ‚ ‚  30167(a)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 108(a)(1)(B)‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(e) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to Sec. 112(e)),‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence)), (D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (D) (related to Sec.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  158(a)(2)), (E) (related to
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1418(a)(2)(B)),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sec. 112(e)), 80 Stat. 722;
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Oct. 27, 1974, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(e) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  93-492, Sec. 103(a)(1)(A),‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (2), (3), 88 Stat. 1477,‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1478.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(e) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, Sec. 112(e), 80‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 725; Oct. 27, 1974,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec. 104(b),
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  88 Stat. 1480.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1402(b)(2) (1st‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  113; added Oct. 27, 1974,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Pub. L. 93-492, Sec. 105, 88
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Stat. 1480.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1418(a)(2)(B).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  89-563, 80 Stat. 718, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  158(a)(2); added Oct. 27,‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1974, Pub. L. 93-492, Sec.‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  102(a), 88 Stat. 1476.‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30167(b)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(D)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (related to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1418(a)(2)(A),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1418(a)(2)(A),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (C).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30167(c)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1402(a), (b)(1),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (c)-(e).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚  30167(d)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1397(a)(1)(B),‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  (E) (as‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  1397(a)(1)(B), (E)‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  relates to‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(e) (last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence)).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1401(e) (last‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  sentence).‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ 
‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚  15:1402(b)(2) (